Overseas departments and territories of France


Overseas departments and territories of France
French overseas departments, territories and claims on Antarctica
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This article is part of the series on
Administrative divisions of France

(incl. overseas regions)

(incl. overseas departments)

Urban communities
Agglomeration communities
Commune communities
Syndicates of New Agglomeration

Associated communes
Municipal arrondissements

Others in Overseas France

Overseas collectivities
Sui generis collectivity
Overseas country
Overseas territory
Clipperton Island

The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements et territoires d'outre-mer, colloquially referred to as the DOM-TOM [dɔmtɔm][1]) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of the European continent. These territories have varying legal status and different levels of autonomy, although all have representation in the Parliament of France (except those with no permanent inhabitants), and consequently the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament. The French Overseas Departments and Territories include island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, French Guiana on the South American coast, and several periantarctic islands as well as a claim in Antarctica. 2,685,705 people lived in the French Overseas Departments and Territories in January 2011.[2]

From a legal and administrative standpoint, departments are very different from territories: according to the French constitution, French laws and regulations generally apply (civil code, penal code, administrative law, social laws, tax laws etc.), in departments as in the mainland. However, specific laws and regulations can be adapted to their specific situation. In territories, the principle is the opposite: territories are governed by autonomy statutes that allow them to make their own laws, except for some specific areas (like defense, international relations, international trade and currency, courts and administrative law), as provided in the autonomy statute, that are reserved to the central government and its local appointee.

Each inhabited French territory, metropolitan or overseas, is represented in both the French National Assembly and the French Senate (which make up the French Parliament). The overseas departments and territories are governed by local elected assemblies and by the French Parliament and French Government (where a cabinet member, the Minister of Overseas France, is in charge of issues related to the overseas departments and territories).

Contents

Varying constitutional statuses

Overseas departments and regions

Overseas collectivities

This category was created with the constitutional reform on 28 March 2003. Each collectivity has its own statutory laws.

The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale.

Special collectivity

  • New Caledonia was an overseas territory beginning in 1946, but as a result of the 1998 Nouméa Accord, it gained a special status (statut particulier or statut original) in 1999. A New Caledonian citizenship was established, and a gradual transfer of power from the French state to New Caledonia itself was begun, to last from fifteen to twenty years.[7]

Overseas territories

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands (French: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises; overseas territory of France since 1956). According to law 2007-224 of February 21, 2007, the Scattered Islands constitute the 5th district of TAAF. It is currently the only overseas territory.

Overseas country

The status of overseas country (French: Pays d'outre-mer), projected for French Pacific dependencies, was finally never created. The 2004 status of French Polynesia gives it this designation, but also recalls that it belongs to the category of overseas communities. The Constitutional Council of France confirmed that the designation of overseas country had no legal consequences. Since New Caledonia's status has no name and since its parliament can make local laws, it is sometimes incorrectly termed an overseas country.

Minor territories

  • Clipperton Island (French: Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion) (Spanish: Isla de la Pasión) is a nine-square-kilometre remote coral atoll located 1,280 kilometers south-west of Acapulco, Mexico, in the Pacific Ocean. It is held as state private property under the direct authority of the French government, administered by the Minister of Overseas France.

Political representation in the French Parliament

With 2,685,705 inhabitants in 2011, the French overseas departments and territories account for 4.1% of the population of the French Republic.[2] They enjoy a corresponding representation in the two chambers of the French Parliament.

Representation in the National Assembly

In the 13th Legislature (2007–2012), the French overseas departments and territories are represented by 22 deputies in the French National Assembly, accounting for 3.8% of the 577 deputies in the National Assembly:

Representation in the Senate

Since September 2008, the French overseas departments and territories are represented by 19 senators in the French Senate, accounting for 5.5% of the 343 senators in the Senate:

List of French Overseas Territories

Inhabited departments and collectivities

The 11 French Overseas Territories are :

Flag Name Capital Population Land area (km2) Status Location Notes
French Guiana French Guiana Cayenne 229,000 (Jan. 2009)[8] 83,534 Overseas department / region South America
French Polynesia French Polynesia Papeete 264,000 (Jan. 2009)[9] 4,167 Overseas collectivity South Pacific Ocean
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Basse-Terre 404,000 (Jan. 2009)[8] 1,628 Overseas department / region Antilles
Martinique Martinique Fort-de-France 402,000 (Jan. 2009)[8] 1,128 Overseas department / region Antilles
Mayotte Mayotte Mamoudzou 186,452 (July 2007)[10] 374 Overseas department / region Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Voted on March 29, 2009 in favour of attaining overseas department / region status. That status became effective on March 31st, 2011.
Also claimed by Comoros
New Caledonia New Caledonia Nouméa 244,410 (Jan. 2008)[11] 18,575 Sui generis collectivity South Pacific Ocean Referendum for independence to occur sometime during the period of 2014 to 2019.
Réunion Réunion Saint-Denis 817,000 (Jan. 2009)[8] 2,512 Overseas department / region Africa
(Indian Ocean)
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy Gustavia 8,450 (Jan. 2007)[12] 21 Overseas collectivity Antilles Detached from Guadeloupe on 22 February 2007.
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin Marigot 35,925 (Jan. 2007)[12] 53 Overseas collectivity Antilles Detached from Guadeloupe on 22 February 2007.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre 6,099 (Jan. 2007)[12] 242 Overseas collectivity Southeast of Canada
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu 13,484 (Jul. 2008)[13] 274 Overseas collectivity South Pacific Ocean
Overall Summary
Status Population (Jan. 2011)[2] Land area (km2)
Overseas Departments / Regions 1,890,705 91,847
Overseas Collectivities & New Caledonia 795,000 23,632
Total 2,685,705 120,049

Uninhabited lands

(Lands generally uninhabited, except by researchers in scientific stations)

Flag Name Capital Land area (km2) Status Location Notes
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Banc du Geyser - 1 TAAF district Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar and Comoros
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Bassas da India - 1 TAAF district Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
France Clipperton - 7 French state private property West of Mexico Claimed by Mexico
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Crozet Islands Alfred Faure 352 TAAF district South Indian Ocean
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Europa - 28 TAAF district Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Glorioso Islands - 5 TAAF district Indian Ocean Claimed by Comoros, Madagascar and Seychelles
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Juan de Nova - 5 TAAF district Africa
(Mozambique Channel)
Claimed by Madagascar
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Kerguelen Islands Port-aux-Français 7,215 TAAF district South Indian Ocean
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Saint-Paul Island and
Amsterdam Island
Martin-de-Viviès 66 TAAF district Indian Ocean
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Tromelin Island - 1 TAAF district Indian Ocean Claimed by Mauritius

Antarctica

Flag Name Capital Land area (km2) Status Location Notes
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg Adélie Land Dumont d'Urville Station 432,000 TAAF district Antarctica Under terms of Antarctic Treaty System

Largest cities in overseas France

Ranked by population in the urban area:

See also

References

  1. ^ About.com, Definition of les DOM-TOM
  2. ^ a b c INSEE, Government of France. "Bilan démographique 2010". http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/document.asp?ref_id=ip1332#inter1. Retrieved 2011-01-21.  (French)
  3. ^ "French Caribbean voters reject change". Caribbean Net News. 2003-12-09. http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/2003/12/09/voters.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-09. "However voters on the two tiny French dependencies of Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, which have been administratively attached to Guadeloupe, approved the referendum and are set to acquire the new status of "overseas collectivity"." 
  4. ^ Magras, Bruno (2007-02-16). "Letter of Information from the Mayor to the residents and non-residents, to the French and to the foreigners, of Saint Barthelemy" (PDF). St. Barth Weekly. p. 2. http://www.st-barths.com/jsb/pdf_files/weekly108.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-18. "On February 7 of this year, the French Parliament adopted the law granting Saint-Barthélemy the Statute of an Overseas Collectivity." 
  5. ^ "Saint-Barth To Become An Overseas Collectivity" (PDF). St. Barth Weekly. 2007-02-09. p. 2. http://www.st-barths.com/jsb/pdf_files/weekly107.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  6. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon, Article 2, points 287 and 293". http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2007:306:0042:0133:EN:PDF. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "Nouvelle-Calédonie", Le Petit Larousse (2010), Paris, page 1559.
  8. ^ a b c d INSEE, Government of France. "Population des régions au 1er janvier". http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=99&ref_id=CMRSOS02137. Retrieved 2010-01-30.  (French)
  9. ^ Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). "Enquêtes & Répertoires > Etat Civil". http://www.ispf.pf/ISPF/EnqRep/EtatCivil.aspx. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  10. ^ (French) INSEE, Government of France. "INSEE Infos No 32" (PDF). http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee_regions/reunion/zoom/mayotte/publications/inseeinfos/pdf/insee%20infos%20n32.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  11. ^ (French) Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "CHIFFRES CLÉS - Démographie" (PDF). http://www.isee.nc/chiffresc/chiffresc.html#d%C3%A9mographie. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  12. ^ a b c INSEE, Government of France. "Populations légales 2007 pour les départements et les collectivités d'outre-mer". http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/bases-de-donnees/recensement/populations-legales/france-departements.asp?annee=2007. Retrieved 2010-01-30.  (French)
  13. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "Les populations des circonscriptions du Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna". http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=poplegalescom&page=recensement/poplegalescom/popcircwallisetfutuna.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-13.  (French)
  • Robert Aldrich and John Connell, France's Overseas Frontier, Cambridge University Press, 1992

Further reading

  • Frédéric Monera, L'idée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel - Paris : L.G.D.J., 2004 [1] [2];

External links



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