Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet
Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet (
May 20 1772– May 16, 1828), was an English inventorand rocket artillerypioneer distinguished for his development and deployment of Congreve rockets. He was son of Lt. General Sir William Congreve, 1st Baronet, the Comptroller of the Royal Laboratories at the Royal Arsenal, raised in Kent, England, educated at Singlewell Schooland educated in law at Trinity College, Cambridge. Congreve died in Toulouse, France.
Congreve was inspired to work on
iron-cased gunpowderrockets for use by the British military, by their use against British troops in Indiaby Tipu Sultanduring the Anglo-Mysore Wars. He first demonstrated solid fuel rockets at the Royal Arsenal in 1805. He considered his work sufficiently advanced to engage in two Royal Navyattacks on the French fleet at Boulogne, France, one that year and one the next. Parliament authorized Congreve to form two rocket companies for the army in 1809. Congreve subsequently commanded one of these at the Battle of Leipzigin 1813.
Congreve rockets were used for the remainder of the
Napoleonic Wars, as well as the War of 1812-- the "rockets' red glare" in the American national anthem describes their firing at Fort McHenryduring the latter conflict. They remained in the arsenal of the United Kingdom until the 1850s. Congreve was awarded the honorary rank of Lieutenant colonelin 1811 and was often referred to as "Colonel Congreve."
Besides his rockets, Congreve was a prolific (if indifferently successful)
inventorfor the remainder of his life. Congreve invented a gun- recoil mounting, a time-fuze, a rocket parachuteattachment, a hydropneumatic canal lockand sluice(1813), a perpetual motion machine, a process of colour printing(1821) which was widely used in Germany, a new form of steam engine, and a method of consuming smoke(which was applied at the Royal Laboratory). He also took out patents for a clock in which time was measured by a ballrolling along a zig-zag track on an inclined plane; for protecting buildings against fire; inlaying and combining metals; unforgeable bank note paper; a method of killing whales by means of rockets; improvements in the manufacture of gunpowder; stereotype plates; fireworks; and gas meters. Congreve was named as comptroller of the Royal Laboratory at Woolwich from 1814 until his death. (Congreve's father Sir William Congrevehad also held the same post.)
Congreve's unsuccessful perpetual motion scheme involved an endless band which should raise more water by its
capillary actionon one side than on the other. He used capillary action of fluids that would disobey the law of never rising above their own level, so to produce a continual ascent and overflow. The device had an inclined plane over pulleys. At the top and bottom, there travelled an endless band of sponge, a bed, and, over this, again an endless band of heavy weights jointed together. The whole stood over the surface of still water. The capillary action raised the water, whereas the same thing could not happen in the part, since the weights would squeeze the water out. Hence, it was heavier than the other; but as "we know that if it were the same weight, there would be equilibrium, if the heavy chain be also uniform". Therefore the extra weight of it would cause the chain to move round in the direction of the arrow, and this would go on, supposedly, continually.
In 1804 Congreve published "A concise account of the origin and progress of the rocket system". Publication of "A Concise Account of the Origin and Progress of the Rocket System" by William Congreve was in 1807. [Stephen Leslie (1887) "Dictionary of National Biography", Vol.XII, p.9, Macmillan & Co., New York [http://books.google.com/books?id=YTcJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=a+concise+account+of+the+origin+and+progress+of+the+rocket+system&source=web&ots=Ckd6Dx5VJL&sig=cf_2GUuMbboUCnwJfE2hHuXCD3o Congreve, Sir William,] ] In 1814 Congreve published "The details of the rocket system". In 1827 "The Congreve Rocket System" was published in London. His other publications were: "An Elementary Treatise on the Mounting of Naval Ordnance" (1812); "A Description of the Hydropneumatical Lock" (1815); "A New Principle of Steam-Engine" (1819); "Resumption of Cash Payments" (1819) and "Systems of Currency" (1819).
1911 Encyclopedia, " [http://2.1911encyclopedia.org/C/CO/CONGREVE_SIR_WILLIAM.htm Sir William Congreve] ".
Frank H. Winter"The First Golden Age of Rocketry" (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990), 322p., illus. ISBN 0-87474-987-5
* [http://napoleonistyka.atspace.com/British_artillery.htm Royal Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars]
Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills
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