Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei ((北)魏節閔帝) (
498- June 21, 532[ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%A5_%C3Q&king=%A7%B5%AAZ%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%A9%F7&yy=1&ycanzi=&mm=5&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%FE%A5%D3 兩千年中西曆轉換 ] ] ), also known as Emperor Qianfei (前廢帝) [As he was removed from the throne, he initially received no imperial posthumous name. The " Book of Wei", written by Wei Shou, an official of the branch successor state Eastern Wei, referred to him as Emperor Qianfei ("the former deposed emperor"), but the competing successor dynasty, Western Wei, probably because of requests by his older brother Yuan Xin (元欣) the Prince of Guangling, gave him the relatively honoring posthumous name Emperor Jiemin. Historians generally referred to him as Emperor Jiemin.] , at times referred to by pre-ascension title Prince of Guangling (廣陵王), personal name Yuan Gong (元恭), courtesy nameXiuye (脩業), was an emperorof the Chinese dynasty Northern Wei. He became emperor after the clan members of the paramount general Erzhu Rong, after Erzhu Rong was killed by Emperor Xiaozhuang, overthrew Emperor Xiaozhuang. Emperor Jiemin tried to revive the Northern Wei state, but with his power curbed by the Erzhus, was not able to accomplish much. After the general Gao Huandefeated the Erzhus in 532, Emperor Jiemin was imprisoned by Gao and subsequently poisoned to death by Emperor Xiaowu, whom Gao made emperor.
Yuan Gong was born in 498, during the reign of Emperor Xiaowen. His father was Yuan Yu (元羽) the Prince of Guangling, a son of Emperor Xianwen and a brother of Emperor Xiaowen. His mother was Yuan Yu's
concubineLady Wang. In 501, during the reign of Emperor Xiaowen's son Emperor Xuanwu, Yuan Yu died from injuries he suffered when he was attacked by his lover's husband, the low level official, Feng Junxing (馮俊興), and for reasons unclear, Yuan Gong inherited Yuan Yu's title even though he had one older brother, Yuan Xin (元欣), and neither he nor Yuan Xin was the son of Yuan Yu's wife Princess Zheng. Yuan Gong also had one younger brother, Yuan Yongye (元永業).
Yuan Gong was described to be confident and strong-willed, and also filiially pious toward his grandmother Princess Dowager Meng and his father's wife Princess Dowager Zheng (whom, under
Confuciandoctrines, he was required to treat as a mother). During Yuan Cha's regency over Emperor Xuanwu's son Emperor Xiaoming (i.e., sometime between 520 and 525), Yuan Gong, because of Yuan Cha's corruption and violent tendencies, pretended to be ill and unable to speak, living in the BuddhistLonghua Temple (龍花寺). During the reign of his cousin Emperor Xiaozhuang, someone made a report to Emperor Xiaozhuang that Yuan Gong was only pretending to be unable to speak, and had treasonous intent. When Yuan Gong was informed of this, he, in fear, fled to Shangluo Mountain (上洛山, in modern Shangzhou, Shaanxi), but was captured and returned to Luoyang. Interrogations and investigations, however, yielded no proof that Yuan Gong plotted treason, so he was released.
In 530, Emperor Xiaozhuang, in fear that the paramount general
Erzhu Rongwould seize the throne, killed Erzhu Rong. Erzhu Rong's clan members rose and declared Erzhu Rong's wife Princess Beixiang's nephew Yuan Yethe Prince of Changguang emperor. Around the new year 531, Erzhu Rong's nephew Erzhu Zhaocaptured Luoyang and seized Emperor Xiaozhuang, subsequently killing him. Yuan Ye traveled toward Luoyang to take the throne. However, Erzhu Rong's cousin Erzhu Shilongwas uncomfortable with Yuan Ye's lineage being distant from that of recent emperors, and wanted to find an emperor with closer imperial lineage. Erzhu Rong's nephew Erzhu Tianguangsuggested Yuan Gong, and after Erzhu Shilong sent his brother Erzhu Yanbo (爾朱彥伯) to visit Yuan Gong to force him to accept and to ascertain that he was not truly unable to speak, Yuan Gong agreed, and Erzhu Shilong, when Yuan Ye arrived at Luoyang, forced him to yield the throne to Yuan Gong. Yuan Gong, after making three submissions to Yuan Ye declining the throne, took the throne as Emperor Jiemin.
During Emperor Jiemin's reign, the Erzhu clan members controlled much of the functions of the central government, the provinces, and the military, with Erzhu Shilong controlling the central government, Erzhu Zhao controlling the northern provinces, Erzhu Tianguang controlling the western provinces, and Erzhu Zhongyuan (爾朱仲遠) controlling the southeastern provinces. Despite this, Emperor Jiemin himself tried to exert influences on policy in subtle ways, and at times he refused to following Erzhu Shilong's wishes. For example, when Erzhu Shilong had the official Xing Zicai (邢子才) author Emperor Jiemin's general pardon edict, describing the death of Erzhu Rong in detail as an extremely wrongful act by Emperor Xiaozhuang, Emperor Jiemin refused to promulgate the edict as written, but instead wrote a brief edict himself, using humble language and not getting into details. He also removed the character "huang" (皇) from his title, going from "huangdi" (皇帝) to just "di" (帝). He treated Yuan Ye with honor, creating him the Prince of Donghai. He also, in an unprecedented action, ordered that rival
Liang Dynastyno longer be referred to as "false" (偽, "wei") Liang. (Traditionally, in Chinese history, the rival states referred to each other as "false.") He posthumously honored his father Yuan Yu as emperor, but only honored his mother Lady Wang as princess dowager, perhaps out of respect to Yuan Yu's wife Princess Zheng. He also created his brother Yuan Yongye the Prince of Gaomi and his son Yuan Shu (元恕) as Prince of Bohai.
The Erzhus, however, engaged in violence and corruption, and Emperor Jiemin was unable to curb them. As a result, in succession, the generals Liu Lingzhu (劉靈助) and
Gao Huanrebelled. Liu was easily defeated, but Gao, with many disaffected generals joining him, proved to be a formidable opponent, and Gao, who initially acknowledged Emperor Jiemin's position as emperor, soon had another distant member of the imperial Yuan clan, Yuan Lang, declared emperor. In late 531, with the Erzhu clan in internal dissent from rumors that Gao spread, Gao defeated Erzhu Zhao and captured the important city Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei).
In spring 532, Erzhu Shilong, in order to end the dissension within the Erzhu clan, requested that Emperor Jiemin marry Erzhu Zhao's daughter as his empress. Soon, the Erzhu forces, commanded by Erzhu Zhao, Erzhu Tianguang, Erzhu Zhongyuan, and Erzhu Shilong's brother Erzhu Dulü (爾朱度律), converged at Yecheng to face Gao Huan, but despite their numerical advantage, Gao defeated them. Erzhu Zhao and Erzhu Zhongyuan fled back to their headquarters, while Erzhu Tianguang and Erzhu Dulü fled back toward Luoyang. At this time, the general
Husi Chunrose against the Erzhus at Luoyang, and he killed Erzhu Shilong and Erzhu Yanbo, while capturing and delivering Erzhu Tianguang and Erzhu Dulü to Gao, who executed them.
After the defeat of the Erzhus
Emperor Jiemin tried to take initiative by sending the official Lu Bian (盧辯) to greet Gao. Gao, who was then accompanying Yuan Lang and heading toward Luoyang, considered allowing Emperor Jiemin to keep the throne, as Yuan Lang's lineage was distant from recent emperors. He sent the general Wei Lan'gen (魏蘭根) to calm the imperial officials and to observe Emperor Jiemin. After Wei returned to Gao, Wei opined that Emperor Jiemin was intelligent and decisive and would be difficult to control in the future. Gao therefore arrested Emperor Jiemin and imprisoned him at Chongxun Temple (崇訓寺). Gao instead forced Yuan Lang to yield the throne to Yuan Xiu the Prince of Pingyang, and Yuan Xiu took the throne as Emperor Xiaowu.
During Emperor Jiemin's imprisonment at Chongxun Temple, he wrote a poem that is still extant:
:"A red door [sign of an honored household] brings disaster in the end;":"The imperial purple is not something to be accustomed to;":"Falls can be expected;":"Things change three times a year;":"And this is what fortune brings;":"It is better to study the true path."
About 10 days after Emperor Xiaowu took the throne, he sent messengers to poison Emperor Jiemin. He did not bury Emperor Jiemin with imperial honors, but did give him a burial that was greater than ordinary for imperial princes, and ordered the imperial officials to attend the funeral.
* "Putai" (普泰 pǔ tài) 531-532
** Yuan Yu (元羽), Prince Hui of Guangling, son of
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
** Lady Wang, Yuan Yu's
** Empress Erzhu, daughter of
** Yuan Shu (元恕) or Yuan Zishu (元子恕) [The "
Book of Wei" and the " History of Northern Dynasties" give the name as Yuan Zishu, while the " Zizhi Tongjian" gives it as Yuan Shu.] , the Prince of Bohai (created 531)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei — ((北)魏孝武帝) (510 February 3, 535 [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2 dyna=%ABn%B1%E7 king=%AAZ%AB%D2 reign=%A4%A4%A4j%B3q yy=6 ycanzi= le ] ] ), personal name Yuan Xiu (元脩 or 元修), courtesy name Xiaoze (孝則), at times known as … Wikipedia
Emperor Fei — or Fèidì is a makeshift name of Chinese emperors who were dethroned and not given the posthumous name. The word Fèi means deposed . It may refer to: * Emperor Fei of Jin (342 386, r.365 371) * Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song (449 465, r.464 465) (… … Wikipedia
Wei Xiaokuan — (韋孝寬) (509 580), formal personal name Wei Shuyu (韋叔裕) (but went by the courtesy name of Xiaokuan), known by the Xianbei name Yuwen Xiaokuan (宇文孝寬) during late Western Wei and Northern Zhou, formally Duke Xiang of Xun (勛襄公), was a general of the… … Wikipedia
Empress Erzhu (Jiemin) — Empress Erzhu (爾朱皇后, personal name unknown) was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Northern Wei. Her husband was Emperor Jiemin, and she was a daughter of the general Erzhu Zhao.Very little is known about her. Her father Erzhu Zhao had come to… … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Lou Zhaojun — (婁昭君) (501 562), formally Empress Ming (明皇后, literally the understanding empress ), was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. She was the wife of Gao Huan, the paramount general of Northern Wei and its branch successor state… … Wikipedia
498 — yearbox in?= cp=4th century c=5th century cf=6th century yp1=495 yp2=496 yp3=497 year=498 ya1=499 ya2=500 ya3=501 dp3=460s dp2=470s dp1=480s d=490s dn1=500s dn2=510s dn3=520s NOTOC EventsBy PlaceByzantine Empire* Emperor Anastasius I reforms the… … Wikipedia
532 — yearbox in?= cp=5th century c=6th century cf=7th century yp1=529 yp2=530 yp3=531 year=532 ya1=533 ya2=534 ya3=535 dp3=500s dp2=510s dp1=520s d=530s dn1=540s dn2=550s dn3=560s NOTOC EventsBy PlaceByzantine Empire* January 11 Nika riots in… … Wikipedia
Yuan Lang — (元朗) (513 532), courtesy name Zhongzhe (仲哲), frequently known by his post removal title of Prince of Anding (安定王), at times known as Emperor Houfei (後廢帝, later removed emperor ), was briefly an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei … Wikipedia
Gao Huan — (高歡) (496 547), nickname Heliuhun (賀六渾), formally Prince Xianwu of Qi (齊獻武王), later further formally honored by Northern Qi initially as Emperor Xianwu (獻武皇帝, literally the wise and martial emperor ), then as Emperor Shenwu (神武皇帝, literally the… … Wikipedia
Yuwen Tai — (宇文泰) (507 556), nickname Heita (黑獺), formally Duke Wen of Anding (安定文公), later further posthumously honored by Northern Zhou initially as Prince Wen (文王) then as Emperor Wen (文皇帝) with the temple name Taizu (太祖), was the paramount general of the … Wikipedia