Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
भारतीय सशस्त्र सेनाएं
Emblem of India
Service branches Indian Army
Leadership Commander-in-Chief President Pratibha Patil Ministry of Defence A. K. Antony Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma Manpower Military age 17.5 years of age Conscription None Available for
319,129,420 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),
296,071,637 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
249,531,562 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),
240,039,958 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
12,151,065 males (2010 est.),
10,745,891 females (2010 est.)
Active personnel 1,325,000 (ranked 3rd) Reserve personnel 2,142,821 Expenditures Budget $36.03 billion (FY11) (ranked 10th) Percent of GDP 1.83% (2011 est.) Related articles History Military history of India
British Indian Army
Indian National Army
Ranks Air Force
The Indian Armed Forces (Devanāgarī: भारतीय सशस्त्र सेनाएं, Bhāratīya Saśastra Sēnāēn) are the military forces of the Republic of India. They consist of the Army, Navy and Air Force, supported by three paramilitary forces (the Coast Guard, Assam Rifles, and Special Frontier Force) and various inter-service institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command.
The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Armed Forces are under the management of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), which is led by the Union Cabinet Minister of Defense.
The IAF is one of the world's largest military forces with roughly a 1.32 million active standing army , List of countries by size of armed forces, and about 2.14 million reserve forces. The Indian defense budget was US$36.03 billion during FY2011, at about 1.83% of GDP, with additional spending on infrastructure in border areas and for paramilitary organizations.
The Indian armed forces are undergoing rapid modernization, with investments in such areas as a missile defense system and a nuclear triad. India's arsenal includes nuclear weapons with a triad of delivery mechanisms. In 2010, India was the world's leading arms importer accounting for 9% of global imports and ranked among the top thirty in arms export. Israel, Russia and the United States are the primary suppliers to India's armed forces. The country’s capital expenditure for defense equipment may reach US$112 billion between 2010 and 2016. Since 1962, the IAF has maintained close military relations with Russia, including cooperative development on programs such as the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) and the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA).
As of 2011, the major military operations of the Indian armed forces have included the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1947, 1965 and 1971, the Sino-Indian War, the 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish, the Kargil War, and the siachen conflict among others.
Military history of India
India has one of the longest military histories, dating back several millennia. The first reference of armies is found in the Vedas as well as the epics Ramayana and Mahabaratha. There were many powerful dynasties in India: Maha Janapadas, Matsya Kingdom, Shishunaga Empire, Gangaridai Empire, Nanda Empire, Maurya Empire, Sunga Empire, Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire, Kuninda Kingdom, Chola Empire, Chera Empire, Pandyan Empire, Satavahana Empire, Western Satrap Empire, Kushan Empire, Vakataka Empire, Kalabhras Kingdom, Gupta Empire, Pallava Empire, Kadamba Empire, Maukhari Empire, Western Ganga Kingdom, Vishnukundina Empire, Chalukya Empire, Maitraka Empire, Harsha Empire, Rajput States, Shahi Empire, Eastern Chalukya Kingdom, Pratihara Empire, Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Paramara Kingdom, Yadava Empire, Solanki Kingdom, Western Chalukya Empire, Hoysala Empire, Sena Empire, Eastern Ganga Empire, Kakatiya Kingdom, Kalachuri Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Deccan Sultanates, Gajapati Kingdom, Ahom Kingdom, Vijayanagar Empire, Mysore Kingdom, Mughal Empire, Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire, etc. Classical Indian texts on archery in particular, and martial arts in general are known as Dhanurveda.
India has a maritime history dating back 5,000 years. The first  tidal dock is believed to have been built at Lothal around 2300 BCE during the Indus Valley Civilization, near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast. The Rig Veda written around 1500 BCE, credits Varuna with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes naval expeditions. There is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava, which give stability to the ship under storm conditions. A compass, Matsya yantra was used for navigation in the fourth and fifth century AD.
The earliest known reference to an organization devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships) . The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships, i.e. Exploration) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term, Samudrasamyanam.
Sea lanes between India and neighboring lands were the usual form of trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread influence of Indian Culture on other societies. Powerful navies included those of the Maurya, Satavahana, Chola, Vijayanagara, Kalinga, Mughal and Maratha empires. The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and Kerala fleets were expanded, and became the most powerful Naval Forces in the subcontinent, defeating European Navies at various times (See the Battle of Colachel). The fleet review of the Maratha navy took place at the Ratnagiri fort in which the ships Pal and Qalbat participated. The Maratha Kanhoji Angre and Kunjali Marakkar, the Naval chief of Saamoothiri were two notable naval chiefs of the period.
1857 to 1947 era
The British Royal Indian Navy was first established by the British while much of India was under the control of the East India Company. The first Indian to be granted a commission was Sub Lieutenant D. N. Mukherji, who joined the Royal Indian Marine as an engineer officer in 1928.
Indian sailors started a rebellion known as the Royal Indian Navy mutiny in 1946, on board ships and in shore establishments which spread all over India. A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the rebellion.
When India became a republic on 26 January 1950, the navy became known as the Indian Navy, and its vessels as Indian Naval Ships (INS). On 22 April 1958 Vice Admiral R. D. Katari assumed office as the first Indian Chief of the Naval Staff.
1947 to 2000
The beginning of the 21st century saw reorientation for India in the global stage from a regional role in the subcontinent to a major role in the Indian ocean region stretching from Gulf of Aden to Malacca strait. The year 2011 saw the rise of India's interests far beyond the Indian Ocean region. This necessitated for the reorientation of the armed forces to play a global role to protect India's interests at the global stage.
The headquarters of the Indian Armed Forces is in New Delhi, the capital city of India.The President acts as de jure Commander in chief of the Armed Forces. while de facto control lies with the executive. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the ministry charged with the responsibilities of countering insurgency and ensuring external security of India.
Gen V K Singh is the Chief of the Army Staff [COAS], Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma is the Chief of the Naval Staff [CNS] and Air Chief Marshal NAK Browne is the Chief of the Air Staff [CAS]. . The Indian armed force are split into different groups based on their region of operation. The Indian Army is administratively divided into 7 tactical commands, each under the control of different Lieutenant Generals.The Indian Air Force is divided into five operational and two functional commands. Each Command is headed by an Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Air Marshal. The Indian Navy operates three Commands. Each Command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief in the rank of Vice Admiral. There are two joint commands whose head can belong to any of the three services. These are the Strategic Forces Command and the Andaman and Nicobar Command.
The Armed Forces have six main tasks:
- To assert the territorial integrity of India.
- To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.
- To send own amphibious warfare equipment to take the battle to enemy shores.
- Cold Start which means Indian Armed Forces being able to quickly mobilise and take offensive actions without crossing the enemy's nuclear-use threshold.
- To support the civil community in case of disasters (e.g. flooding).
- Participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.
There is a semi-official book called "Customs and Etiquette in the Services", written by retired Major General Ravi Arora, which details how Indian personnel are expected to conduct themselves generally. Arora is an executive editor of the Indian Military Review.
As of 2006
Component Active Reserve Indian Army 1,325,000 2,142,821 Indian Paramilitary Forces 1,300,586 Indian Navy 55,000 Indian Air Force 170,000 Indian Coast Guard 19,741
India maintains the third-largest military force in the world, which includes Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command. It is a completely voluntary service, the military draft having never been imposed in India. The army has rich combat experience in diverse terrains, due to India's diverse geography, and also has a distinguished history of serving in United Nations peacekeeping operations. Initially, the army's main objective was to defend the nation's frontiers. However, over the years, the army has also taken up the responsibility of providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and north-east.
The force is headed by the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army, currently General V K Singh. The highest rank in the Indian Army is Field Marshal, but it is a largely ceremonial rank and appointments are made by the President of India, on the advice of the Union Cabinet of Ministers, only in exceptional circumstances. (See Field Marshal (India)). Late General S.H.F.J. Manekshaw and the late General K.M. Cariappa are the only two officers who have attained this rank.
The Indian Army has seen military action during the First Kashmir War, Operation Polo, the Sino-Indian War, the Second Kashmir War, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Sri Lankan Civil War and the Kargil War. Currently, the Indian army has dedicated one brigade of troops to the UN's standby arrangements. Through its large, sustained troop commitments India has come in for much praise for taking part in difficult operations for prolonged periods. The Indian Army has participated in several UN peacekeeping operations, including the ones in Cyprus, Lebanon, Congo, Angola, Cambodia, Vietnam, Namibia, El Salvador, Liberia, Mozambique and Somalia. The army also provided a paramedical unit to facilitate the withdrawal of the sick and wounded in Korea. Currently, the Indian Army is seeking to massively modernize its equipment through various procurement programs. In addition, it has also embarked on an infantry modernization program known as Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System (F-INSAS).
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. With 67,000 men and women, including 5,000 naval aviation personnel and 2,000 Marine Commandos (MARCOS), it is the world's fifth largest navy.
The Indian Navy currently operates around 170 ships, including the aircraft carrier INS Viraat. In recent years, India has started many ambitious projects to bolster its maritime capabilities including efforts to acquire ships from foreign countries.
In recent years, the Indian Navy has undergone extensive modernization and expansion with an intention to increase its capabilities as a recognized blue-water navy. It is fairly advanced in terms of technology and is in control of one of two Asian aircraft carriers. Two more aircraft carriers are currently being produced. The ships of the Indian Navy are of Indian and foreign origin. In addition, three ballistic missile submarine are to enter service by 2010 end. It is also only one of the six navies in the world that has nuclear capabilities. Others include US, Russia, China, France and the UK. In addition it is in command of the BrahMos which is the fastest cruise missile in the world with speeds of 2.8 Mach.
In its maritime doctrine, the Indian Navy establishes its role in providing support to maritime neighbours during natural disasters. This was demonstrated during the Asian tsunami crisis during which the Indian Navy sent 35 ships to support relief efforts in neighbouring countries. The Indian navy has taken part in UN missions in the coast of Somalia and has provided security to an African Union summit held in Mozambique. The Indian Navy is increasing its capabilities as a true blue-water navy; the Indian Navy's doctrine states that this is for the collective good of nations.
The Indian Navy is expected to spend about US$40 billion on military modernization from 2008 to 2013. The modernization program includes the Russian-built aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, indigenously built Vikrant class aircraft carriers, Lease of Akula-II class submarine, indigenously built Arihant class nuclear-powered submarines, Shivalik class frigate, Kolkata class destroyer, Scorpène class submarine, Improved Talwar class frigate and eight P-8 Poseidon .
Indian Air Force
With a strength of approximately 170,000 personnel, and 1,600+ aircraft in active service, the Indian Air Force is the fourth largest air force in the world. In recent years, the IAF has undertaken an ambitious expansion and modernization program and is increasingly used for India's power projection beyond South Asia. Historically, the IAF has generally relied on Soviet, British, Israeli and French military craft and technology to support its growth. In recent times however, India has manufactured its own aircraft, including the HAL Tejas, a 4th generation fighter, and the HAL Dhruv, a multi-role helicopter, which has been exported to several countries, including Israel, Burma, Nepal and Ecuador. India also maintains UAV squadrons which can be used to carry out ground attacks and aerial surveillance.
India is testing its own long range BVR air to air missile named Astra and also building a Medium Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) called Rustom. India and Russia are building number of next generation aircraft like 5th generation stealth aircraft called Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (also called as Perspective Multi-role Fighter) and medium-lift military transport aircraft called Multirole Transport Aircraft.
Indian Coast Guard
The Indian Coast Guard is the maritime Military Force created to guard Republic of India's vast coastline. It was created on 18 August 1978 as an independent entity as per the Coast Guard Act. its primary objective is to guard India's vast coastline and operates under the effective control of the Ministry of Defense.
The coast guard works closely with the Indian Navy and the Indian Customs Department, and is usually headed by a naval officer of the rank of Vice-Admiral. India's coast guard has a large number of fast craft including hovercrafts and hydrofoils. They patrol the seas and river mouths. The coast guard has performed a number of commendable tasks of rescuing distressed personnel. It has also apprehended pirates on high seas and cleaned up oil spills. Heavy patrolling of sensitive areas such as Karnataka, Gujarat, West Bengal and Mumbai have resulted in the nabbing of a large number of smugglers and illegal immigrants.
Nuclear Command Authority
India possesses an arsenal of nuclear weapons and maintains a no-first use, non-use against non-nuclear nations and a credible nuclear deterrence policy against nuclear adversaries. India's nuclear missiles include the Prithvi, the Agni, the Shaurya, Sagarika, Dhanush, and others. India has long range strategic bombers like the Tupolev Tu-22 M3 and Tupolev Tu-142 as well as fighter jets like Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Dassault Mirage 2000, MiG-29 and HAL Tejas capable of being armed with nuclear tipped bombs and missiles. Since India doesn't have a nuclear first use against an adversary, it becomes important to protect from a first strike. Presently, this protection is provided by the two layered Anti-ballistic missile defense system. The first test of Agni-V, which is a MIRVed ICBM is expected in the year 2011. India's Strategic Nuclear Command controls its land-based nuclear warheads, while the Navy controls the ship and in future submarine based missiles and the Air Force the air based warheads. India's nuclear warheads are deployed in four areas:
- Ship based mobile, like Dhanush. (operational)
- Land-based mobile, like Agni. (operational)
- Submarine based, like Sagarika. (under deployment)
- Air-based warheads of the Indian Air Forces' strategic bomber force (operational)
Missiles of the Republic of India Surface-to-SurfaceAgni V* · Agni VI* · Surya*Agni-III** · Agni IV**Agni-I · Agni-IIPrithvi-I · Prithvi-II · Prithvi-III · Dhanush · PraharK-15 Sagarika · K-4** · K-5*Shaurya** · BrahMos-II*Anti-Tank Missiles Air-to-SurfaceAnti-Tank Missiles Surface-to-AirAkash · Maitri** · Barak 8 Air-to-AirBeyond Visual RangeAstra* · R-27 · R-77 · Novator K-100**Notes: (*) Undergoing Development; (**) Undergoing Trials
Indian Missile Program · Indian Armed Forces
Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program
Development of ABM System began in 1999. Around 40 public and private Companies were involved in the development of ABM System. They include Bharat Electronics Ltd and Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Astra Microwave, ASL, Larsen & Toubro, Vem Technologies Private Limited and KelTech. Development of LRTR (Long Range Tracking Radar) and MFCR (Multi-function Fire Control Radar) was led by Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (ERDE).
For the AAD Missile System, Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) developed the mission control software. Research Centre, Imarat (RCI) developed navigation, electromechanical actuation systems and Active Radar Seeker. Advanced System Laboratory (ASL) provided the motors, jet vanes and structures for the two missiles. High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) supplied the propellants for the missile.
- Two new anti-ballistic missiles that can intercept IRBM/ICBMs are being developed. These high speed missiles (AD-1 and AD-2) are being developed to intercept ballistic missiles with the range of 5000 km. The test trials of these two systems is expected to take place in 2011. The new missile will be similar the THAAD missile deployed by the U.S.A. These missiles will have to travel at hypersonic speeds and will require radars with scan capability of over 1500 kilometers to successfully intercept the target.
- India is also planning to develop a laser based weapon system as part of its Ballistic Missile Defence to intercept and destroy missiles soon after they are launched towards the country. DRDO's Air Defence Programme Director V K Saraswat says its ideal to destroy a ballistic missile carrying nuclear or conventional warhead in its boost phase. Saraswat further added that it will take another 10–15 years for the premier defence research institute to make it usable on the ground.
Security pacts and Overseas Bases
In 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship, India made obligation to actively assist Nepal in national defence and military preparedness, and made both nations not to tolerate threats to each others security. In 1958, the then-Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visited Bhutan and reiterated India's support for Bhutan's independence and later declared in the Indian Parliament that any aggression against Bhutan would be seen as aggression against India. India also operates the Farkhor Air Base in Tajikistan. India started the process to bring the island country Maldives into India's security grid. India can use Iranian bases for war with Pakistan. India is also one of three countries with whom Japan has a security pact, the others being Australia and the United States. India and Russia have a military cooperation pact until 2010 which is likely to be extended or renewed. In 1951,India and Burma signed a Treaty of Friendship in New Delhi. Article II of the treaty stipulated that "There shall be everlasting peace and unalterable friendship between the two States who shall ever strive to strengthen and develop further the cordial relations existing between the peoples of the two countries". India had signed a pact to develop ports in Myanmar and various bilateral issues, including economic cooperation, connectivity, security and energy. India and Israel have increased cooperation in military and intelligence ventures since the establishment of diplomatic relations. While India and Israel were officially "rivals" during the Cold War, the fall of the Soviet Union and the rise of Islamic terrorism in both countries have generated a solid strategic alliance. India has maritime security arrangement in place with Oman and Qatar. In 2008, a landmark defense pact was signed, under which India committed its military assets to protect "Qatar from external threats".
India has the world's 10th largest defense budget. In 2011, India's official military budget stood at 164,425.19 crore (US$33.35 billion). In 2004, the GlobalSecurity.org estimated India's budget to be around US$100 billion in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, India's military budget (PPP) stood at US$72.7 billion in 2007. A major portion of India's current defense budget is devoted to the ambitious modernization program of the country's armed forces. Between 2007 and 2012, India is expected to spend about US$50 billion on the procurement of new weapons. India boosted defence spending by 21% in 2009.
The highest wartime gallantry award given by the Military of India is the Param Vir Chakra (PVC), followed by the Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) and the Vir Chakra (VrC). Its peacetime equivalent is the Ashoka Chakra. The highest decoration for meritorious service is the Param Vishisht Seva Medal.
Ex Servicemen (ESM)
According to military sources, more than 55,000 armed forces personnel retire from the army every year, most of them at a relatively younger age. A total of 1,567,390 ex servicemen are registered with the Indian Army, majority of them hailing from UP (17.35%), Punjab (12.23%), Haryana (10.57%), Maharashtra (9.18%), Kerala (8.16%), TN (6.58%), Rajastan (6.42%) and HP (5%). Many of them are re-employed in various Central government sectors.
Analysis of the Central Intelligence Agency indicates that India is projected to possess the fourth most capable concentration of power by 2015. According to a report published by the US Congress, India is the developing world's leading arms purchaser.
Ongoing efforts at modernization of the armed forces, however, unless accompanied by significant political reforms, may fail to change India's military-strategic position, particularly with respect to Pakistan. Despite importing large numbers of conventional weaponry over the last three decades, if India wishes to effectively confront critical security challenges it must address a civil-military imbalance that hampers coordination and an illegitimate procurement process that threatens to further entrench government corruption.
India is investing 9,970.16 crore (US$2 billion) to build a dedicated and secure optical fiber cable (OFC) network for exclusive use of the Army, Navy and Air Force. This will be one of the world's largest closed user group (CUG) networks.
Recruitment and training
Recruitment is through four military-related academies. These include the National Defence Academy, Pune, Indian Military Academy, Dehradun, Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala, Air Force Academy, Hyderabad and Officers Training Academy, Chennai. For entrance, one must display that they are both physically and mentally fit to be in the military by written examinations, physical endurance tests and passing medical fitness tests. After being commissioned,these officers are posted and deputed. They are at the helm of affairs not only inside the nation but also at abroad. The officers are appointed and removed only by the President of India. These officers are accorded high status of the nature of the officers of the Indian Administrative Service. The complete list of institutions training Indian army were listed in Military academies in India section.
Indian Peace Keeping And Anti-piracy Mission
In November 2008, an Indian navy warship destroyed a suspected Somali pirate vessel after it came under attack in the Gulf of Aden. India is regular contributor to United Nations and other Peacekeeping missions. The troop-contributions to UN peacekeeping operations as of March 2007 were 9,471. It also suffered 127 soldier deaths while serving on peacekeeping missions. India also provided army contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990 as Indian Peace Keeping Force and in November 1988, India also helped restore government of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom in Maldives under Operation Cactus.
India sought to augment its naval force in the Gulf of Aden by deploying the larger INS Mysore to patrol the area. Somalia also added India to its list of states, including the U.S. and France, who are permitted to enter its territorial waters, extending up to 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from the coastline, in an effort to check piracy. An Indian naval official confirmed receipt of a letter acceding to India's prerogative to check such piracy. "We had put up a request before the Somali government to play a greater role in suppressing piracy in the Gulf of Aden in view of the United Nations resolution. The TFG government gave its nod recently." India also expressed consideration to deploy up to four more warships in the region. And in response increased activity of the INS Tabar. On 2010-09-06 A crack team of Indian marine commandos(MARCOS)from INS Delhi boarded the boat and overpowered the pirates - seven heavily-armed Somalians and one Yemeni national. A cache of arms, several drums of fuel and ship boarding equipment was also found.As part of the Indian response to the piracy menace in the area, the Indian Navy has escorted over 1,200 ships so far.
Relief Operation of IAF
Indian Air Force provides regular relief operation for food and medical facility around the World by its Cargo aircraft most notably Ilyushin Il-76.The most recent relief operation of IAF was in Kyrgyzstan. During the Leh floods Two Ilyushin Il-76. and four Antonov-32 aircraft of the IAF carried 30 tonnes of load, which include 125 rescue and relief personnel, medicines, generators, tents, portable X-ray machines and emergency rescue kits.A MI-17 helicopter and cheetah helicopters had been pressed to increase the rescue operations.
IAF Efforts In Eclipse Study
The Indian Air Force successfully undertook sorties to help Indian scientists study the total solar eclipse that took place on July 23. Two separate missions from Agra and Gwalior were flown along the path of the moon's shadow, a mission that was deemed hugely successful by scientists associated with the experiment. While one AN-32 transport aircraft carrying scientific equipment, cameras and scientists that took off from Agra landed back after a three-hour flight, a Mirage-2000 trainer from Gwalior took spectacular images of the celestial spectacle from 40,000 feet. With weather being clear at the altitudes and coordinates planned by the IAF pilots, both AN-32 and Mirage-2000 pilots were able to accomplish the mission successfully.
- Paramilitary Forces of India
- Equipment of the Indian Army
- Indian Naval Air Arm
- Ships of the Indian Navy
- Weapon systems of the Indian Navy
- India and weapons of mass destruction
- List of aircraft of the Indian Air Force
- List of regiments of the Indian Army
- Military operations of India
- List of missiles
- Defence Research and Development Organisation
- Indian Space Research Organisation
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- ^ India expects to use missile interception system as a weapon, top scientist says
- ^ India developing new missiles Towards destroying hostile missiles
- ^ The Hindu Business Line : 40 cos involved in making of missile killers
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- ^ India to develop high speed interceptors
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- ^ Tribune India
- ^ India-Nepal Treaty
- ^ Indo-Bhutanese relations
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- ^ India and Israel Forge a Solid Strategic Alliance by Martin Sherman, The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
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- ^ Military Expenditure
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- CIA World Factbook 2010: India
- Militarism in India: The Army and Civil Society in Consensus- by A. Kundu
- The Irrelevance of India's Rise as a Military Power- video of lecture by Stephen P. Cohen, Brookings Institution, hosted by the Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS), University of Illinois, October 15, 2009
- xisf.org- Website of XISF Foundation, focussed on welfare of ex-services personnel from Indian Military
- Indian-Military.org- Website dedicated to Indian Military
- BharatRakshak.com- Informative site on the Indian Military
- Indian Armed Forces - Indian military's official website
- Indian Air Force - Official website
- India Defence - Military & Defence News
- Armed forces, a forgotten lot: A debate by NDTV.com.
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