Bandelier National Monument
:"For the anthropologist, see"
Infobox_protected_area | name = Bandelier National Monument
iucn_category = III
locator_x = 88
locator_y = 108
location = Sandoval County & Los Alamos County,
New Mexico, USA
nearest_city = Los Alamos, NM
lat_degrees = 35
lat_minutes = 46
lat_seconds = 44
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 106
long_minutes = 16
long_seconds = 16
long_direction = W
area = 32,737 acres (132.48 km²)
11 February, 1916
visitation_num = 224,134
visitation_year = 2007
National Park Service
Bandelier National Monument is a
U.S. National Monumentconsisting of 32,737 acres (132.48 km²) of northern New Mexico, United States. About five-sevenths (23,367 acres (94.56 km²)) of the monument has been designated a wildernessarea. The Valles Caldera National Preserveadjoins the monument on the north and east, extending into the Jemez Mountains.
Bandelier was designated a National Monument on
February 11, 1916, and the wilderness area was designated in October 1976.
The national monument is named after anthropologist
forest fires have plagued the monument in the latter part of the 20th century, culminating in the disastrous Cerro Grande Fireof 2000. This fire originated as a controlled burnfor fire controlbut spread out of control owing to high winds, eventually burning over 40,000 acres (160 km²) of forest and destroying 250 homes in Los Alamos.
The main attraction of the monument for the casual visitor is Frijoles Canyon, containing a number of ancestral
pueblohomes, kivas (ceremonial structures), rock paintings and petroglyphs. Some of the dwellings were rock structures built on the canyonfloor; others were "cavates" produced by voids in the tuffof the canyon wall and enlarged by human action. A 1.2-mile (1.6 km), predominantly paved loop trail from the visitor center affords access to these features. A trail extending beyond this loop leads to Alcove House (formerly called Ceremonial Cave, and still so identified on some maps), a shelter cave produced by erosionof the soft tuff and containing a small, reconstructed kiva that the hiker may enter via ladder.
A large collection of structures at the monument were built during the
Great Depressionby the Civilian Conservation Corps, constituting the largest assembly of CCC-built structures in a National Park area that has not been altered by new structures in the district. This group of 31 buildings illustrates the guiding principles of National Park Service Rusticarchitecture.
Other, primitive trails enter the backcountry, which contains additional archaeological sites,
canyon/ mesacountry, and some transient waterfalls. Hikes to many of these areas are feasible and range in length from short (<1 hour) excursions to multi-day backpacks (permits required for overnight trips). Unfortunately, some of the backcountry sites have been submerged, damaged, or rendered inaccessible by Cochiti Lake, a reservoir on the Rio Grandecreated to reduce seasonal flooding that threatened communities and agricultural areas downstream.
A detached portion of the monument called the
Tsankawiunit is near the town of Los Alamos and offers the day hiker a chance to see excavated sites and petroglyphs . Also at the Tsankawi unit are the remains of the home and school for indigenous people established by Baroness Vera von Blumenthaland her lover Rose Dougan(or Dugan).
In the upper elevations of the monument,
Nordic skiingis possible on a small network of trails reachable from New Mexico Highway 4. However, not every winter produces snowfall sufficient to allow good skiing.
Wildlife at Bandelier
Wildlifeis locally abundant, and deerand Abert's squirrels are frequently encountered in Frijoles Canyon. Black bear and mountain lions inhabit the monument but are rarely encountered, even by the backcountry hiker. A substantial herd of elk are present (and represent a significant driving hazard) during the winter months, as snowpack forces them down from their summer range in the Jemez Mountains. Notable among the smaller mammals of the monument are large numbers of bats that seasonally inhabit shelter caves in the canyon walls, sometimes including those of Frijoles Canyon near the loop trail, which is diverted as necessary to avoid the bat colonies. Wild turkeys, vultures, ravens, several species of birds of prey, and a number of hummingbirdspecies are common. Rattlesnakes, tarantulas, and "horned toads" (actually a species of lizard) are occasionally seen along the trails.
Tent rock formations at Bandelier
Cliff dwellings at Bandelier
*Dorothy Hoard; A Guide to Bandelier National Monument; Los Alamos Historical Society; ISBN 0-941232-09-3 (1995)
* [http://www.nps.gov/band/ National Park Service website]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/exhibits/band/imgal.html Museum collections at Bandelier]
* [http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=2023&ResourceType=District Historic District within Bandelier National Monument]
* [http://www.friendsofbandelier.org/ Friends of Bandelier]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/amsw/ American Southwest, a National Park Service "Discover Our Shared Heritage" Travel Itinerary]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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