Timeline of low-temperature technology

Timeline of low-temperature technology and cryogenic technology (Refrigeration down to (–150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and cryogenics [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/k468837771683266/ Low-temperature technology] ]



* 1000s - Avicenna invented the refrigerated coil, which condenses aromatic vapours. [citation|title=Aromatherapy: A Practical Approach|first=Vicki|last=Pitman|publisher=Nelson Thornes|year=2004|isbn=0748773460|page=xi] [citation|title=The Basics of Chemistry|first=Richard|last=Myers|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2003|isbn=0313316643|page=14] This was a breakthrough in distillation technology and he made use of it in his steam distillation process, which requires refrigerated tubing, to produce essential oils.Marlene Ericksen (2000), "Healing with Aromatherapy", p. 9, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0658003828]


* 1650 - Otto von Guericke built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and created the world's first ever vacuum known as the Magdeburg hemispheres to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'Nature abhors a vacuum'.
* 1656 - Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke built an air pump on this design.
* 1662 - Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume) using a vacuum pump
* 1665 - Boyle theorizes a minimum temperature in "New Experiments and Observations touching Cold".
* 1679 - Denis Papin - safety valve


* 1702 - Guillaume Amontons first calculates absolute zero to be −240 °C using an air thermometer, theorizing at this point the gas would reach zero volume and zero pressure.
* 1756 - The first documented public demonstration of artificial refrigeration by William Cullen [William Cullen, "Of the Cold Produced by Evaporating Fluids and of Some Other Means of Producing Cold," in Essays and Observations Physical and Literary Read Before a Society in Edinburgh and Published by Them, II, (Edinburgh 1756)]
* 1782 - Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace the ice-calorimeter
* 1784 - Gaspard Monge liquefied the first gas producing liquid sulfur dioxide.
* 1787 - Charles's law (Gas law, relating volume and temperature)


* 1802 - John Dalton wrote "the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids"
* 1803 - Domestic ice box
* 1802 - Gay-Lussac's law (Gas law, relating temperature and pressure).
* 1803 - Thomas Moore received a patent on refrigeration [ [http://www.waterfordhistory.org/history/waterford-thomas-moore.htm 1803 -Thomas Moore] ] .
* 1805 - Oliver Evans designed the first closed circuit refrigeration machine based on the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.
* 1809 - Jacob Perkins patented the first refrigerating machine
* 1810 - John Leslie freezes water to ice by using an airpump.
* 1811 - Avogadro's law a gas law
* 1823 - Michael Faraday liquified ammonia to cause cooling
* 1824 - Sadi Carnot- the Carnot Cycle
* 1834 - Ideal gas law
* 1834 - Jacob Perkins obtained the first patent for a vapor-compression refrigeration system.
* 1844 - Charles Piazzi Smyth proposes comfort cooling [ [http://infomotions.com/etexts/gutenberg/dirs/1/8/3/3/18337/18337.htm 1844 - Charles Piazzi Smyth] ]
* c.1850 - Michael Faraday makes a hypothesis that freezing substances increases their dielectric constant.
* 1851 - John Gorrie patented his mechanical refrigeration machine in the US to make ice to cool the air [ [http://www.myoutbox.net/popch20.htm 1851 John Gorrie] ] [ [http://patimg2.uspto.gov/.piw?Docid=00008080&homeurl=http%3A%2F%2Fpatft.uspto.gov%2Fnetacgi%2Fnph-Parser%3FSect1%3DPTO1%2526Sect2%3DHITOFF%2526d%3DPALL%2526p%3D1%2526u%3D%25252Fnetahtml%25252FPTO%25252Fsrchnum.htm%2526r%3D1%2526f%3DG%2526l%3D50%2526s1%3D0008,080.PN.%2526OS%3DPN%2F0008,080%2526RS%3DPN%2F0008,080&PageNum=&Rtype=&SectionNum=&idkey=NONE&Input=View+first+page 1851 Patent 8080] ]
* 1856 - James Harrison patented an ether liquid-vapour compression refrigeration system.
* 1857 - Carl Wilhelm Siemens, the Siemens cycle
* 1858 - Julius Plücker observed for the first time some pumping effect due to electrical discharge.
* 1859 - Ferdinand Carré - The first gas absorption refrigeration system using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water (referred to as "aqua ammonia")
* 1862 - Alexander Carnegie Kirk invents the Air cycle machine
* 1864 - Charles Tellier patented a refrigeration system using dimethyl ether
* 1869 - Charles Tellier installed a cold storage plant in France.
* 1872 - Carl von Linde built his first ammonia compression machine.
* 1876 - Carl von Linde patented equipment to liquefy air using tile Joule Thomson expansion process and regenerative cooling [ [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4404/app-a1.htm Hydrogen through the Nineteenth Century] ]
* 1877 - Raoul Pictet and Louis Paul Cailletet, working separately, develop two methods to liquefy oxygen.
* 1879 - Bell-Coleman machine
* 1880 - carbonic acid compression machine
* 1882 - William Soltau Davidson fitted a compression refrigeration unit to the New Zealand vessel "Dunedin"
* 1883 - Z.F. Wroblewski condenses experimentally useful quantities of liquid oxygen
* 1885 - Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
* 1888 - Loftus Perkins develops the "Arktos" cold chamber for preserving food, using an early ammonia absortion system.
* 1892 - James Dewar invents the vacuum-insulated, silver-plated glass Dewar flask
* 1895 - Carl von Linde files for patent protection of the Hampson-Linde cycle for liquefaction of atmospheric air or other gases (approved in 1903).
* 1898 - James Dewar condenses liquid hydrogen by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask.


* 1900 - Nikola Tesla receives US patent|685012, "Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillations". Tesla, also, receives US patent|RE11865, "Method of Insulating Electric Conductors"
* 1905 - Carl von Linde obtains pure oxygen and nitrogen.
* 1908 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes liquefies helium.
* 1911 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discloses his research on metallic low-temperature phenomenon characterised by no electrical resistance, calling it superconductivity.
* 1915 - Wolfgang Gaede - the Diffusion pump
* 1920 - Edmund Copeland and Harry Edwards use iso-butane in small refrigerators.
* 1924 - Fernand Holweck - the Holweckpump
* 1926 - Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd invent the Einstein refrigerator.
* 1926 - Willem Hendrik Keesom solidifies helium.
* 1926 - General Electric Company introduced the first hermetic compressor refrigerator
* 1937 - Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, John F. Allen, and Don Misener discover superfluidity using helium-4 at 2.2 K
* 1937 - Frans Michel Penning invents a type of cold cathode vacuum gauge known as Penning gauge
* 1944 - Manne Siegbahn, the Siegbahn pump
* 1951 - Heinz London invents the principle of the dilution refrigerator
* 1955 - Roots vacuum pump
* 1955 - Willi Becker turbomolecular pump concept [ [http://www.avs.org/pdf/timelineD.pdf Vacuum Science & Technology Timeline] ]
* 1957 - Lewis D. Hall, Robert L. Jepsen and John C. Helmer ion pump based on Penning discharge
* 1963 - W. Gifford and R. Longsworth invent the pulse tube cooler
* 1972 - David Lee, Robert Coleman Richardson and Douglas Osheroff discover superfluidity in helium-3 at 0.002 K.
* 1974 - Klimenko cycle
* 1985 - Steven Chu invents laser cooling.
* 1986 - Karl Alexander Müller and J. Georg Bednorz discover high-temperature superconductivity
* 1995 - Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman create the first Bose-Einstein condensate, using a dilute gas of Rubidium-87.
* 2000 - Peter Toennies demonstrates superfluidity of hydrogen at 0.15 K

ee also

* List of timelines
* Liquefaction of gases
* History of superconductivity
* History of thermodynamics
* Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology
* Timeline of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes


External links

* [http://www.rogersrefrig.com/history.html Refrigeration History]

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