The Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Turkish: "Peçenekler", Hungarian: "Besenyő", Greek: "Patzinaki/Petsenegi" or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται,
Latin: "Pacinacae", "Bisseni" /in Hungarian diplomas) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg languagewhich belonged to the Turkic language family.
Origins and area
Mahmud Kashgari's 11th-century work " Dīwān Lughat al-Turk" ( _ar. ديوان لغات الترك), the name "Beçenek" is given two meanings. The first is "a Turkish nation living around the country of the Rum", where "Rum" was used by the Turks to denote the Eastern Roman Empire/ Byzantine Empire. Kashgari's second definition of "Beçenek" is "a branch of Oghuz Turks"; he subsequently described the Oghuz as being formed of 22 branches, of which the 19th branch was named "Beçenek". Max Vasmerderives this name from the Turkic word for "brother-in-law, relative" ("Bacanak" in modern Turkish).
Whatever the truth of this, the Pechenegs emerge in the historical records only in the 8th and 9th centuries, inhabiting the region between the lower
Volga, the Don, and the Ural Mountains. By the 9th and 10th centuries AD they controlled much of the steppes of southwestern Eurasiaand the Crimean Peninsula. Although an important factor in the region at the time, like most nomadic tribes their concept of statecraft failed to go beyond random attacks on neighbours and spells as mercenaries for other powers.
According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing in c. 950, Patzinakia, the Pecheneg realm, stretched west as far as the
Siret River(or even the Eastern Carpathian Mountains), and was four days distant from "Tourkias" (i.e. Hungary).
: "The whole of Patzinakia is divided into eight provinces with the same number of great princes. The provinces are these: the name of the first province is Irtim; of the second, Tzour; of the third, Gyla; of the fourth, Koulpei; of the fifth, Charaboi; of the sixth, Talmat; of the seventh, Chopon; of the eighth, Tzopon. At the time at which the Pechenegs were expelled from their country, their princes were, in the province of Irtim, Baitzas; in Tzour, Konel; in Gyla, Kourkoutai; in Koulpei, Ipaos; in Charaboi, Kaidoum; in the province of Talmat, Kostas; in Chopon, Giazis; in the province of Tzopon, Batas."
"(Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, c. 950, translation by R.J.H. Jenkins)"
In Armenian sources
In the Armenian chronicles of
Matthew of Edessa"Pechenegs" are mentioned a couple of times. The first mention is in chapter 75, where it says that in the year 499 (according to the old Armenian calendar — years 1050–51 according to the Gregorian calendar) the "Badzinag" nation caused great destruction in many provinces of Rome, i.e. the Byzantineterritories. The second is in chapter 103, which is about the Battle of Manzikert. In that chapter it is told that the allies of Rome, "Padzunak" and "Uz" (some branches of the Oghuz Turks) tribes which changed their sides at the peak of the battle and began fighting against the Byzantineforces, (side by side with the Seljuk Turks). In the 132nd chapter a war between Romeand the "Padzinags" is described and after the defeat of the Roman (Byzantine) Army, an unsuccessful siege of Constantinopleby the "Padzinags" is mentioned. In that chapter, the "Patzinags" are described as an "all archer army". In chapter 299, the Armenian prince, "Vasil", who was in the Roman Army, sent a platoon of "Padzinags" (they had settled in the city of Misis, around modern Adana, which is far away from the lands where "Pechenegs" were then mainly living) to the aid of the Christians.
Alliance with Byzantium
In the 9th century, the Byzantines became allied with the Pechenegs, using them to fend off other, more dangerous tribes such as the Rus and the
Magyars. This was an old Roman ploy ("divide and rule") continued by their Byzantine successors — playing off one enemy tribe against another.
The Uzes, another Turkic steppe people, eventually expelled the Pechenegs from their homeland; in the process, they also seized most of their livestock and other goods. An alliance of the Oghuz,
Kimeksand Karlukswas also pressing the Pechenegs, but another group, the Samanids, defeated that alliance. Driven further west by the Khazarsand Cumansby 889, the Pechenegs in turn drove the Magyars west of the DnieperRiver by 892.
In 894, the
Bulgarianswent to war against Byzantium. Early in 895, Emperor Leo VI the Wiseinvoked the help of the Magyars, who sent an army under a commander named Levente into Bulgaria. Levente conducted a brilliant campaign and invaded deep into Bulgaria, while the Byzantine armyentered Bulgaria from the south. Caught in a vice of Magyar and Byzantine forces, Tsar Simeon Irealised he could not fight a war on two fronts, and quickly concluded an armistice with the Byzantine Empire.
Tsar Simeon also employed the Pechenegs to help fend off the Magyars. The Pechenegs were so successful that they drove out the Magyars remaining in
Etelközand the Pontic steppes, forcing them westward up the lower Danube, Transdanubiaand towards the Pannonian plain, where they later founded a Hungarian state.
History and decline
From the 9th century AD, the Pechenegs started an uneasy relationship with
Kievan Rus. For more than two centuries they launched random raids into the lands of Rus, which sometimes escalated into full-scale wars (like the 920 war on the Pechenegs by Igor of Kievreported in the Primary Chronicle), but there were also temporary military alliances (e.g. 943 Byzantine campaign by Igor). [ Ibn Haukaldescribes the Pechenegs as the long-standing allies of the Rus, whom they invariably accompanied during the 10th-century Caspian expeditions.] In 968, the Pechenegs attacked and then besieged the city of Kiev.
Part of them joined the Prince of Kiev Sviatoslav I in his Byzantine campaign of 970–971, though eventually the Pechenegs ambushed and killed the Kievan prince in 972, and according to the Primary Chronicle, the Pecheneg Khan Kurya made a chalice from his skull—a traditional
steppenomad custom. The fortunes of the Rus-versus-Pecheneg confrontation swung during the reign of Vladimir I of Kiev(990–995), who founded the town of Pereyaslavupon the site of his victory over the Pechenegs [The chronicler explains the town's name, derived from the Slavic word for "retake", by the fact that Vladimir "retook" the military glory from the Pechenegs.] , but were followed by the defeat of the Pechenegs during the reign of Yaroslav I the Wise(1037). Shortly afterwards, the decimated Pechenegs were replaced in the Pontic steppeby another nomadic Turkic people—the Cumansor Polovtsy.
After centuries of fighting involving all their neighbours—the Byzantine Empire,
Bulgaria, Kievan Rus, Khazaria and the Magyars—the Pechenegs were annihilated as an independent force at the Battle of Levounionby a combined Byzantine and Cumanarmy under Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenosin 1091. Attacked again in 1094 by the Cumans, many Pechenegs were slain or absorbed. They were again defeated by the Byzantines at the Battle of Beroiain 1122, on the territory of modern day Bulgaria. For some time, significant communities of Pechenegs still remained in Hungary, but finally the Pechenegs ceased to be a distinct people and were assimilated into their neighbours— Bulgarians, Magyarsand Gagauz. In the 15th century Hungary some people adopted the surname Besenyö, which is Hungarian for Pecheneg. They were most numerous in county Tolna. Abu Hamid al Garnathiin the late 12th century referred to Hungarian Pechenegs who were probably Muslims living disguised as Christians. Others survived within the ranks of the pastoral nomadic tribes of the Balkan Highlands as Yörüks, eventually adopting Islam.Fact|date=March 2008
* Pálóczi-Horváth, A. (1989). "Pechenegs, Cumans, Iasians: Steppe peoples in medieval Hungary". Hereditas. Budapest: Kultúra [distributor] . ISBN 963132740X
* Pritsak, O. (1976). "The Pečenegs: a case of social and economic transformation". Lisse, Netherlands: The Peter de Ridder Press.
* [http://www.patzinakia.ro www.patzinakia.ro]
* [http://www.imwerden.de/pdf/povest_vremennyx_let.pdf The Primary Chronicle]
* [http://faculty.washington.edu/dwaugh/rus/texts/constp.html 0f the Pechenegs, and how many advantages]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pechenegs — ▪ people Byzantine Patzinakoi , Latin Bisseni , Hungarian Besenyo a seminomadic, apparently Turkic people who occupied the steppes north of the Black Sea (8th–12th century) and by the 10th century were in control of the lands between… … Universalium
Pechenegs — (Patzinaks) Warlike, nomadic people from the Eurasian steppe (q.v.) who appeared on Byzantium s (q.v.) northern frontier in the late ninth century. They moved westward from the Volga, perhaps under pressure from the Uzes (q.v.), driving the… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Печенеги — (Pechenegs)Pechenegs, народ, обитавший в степях Центральной Азии и сев. Приаралья, который завоевал территорию между Доном и Дунаем в 10в., но потерпел поражение от Киевской Руси в 1036г … Страны мира. Словарь
Hungarian prehistory — See Pannonian basin before Hungary for the prehistory of Hungary (as opposed to the prehistory of the Hungarian people). The Tree of Life on an ancient Magyar sabertache (tarsoly) plate Hungarian prehistory (Hungarian: magyar őstörténet) refers… … Wikipedia
Battle of Beroia — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Beroia partof=the Komnenian restoration caption=Emperor John II Komnenos, commander of the Byzantine forces in the battle. date=1122 place=Beroia (today Stara Zagora), Bulgaria casus= territory= result … Wikipedia
Battle of Levounion — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Levounion partof=the Komnenian restoration and Byzantine Seljuk Wars caption=Painting of Alexios I, from a Greek manuscript in the Vatican library. date=April 29 1091 place=Levounion (near Enos, modern … Wikipedia
Bulgarian-Hungarian Wars — Infobox Military Conflict conflict = Bulgarian Hungarian Wars caption = date = 9th 14th century place = Northern and Western Balkans territory = Both states had numerous territorial changes result = Inconclusive combatant1 = combatant2 =… … Wikipedia
Sviatoslav I of Kiev — (Old East Slavic: С тославъ (Свąтославъ) [E.g. in the Primary Chronicle under year 970 http://litopys.org.ua/ipatlet/ipat04.htm ] Игорєвичь ( Sventoslavŭ Igorevichǐ ), Russian: ru. Святослав Игоревич, Ukrainian: uk. Святослав Ігорович, Bulgarian … Wikipedia
Khazars — Kazar redirects here. For the Marvel Comics character, see Ka Zar. For the village in Azerbaijan, see Xəzər. For Khazar University, see Khazar University. Khazaria Eastern Tourkia Khaganate … Wikipedia
Alexios I Komnenos — Infobox Monarch name =Alexios I Komnenos title =Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire reign =4 April, 1081 – 15 August, 1118 coronation =4 April, 1081 predecessor =Nicephorus III Botaneiates successor =John II Comnenus spouse 1 =Irene Ducaena issue … Wikipedia