List of Neolithic cultures of China
↑ Mesolithic ↓ Chalcolithic
This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been discovered by archaeologists. They are sorted in chronological order from the earliest founding to the latest and are followed by a schematic visualization of these cultures.
List of Neolithic cultures of China
Dated English name Chinese name Modern-day location 7500 BCE – 6100 BCE Pengtoushan culture 彭頭山文化 central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan 7000 BCE – 5000 BCE Peiligang culture 裴李崗文化 Yi-Luo river basin valley in Henan 6500 BCE – 5500 BCE Houli culture 后李文化 Shandong 6200 BCE – 5400 BCE Xinglongwa culture 興隆洼文化 Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border 6000 BCE – 5500 BCE Cishan culture 磁山文化 southern Hebei 5800 BCE – 5400 BCE Dadiwan culture 大地灣文化 Gansu and western Shaanxi 5500 BCE – 4800 BCE Xinle culture 新樂文化 lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula 5400 BCE – 4500 BCE Zhaobaogou culture 趙宝溝文化 Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei 5300 BCE – 4100 BCE Beixin culture 北辛文化 Shandong 5000 BCE – 4500 BCE Hemudu culture 河姆渡文化 Yuyao and Zhoushan, Zhejiang 5000 BCE – 3000 BCE Daxi culture 大溪文化 Three Gorges region 5000 BCE – 3000 BCE Majiabang culture 馬家浜文化 Taihu Lake area and north of Hangzhou Bay 5000 BCE – 3000 BCE Yangshao culture 仰韶文化 Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi 4700 BCE – 2900 BCE Hongshan culture 紅山文化 Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Hebei 4100 BCE – 2600 BCE Dawenkou culture 大汶口文化 Shandong, Anhui, Henan, and Jiangsu 3400 BCE – 2250 BCE Liangzhu culture 良渚文化 Yangtze River Delta 3100 BCE – 2700 BCE Majiayao culture 馬家窯文化 upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai 3100 BCE – 2700 BCE Qujialing culture 屈家嶺文化 middle Yangtze River region in Hubei and Hunan 3000 BCE – 2000 BCE Longshan culture 龍山文化 central and lower Yellow River 2800 BCE – 2000 BCE Baodun culture 寶墩文化 Chengdu Plain 2500 BCE – 2000 BCE Shijiahe culture 石家河文化 middle Yangtze River region in Hubei 2100 BCE – 1500 BCE Erlitou culture 二里頭文化 Yanshi, Henan Province
These cultures are brought together schematically for the period 8500 to 1500 BCE. Neolithic cultures remain unmarked and Bronze Age cultures (from 2000 BCE) are marked with *. There are many differences in opinion by dating these cultures, so the dates chosen here are tentative:
Sichuan (7) Southeast
8500 Nanzhuangtou 8500-7700 8000 7500 7000 Pengtoushan Corded Ware (including cultures Chengbeixi (including 6500 Dadiwan Peiligang Houli and Zaoshi) Zengpiyan) Xinglongwa Laoguantai Cishan 6500-5500 7000-5800 7000-5500 6200-5400 = Baijia Jiahu 6000 6500-5000 Lijiacun Kuahuqiao 6500-5000 6000-5000 5500 Beixin Xinle 5300-4500 5000 5300-4800 Yangshao Hemudu Daxi Dapenkeng 5000-3000 5000-3400 5000-3300 Fuguodun Majiabang 5000-3000 4500 Zhaobaogou 5000-4000 4500-4000 Dawenkou Songze 4300-2600 4000-3000 4000 3500 Qujialing Hongshan 3500-2600 Yingpanshan (incl. Fuhe) Majiayao Liangzhu ca 3100? 3000 3400-2300 3300-2700 3200-1800 Tanishan Banshan *Henan- Shijiahe Baodun Shixia 2700-2400 Longshan *Shandong- 2500-2000 2800-2000 Nianyuzhuan 2500 Machang 2800-2000 Longshan Qinglongquan Qinglongquan 2400-2000 2600-2000 = (Hubei- Hedang Baiyangcun *Qijia Longshan) 3000-.... 2200-2100 2000 *Xiajiadian 2300-1800 2400-2000 Dalongtan 2000-300 *Erlitou *Yueshi 2100-2000 *Siba 1900-1500 1900-1500 *Maqiao 1500 1950-1500 Xia
1800-1200 *Chang Jiang
For this schematic outline of its neolithic cultures China has been divided into the following nine parts:
- Northeast China: Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.
- Northwest China (Upper Yellow River): Gansu, Qinghai and western part of Shaanxi.
- North-central China (Middle Yellow River): Shanxi, Hebei, western part of Henan and eastern part of Shaanxi. This is called the North China Plain, until recently seen as where Chinese civilization originated from and spread out along the country.
- Eastern China (lower Yellow River): Shandong, Anhui, northern part of Jiangsu and eastern part Henan.
- East-south-eastern China (lower Yangtze): Zhejiang and biggest part of Jiangsu.
- South-central China (middle Yangtze): Hubei and northern part of Hunan.
- Sichuan and upper Yangtze.
- Southeast China: Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, southern part of Hunan, lower Red River in the northern part of Vietnam and the island of Taiwan.
- Southwest China: Yunnan and Guizhou.
- Chang Kwang-chih, The Archaeology of Ancient China, Yale University Press: New Haven, 1986 (Fourth Edition Revised and Enlarged), ISBN 0-300-03784-8.
- Loewe, Michael en Edward L. Shaughnessy (ed.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China. From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0-521-47030-7.
- Higham, Charles, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1996, ISBN 0-521-49660-8.
- Li Liu,The Chinese Neolithic. Trajectories to Early States, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2004, ISBN 0-521-81184-8.
- Maisels, Charles Keith, Early Civilizations of the Old World. The Formative Histories of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China, Routledge: Londen 1999, ISBN 0-415-10976-0.
- Scarre, Chris (ed.), The Human Past. World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies, Thames & Hudson: Londen 2005, ISBN 0-500-28531-4.
- chapter 7, Higham, Charles, 'East Asian Agriculture and Its Impact', p.234-264.
- chapter 15,Higham, Charles, 'Complex Societies of East and Southeast Asia', p.552-594
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