Frottola

The frottola was the predominant type of Italian popular, secular song of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century. It was the most important and widespread predecessor to the madrigal. The peak of activity in composition of frottole was the period from 1470 to 1530, after which time the form was replaced by the madrigal.

While "frottola" is a generic term, several subcategories can be recognized, as would be expected of a musical form which was used for approximately a hundred years, maintaining immense popularity for more than half of that time. Most typically, a frottola is a composition for three or four voices (more towards the end of the period), with the uppermost voice containing the melody: instrumental accompaniments may have been used. The poem usually has a rhyme scheme of "abba" for a "ripresa" (reprise), and a stanza of "cdcdda" or "cdcddeea", though there is much variation between subtypes of frottola. Most likely the poetic forms are descended from the fourteenth-century ballata, though the music shows a startling simplification from late fourteenth-century practice.

Musically, the frottola avoids contrapuntal complexity, preferring homophonic textures, clear and repetitive rhythms, and a narrow melodic range. It was an important predecessor not only to the madrigal, but to much later practices in the Baroque era such as monody, since it anticipates chordal accompaniment, has the melody in the highest voice, and shows an early feeling for what later developed into functional harmony.

Very little is known about performance practice. Contemporary editions are sometimes for multiple voices, with or without lute tablature; occasionally keyboard scores survive. Frottole may have been performed as solo voice with lute accompaniment—certainly Marchetto Cara may have performed them this way at the Gonzaga court, as is implied by his renown as lutenist, singer, and composer of frottole—and they also may have been performed by other combinations of singers and instruments as well.

The most famous composers of frottola were Bartolomeo Tromboncino and Marchetto Cara, although some of the popular secular compositions of Josquin (for example "Scaramella" and "El Grillo") are stylistically frottole, though not in name.

The frottola was a significant influence not only on the madrigal, but on the French chanson, which also tended to be a light, danceable, and popular form. Many French composers of the period went to Italy, either to work in aristocratic courts or at the papal chapel in Rome. While in Italy they encountered the frottola, and incorporated some of what they heard in their native secular compositions.

Composers

Composers of frottole include:

* Bartolomeo Tromboncino
* Marchetto Cara
* Filippo de Lurano
* Michele Pesenti
* Michele Vicentino
* Giovanni Brocco
* Antonio Caprioli
* Francesco d'Ana
* Lodovico Fogliano
* Giacomo Fogliano
* Erasmus Lapicida

Except for Tromboncino and Cara, who were extremely famous, very little is known about most of these composers; in many cases only their names survive, and those because Petrucci, the prominent Venetian publisher, included their names in collections containing their music.

References

* Gustave Reese, "Music in the Renaissance". New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1954. (ISBN 0-393-09530-4)
* "The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians", ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. (ISBN 1-56159-174-2)
* "The New Harvard Dictionary of Music", ed. Don Randel. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-674-61525-5

Further reading

* “ [http://www.hoasm.org/IIIG/IIIGFrottolists.html The Frottolists and their contemporaries] ”.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Frottola — La frottola fue el tipo de música popular predominante en Italia como canción secular durante el Siglo XV y principios del Siglo XVI. Fue el más importante y difundido predecesor del Madrigal. La cumbre de composición de las frottolas fue el… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Frottola — bezeichnet eine Dichtungsform in der italienischen Literatur, siehe Frottola (Literatur) in der italienischen Musik eine vierstimmige, schlichte Liedform, siehe Frottola (Musik) Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer m …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • frottola — ● frottola nom féminin (italien frottola) Composition musicale à trois ou à quatre voix, de caractère populaire, qui connut une grande vogue en Italie vers la fin du XVe s. et la première moitié du XVI …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • frottola — FRÓTTOLA s. f. vechi cântec italian pe mai multe voci, cântat la carnavaluri şi în reprezentaţii teatrale. (< it. frottola) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • Frottola — Frottola, in der ältesten ital. Literatur (14. 16. Jahrh.) Name einer volkstümlichen Dichtungsform (beliebig lange Gruppen von gleichreimigen Versen durch je einen Kurzvers verkettet) didaktischer oder satirischer Art, ein Sprichwortgedicht in… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Frottóla — Frottóla, didaktisch satir. Dichtungsart, die in Italien vom 14. bis 16. Jahrh. in Gebrauch war …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • frottola — / frɔt:ola/ s.f. [prob. der. di frotta ]. [cosa non vera: raccontare una f. ; tutte f.! ] ▶◀ (fam.) balla, bubbola, bugia, ciancia, falsità, (fam.) fandonia, fanfaluca, (lett.) fola, (non com.) frasca, invenzione, menzogna, (fam.) palla, panzana …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • frottola — (izg. frȍtola) ž DEFINICIJA glazb. 1. šaljiva pjesma, izmišljotina 2. pov. vokalna polifona kompozicija pučkog karaktera iz sjeverne Italije (14 15. st.), najčešće četveroglasna ETIMOLOGIJA tal …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • frottola — ▪ music plural  Frottole,        Italian secular song popular in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Usually the frottola was a composition for four voice parts with the melody in the top line. Frottole could be performed by unaccompanied… …   Universalium

  • Frottola — Frọt|to|la 〈f.; , s od. to|len; Mus.〉 mehrstimmiges Tanzlied der ital. Renaissance [ital.] * * * Frọttola   [italienisch] die, /...le, s und ... tolen, italienische poetische Form, ursprüngliche Volksdichtung; lose Folge von Lebensweisheiten… …   Universal-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.