- Hierarchy problem
theoretical physics, a hierarchy problem occurs when the fundamental parameters (couplings or masses) of some Lagrangian are vastly different (usually larger) than the parameters measured by experiment. This can happen because measured parameters are related to the fundamental parameters by a prescription known as renormalization. Typically the renormalized parameters are closely related to the fundamental parameters, but in some cases, it appears that there has been a delicate cancellation between the fundamental quantity and the quantum corrections to it. Hierarchy problems are related to fine-tuning problems and problems of naturalness.
Studying the renormalization in hierarchy problems is difficult, because such quantum corrections are usually power-law divergent which means that the shortest-distance physics are most important. Because we do not know the precise details of the shortest-distance theory of physics (
quantum gravity), we cannot even address how this delicate cancellation between two large terms occurs. Therefore, researchers postulate new physical phenomena that resolve hierarchy problems without fine tuning.
The Higgs Mass
particle physics, the hierarchy problem is the question why the weak forceis 1032 times stronger than gravity. Both of these forces involve constants of nature, Fermi's constantfor the weak force and Newton's constantfor gravity. Furthermore if the Standard Modelis used to calculate the quantum corrections to Fermi's constant, it appears that Fermi's constant is unnaturally large and should be closer to Newton's constant unless there is a delicate cancellation between the bare value of Fermi's constant and the quantum corrections to it.
More technically, the question is why the
Higgs bosonis so much lighter than the Planck mass(or a GUT scale, or a heavy neutrino mass scale): one would expect that the large quantum contributions to the square of the Higgs boson mass would inevitably make the mass huge, comparable to the scale at which new physics appears, unless there is an incredible fine-tuningcancellation between the quadratic radiative corrections and the bare mass.
It should be remarked that the problem cannot be even formulated in the strict context of the Standard Model, for the Higgs mass cannot be calculated. In a sense, the "problem" amounts to the worry that a future theory of fundamental particles, in which the Higgs boson mass will be calculable, should not have excessive fine-tunings. Implicit in the reasoning that leads to the fine-tuning concern is the unsubstantiated assumption that little physics other than renormalization group scaling exists between the Higgs scale and the GUT scale. As these two scales are separated by at least 11 orders of magnitude, this "big desert" assumption is seen as unlikely to be true by some physicists outside the string discipline.
If one accepts the big-desert assumption and thus the existence of a Hierarchy Problem, some new mechanism at Higgs scale becomes necessary to avoid the fine-tuning.
The most popular theory—but not the only proposed theory—to solve the hierarchy problem is
supersymmetry. This explains how a tiny Higgs mass can be protected from quantum corrections. Supersymmetry removes the power-law divergences of the radiative corrections to the Higgs mass; however, there is no understanding of why the Higgs mass is so small in the first place which is known as the mu problem. Furthermore, there is no natural way to break SUSY so far below the GUT scale, so what one gets is basically substituting the original Hierarchy Problem of Higgs with a new Hierarchy Problem of SUSY breaking.
Other proposed solutions include the RS1 braneworld model (check the
5 dimensional warped geometry theoryarticle for nontechnical explanation) and the ADD model.
Each particle that couples to the Higgs field has a Yukawa coupling λf. The coupling with the Higgs field for fermions gives an interaction term LYukawa=-λf ψ ̅Hψ, ψ being the Dirac Field and H the Higgs Field. Also, the mass of a fermion is proportional to its Yukawa coupling, meaning that the Higgs boson will couple to the most massive particle. This means that the most significant corrections to the Higgs mass will originate from the heaviest particles, most prominently the top quark. By applying the Feynman rules, one gets the quantum corrections to the Higgs mass squared from a fermion to be:
The is called the ultraviolet cutoff and is the scale which the Standard Model is valid up to. If we take this scale to be the Planck scale, then we have the quadratically diverging lagrangian. However, suppose there existed two complex scalars (taken to be 1 spin - 0) such that:
λS= |λf|2 (the couplings to the Higgs are exactly are the same).
Then by the Feynman rules, the correction (from both scalars) is:
(Note that the contribution here is positive. This is because of the spin-statistics theorem, which means that fermions will have a negative contribution and bosons a positive contribution. This fact is exploited) This gives a total contribution to the Higgs mass to be zero if we include both the fermionic and bosonic particles.
Supersymmetryis an extension of this that creates 'superpartners' for all Standard Model particles.
Citation to Stephen P. Martin A Supersymmetry Primer on arXiv
Solution via Extra Dimensions (ADD/GOD model)
If we live in a 3+1 dimensional world, then we calculate the Gravitational Force via
Gauss' law for gravity:
: (1)which is simply Newton's law of Magnetism. Note that Newton's constant G can be rewritten in terms of the
:If we extend this idea to extra dimensions, then we get:
Where is the 3+1+ dimensional mass. However, we are assuming that these extra dimensions are the same size as the normal 3+1 dimensions. Let us say that the extra dimensions are of size n <<< than normal dimensions. If we let r << n, then we get (2). However, if we let r >> n, then we get our usual Newton's law. However, when r >> n, the flux in the extra dimensions becomes a constant, because there is no extra room for gravitational flux to flow through. Thus the flux will be proportional to because this is the flux in the extra dimensions. The formula is::
Thus the fundamental Planck Mass (the extra dimensional one) could actually be small, meaning that gravity is actually strong, but this must be compensated by the number of the extra dimensions and their size. Physically, this means that gravity is weak because there is a loss of flux to the extra dimensions.
Citation to Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell by A. Zee
The Cosmological Constant
physical cosmology, current observations in favor of an accelerating universeimply the existence of a tiny, but nonzero cosmological constant. This is a hierarchy problem very similar to that of the Higgs boson mass problem, since the cosmological constant is also very sensitive to quantum corrections. It is complicated, however, by the necessary involvement of General Relativityin the problem and may be a clue that we do not understand gravity on long distance scales (such as the size of the universetoday). While quintessence has been proposed as an explanation of the acceleration of the Universe, it does not actually address the cosmological constant hierarchy problem in the technical sense of addressing the large quantum corrections. Supersymmetry does not permit to address the cosmological constant problem, since supersymmetry cancels the M4Planck contribution but not the M2Planck one (quadratically diverging).
Little hierarchy problem
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