New Jersey in the American Civil War


New Jersey in the American Civil War
Seal of the United States of America
Union States
in the
American Civil War

California
Connecticut
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
Wisconsin

Border states

Delaware
Maryland
West Virginia

Dual governments

Missouri
Kentucky

Territories

Arizona
Colorado
Dakota
Idaho
Montana
Nebraska
New Mexico
Utah
Washington

The state of New Jersey in the United States provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. Though no major battles were fought in New Jersey, soldiers and volunteers from New Jersey played an important part in the war, including Philip Kearny and George B. McClellan, who led the Army of the Potomac early in the Civil War and unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States in 1864 against his former commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln.

Slavery and prelude to war

The Quaker population of New Jersey was especially intolerant of slavery. However, New Jersey ended up becoming the last of the northern states to abolish slavery by enacting legislation which caused the slow abolishment of slavery. Though New Jersey passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in 1804, it wasn't until 1830 that most blacks were free in the state. However, by the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. New Jersey at first refused to ratify the Constitutional Amendments that banned slavery. New Jersey was a major part of the extensive Underground Railroad system.

Civil War

On May 4, 1861, in response to President Abraham Lincoln's call to arms, the U.S. War Department directed New Jersey to fill a quota of three infantry regiments to serve a three-year term of enlistment. Recruitment took place for the new regiments all over the state, and on May 21, the 1st New Jersey Volunteer Infantry was mustered into the Union Army at Camp Olden in Trenton under Maj. Theodore T. S. Laidley of the United States Regular Army. The 9th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, under Col. Joseph W. Allen at Camp Olden, was the last New Jersey regiment to leave the state in 1861 but the first committed to battle. Additional regiments were raised throughout the war, including cavalry and artillery.

No battles took place within New Jersey throughout the course of the Civil War. However, over 88,000 soldiers from New Jersey were part of several infantry and cavalry regiments. In total, 52 regiments were created by New Jersey soldiers during this war. 23,116 of those soldiers served in the Army of the Potomac. Soldiers from New Jersey fought generally in the Eastern theater of the Civil War[1] Over 6,000 soldiers from New Jersey lost their lives in the war. Philip Kearny, an officer from the Mexican-American War, led a brigade of New Jersey regiments under Brigadier General William B. Franklin. Kearny distinguished himself as a brilliant officer during the Peninsula Campaign, and was promoted to the position of major general.

New Jersey was one of the few states to vote for Stephen Douglas instead of Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 presidential election. The people of New Jersey also gave its electoral votes to George McClellan when he ran for President against Lincoln in the election of 1864, being the only free state that rejected Lincoln twice. McClellan later became the governor of New Jersey, from 1878 to 1881.

Many cities like Paterson and Camden, grew extremely strong through the duration of the Civil War. They produced many necessities, including clothing and war materials like ammunition. These cities prospered through constant production even after the end of the war. Cities like those of Paterson and Camden became crucial to the Northern war effort. With the Union's ability to manufacture more supplies, the Union was able to defeat the Confederates and successfully conclude the war and reunite the country[2].

References

  1. ^ New Jersey in the Civil War, retrieved December 18, 2005.
  2. ^ Stewart, Mark (2004). New Jersey: History. Chicago: Heinemann Library. ISBN 1-4034-0673-1. pg 26-29



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • New York in the American Civil War — Union States in the American Civil War …   Wikipedia

  • Disfranchisement after the American Civil War — The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1870 to protect the suffrage of freedmen after the American Civil War. It prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any citizen on account of his race. Because… …   Wikipedia

  • Massachusetts in the American Civil War — Union States in the American Civil War California Connecticut Illinois Indiana Iowa …   Wikipedia

  • Ohio in the American Civil War — Union States in the American Civil War California Connecticut Illinois Indiana Iowa …   Wikipedia

  • Origins of the American Civil War — For events following South Carolina s declaration of secession from the Union, see Battle of Fort Sumter and American Civil War. The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. The main explanation… …   Wikipedia

  • Philadelphia in the American Civil War — Philadelphia during the American Civil War was a significant city in the North providing an important source of troops, money, weapons, medical care, and supplies for the Union. Before the Civil War, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania s economic… …   Wikipedia

  • Connecticut in the American Civil War — Union States in the American Civil War California Connecticut Illinois Indiana Iowa …   Wikipedia

  • Missouri in the American Civil War — Confederate States in the American Civil War South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas Virginia Arkansas North Carolina …   Wikipedia

  • Maryland in the American Civil War — See also: American Civil War, Origins of the American Civil War, and Heart of the Civil War Heritage Area Union States in the American Civil War …   Wikipedia

  • Colorado in the American Civil War — Union States in the American Civil War California Connecticut Illinois Indiana Iowa …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.