Command and control (government)
In politics, command and control refers more generally to the maintenance of
authoritywith somewhat more distributed decision making. In these civilian contexts, the term command is unfashionable but the meaning is the same.
management sciencetheorists even hold that the idea is now obsolete. For instance, Dee Hocksays that "Purpose and principle, clearly understood and articulated, and commonly shared, are the genetic code of any healthy organization. To the degree that you hold purpose and principles in common among you, you can dispense with command and control. People will know how to behave in accordance with them, and they'll do it in thousands of unimaginable, creative ways. The organization will become a vital, living set of beliefs." However, such theories are just that, since purpose and principle notions generally involve linear, predictable systems, which would thus not require command and control. In the military this principle has been applied by German armed forcessince the 19th century as Auftragstaktik.On the other hand, Gerard Endenburg's sociocracyisn't linear, but designed with all participants being equivalent in power and with feedback loops. After being used for decades in hundreds of organizations it has proven to be a successful alternative to "command and control."
Command and Control Research Program
* [http://www.dodccrp.org/ Command and Control Research Program (CCRP)]
* [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/studies/download.do?file=19712 Improving the coherence of crisis management: New technologies for control and command systems] A study for the
European Parliament's Subcommittee on Security and Defence.
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