Gujarat Sultanate


Gujarat Sultanate

The Gujarat Sultanate was an independent kingdom established in the early 15th century in Gujarat. The founder of the ruling Muzaffarid dynasty, Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391. He defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. He declared himself independent in 1407 CE. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411 on the banks of Sabarmati River, which he styled as "Shahr-i-Mu'azzam" (the great city). The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Shah I Begada. In 1509, Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate. Mughal emperor Humayun attacked Gujarat in 1535. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. Gujarat became a Mughal Subah. The last ruler Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan.

Muzaffar Shah I

Delhi Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq appointed Malik Mufarrah, also known as Farhat-ul-Mulk and Rasti Khan governor of Gujarat in 1377. In 1387 Sikandar Khan was sent to replace him but he was defeated and killed by Farhat-ul-Mulk. In 1391, Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq appointed Zafar Khan, the son of Wajih-ul-Mulk as governor of Gujarat and conferred him the title of Muzaffar Khan. In 1392, he defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk in the battle of Kamboi, near Anhilwada Patan and occupied the city of Anhilwada PatanMajumdar, R.C. (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.155-7] .

In 1403, his son Tatar Khan urged his father to march on Delhi, which he declined. As a result, Tatar imprisoned him and declared himself sultan under the title of Muhammad Shah. He marched towards Delhi but on the way he was poisoned by his uncle Shams Khan. After the death of Muhammad Shah, Muzaffar was released from the prison and he took over the control over administration. In 1407, he declared himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah, took the insignia of royalty and isued coins in his name. After his death in 1411, he was succeeded by his grandson, the son of Tatar Khan, Ahmad ShahMajumdar, R.C. (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.155-7] .

Ahmad Shah I

Soon after his accession, Ahmad Shah was faced with a rebellion of his uncles. The rebellion was led by his eldest uncle Firuz Khan, who declared himself king. Ultimately Firuz and his brothers surrendered to him. During this rebellion Sultan Hoshang Shah of Malwa invaded Gujarat. He was repelled this time but he invaded again in 1417 along with Nasir Khan, the Faruqi dynasty ruler of Khandesh and occupied Sultanpur and Nandurbar. Gujarat army defeated them and later Ahmad Shah led four expeditions into Malwa in 1419, 1420, 1422 and 1438Majumdar, R.C. (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.157-60] .

In 1429, Kanha Raja of Jhalawar with the help of the Bahmani Sultan Ahmad Shah ravaged Nandurbar. But Ahmad Shah's army defeated the Bahmani army and they fled to Daulatabad. The Bahmani Sultan Ahmad Shah sent strong reinforcements and the Khandesh army also joined them. They were again defeated by the Gujarat army. Finally, Ahmad Shah annexed Thana and Mahim from Bahmani kingdomMajumdar, R.C. (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.157-60] .

At the beginning of his reign, he founded the city of Ahmadabad, where he shifted the capital from Anhilwada Patan. The "Jami Masjid" (1423) and the "Tin Darwaza" (Triple Gateway) in Ahmedabad were built during his reign [Majumdar, R.C. (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.709-23] .

Sultan Ahmad Shah died in 1443 and succeeded by his eldest son Muizz-ud-Din Muhammad ShahMajumdar, R.C. (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.157-60] .

Rulers

#Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah I 1391 - 1403 CE
#Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah I 1403 - 1404 CE
#Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah I 1404 - 1411 CE (restored)
#Nasir-ud-Din Ahmad Shah I 1411 - 1443 CE
#Muizz-ud-Din Muhammad Shah II 1443 - 1451 CE
#Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II 1451 - 1458 CE
#Daud Shah 1458 CE
#Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah I 1458 - 1511 CE
#Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah II 1511 - 1526 CE
#Sikandar Shah 1526 CE
#Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah II 1526 CE
#Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah 1526 - 1535 CE
#Humayun (Mughal rule) 1535 - 1536 CE
#Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah 1536 - 1537 CE (restored)
#Miran Muhammad Shah III(of Khandesh) 1537 CE
#Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah III 1537 - 1554 CE
#Ghiyas-ud-Din Ahmad Shah III 1554 - 1561 CE
#Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah III 1561 - 1573 CE,
#Akbar (Mughal rule) 1573 - 1583 CE
#Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah III 1583 CE (restored)

Notes

ee also

*Battle of Diu
*Muzaffarid dynasty


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