Harare

Infobox Settlement
official_name =Harare, Zimbabwe
other_name =
native_name =
nickname =H Town
settlement_type =City
motto =Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu "(Forward with Service to the People)"
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image_caption =Harare, Zimbabwe from the Kopje



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image_shield =Coat of arms of Harare.svg
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mapsize =150px
map_caption =Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare.


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subdivision_type =Country
subdivision_name =Zimbabwe
subdivision_type1 =Province
subdivision_name1 =Harare
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 =
subdivision_type3 =
subdivision_name3 =
subdivision_type4 =
subdivision_name4 =
government_footnotes =
government_type =
leader_title =Mayor
leader_name =Muchadeyi Masunda
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
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established_title =Founded
established_date =1890
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =Incorporated (city)
established_date3 =1935
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population_as_of =2006
population_footnotes =
population_note =estimated
population_total =1600000
population_density_km2 =
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population_urban =2800111
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timezone=CAT
utc_offset=+2
timezone_DST=CEST
utc_offset_DST=+1
latd= 17|latm=51 |lats=50|latNS=S
longd= 31|longm= 1|longs=47|longEW=E
elevation_footnotes = [ Google Earth ]
elevation_m =1490
elevation_ft =
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twin1 =Nottingham
twin1_country =United Kingdom
twin2 =Munich
twin2_country =Germany
twin3 =Cincinnati
twin3_country =United States
twin4 =Prato
twin4_country =Italy
twin5 =Lago
twin5_country =Italy
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website =http://www.hararecity.co.zw
footnotes =
Harare (pronEng|həˈrɑreɪ or IPA|/həˈrɑri/, formerly Salisbury) is the capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,600,000, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area (2006). Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its administrative, commercial, and communications centre. The city is a trade centre for tobacco, maize, cotton, and citrus fruits. Manufactures include textiles, steel, and chemicals, and gold is mined in the area. Harare is situated at an elevation of 1483 metres (4865 feet) and its climate falls into the warm temperate category.

Harare is the site of the University of Zimbabwe, the largest and most complete institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe, which is situated about 5km north of the city. Numerous suburbs surround the city, retaining the names colonial administrators gave them during the 19th century, such as Warren Park 'D', Borrowdale, Mount Pleasant, Marlborough, Tynwald and Avondale.

History

Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city in 1890 as a fort. They originally named the city Fort Salisbury after the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, then British prime minister, and it subsequently became known simply as Salisbury. It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935. Salisbury was the capital of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. After that point, it was the capital of Southern Rhodesia. The government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia independent of Great Britain on November 11, 1965, and proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently, the nation became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia; it was not until April 18, 1980, that the country was internationally recognized as independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe. The capital city retained the name Salisbury until 1982.

The name of the city was changed to Harare on April 18, 1982, the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence, taking its name from the Shona chieftain Neharawa. It is also said the name derived from the European corruption of "Haarari" ("He does not sleep"), the epithet of the chief whose citadel was located in the area known today as the Kopje (pronounced "Koppie"). It was said that no enemy could ever launch a sneak attack on him. Prior to independence, "Harare" was the name of the Black residential area now known as Mbare.

The area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained and earliest development was on sloping ground along the left bank of a stream that is now the course of a trunk road (Julius Nyerere Way). The first area to be fully drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result. This area is now the site of many of the most important Government buildings, including the Senate House and the Office of the Prime Minister (now renamed for the use of President Mugabe after the position was abolished in January 1988.) [Journal of Frederick Courtney Selous, Rhodesiana Reprint Library, Salisbury, 1969]

Climate

Harare has a pleasant and healthy climate. The average annual temperature is 17.95°C, rather low for the tropics, and this is due to its high altitude position and the prevalence of a cool south-easterly airflow. [Average for years 1965-1995, Goddard Institute of Space Studies World Climate database] There are three main seasons - a warm, wet season from November to March/April; a cool, dry season from May to August (corresponding to the Southern Hemisphere winter); and a hot, dry season in September/October. Daily temperature ranges are about 7°C to 20°C in July (coldest month), about 13°C to 28°C in October (hottest month) and about 15.5°C to 25°C in January (midsummer). The hottest year on record was 1914 - 19.73°C - and the coldest year was 1965 - 17.13°C.The average annual rainfall is about 825mm in the south-west rising to 855mm on the higher land in the north-east (around Borrowdale to Glen Lorne). Very little rain usually falls during the period May to September although sporadic showers occur in most years. Rainfall varies a great deal from year to year and follows cycles of wet and dry periods that are from 7 to 10 years long. Records begin in October 1890 but all three Harare stations stopped reporting in early 2004. [Global Historic Climate Network database NGDC]

The climate supports a natural vegetation of open woodland. The most common tree of the local region is the Msasa Brachystegia spiciformis that colours the landscape wine-red with its new leaves in late August. An introduced tree that contributes most to the town's atmosphere is the Jacaranda (a South American species) that produces a burst of lilac when it blooms in September.

uburbs

These are some of the suburbs of Harare.

Notable landmarks and institutions

*CBZ Holdings
*Cairns Holdings
*Data Control & Systems
*Dynamos F.C.
*Gwanzura
*44 Harvest House
*Mbare Musika
*Mushandirapamwe Hotel
*National Gallery of Zimbabwe
*Net*One
*Parirenyatwa Hospital
*Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe
*Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Harare
*Rufaro Stadium
*Sam Nujoma Street
*St. John's College, Harare
*University of Zimbabwe
*Queen Victoria Museum
*Zimbabwe Stock Exchange
*Zimbabwe grounds
*Zimbabwe Museum of Human Sciences

International Venue

Harare has been the location of several international summits such as the 8th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (6 September 1986) and Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (1991). The latter produced the Harare Declaration, dictating the membership criteria of the Commonwealth. In 1995, Harare hosted most of the 6th All-Africa Games, sharing the event with other Zimbabwean cities such as Bulawayo and Chitungwiza.

Transport

The public transport system of buses, run by
ZUPCO has crumbled in recent years.Instead there has been a proliferation of privatelyowned companies that operate commuter omnibuses.With the advent of the fuel crisis in the country,the government introduced commuter trains in orderto ease transport shortages.

Harare International Airport serves Harare. The National Railways of Zimbabwe, NRZ operate adaily overnight passenger train service that runs fromHarare to Mutare and another one from Harare to Bulawayo.

News & information

Residents are exposed to a variety of sources for information, though almost all of their sources are controlled by the government. In the print media, there is the Herald, Financial Gazette, Independent, Standard, and Kwayedza. Since there has been an explosion of online media outlets. These include ZimOnline, ZimDaily, Guardian, NewZimbabwe, Times, Harare Tribune, Zimbabwe Metro and many others. The government controls all the electronic media, though Voice of America, Voice of the people and SW Radio Africa beam broadcasts into the country occasionally.

Recent developments

In the early 21st century Harare has been adversely affected by the political and economic crisis that is currently plaguing Zimbabwe, after the contested 2002 presidential election and 2005 parliamentary elections. The elected council was replaced by a government-appointed commission for alleged inefficiency, but essential services such as rubbish collection and street repairs have rapidly worsened, and are now virtually non-existent. In May 2006 the Zimbabwean newspaper the "Financial Gazette", described the city in an editorial as a "sunshine city-turned-sewage farm". ["Financial Gazette" editorial of 17 May 2006 "Zimbabwe: It's Chombo's Fault" [http://www.zimbabwesituation.com/may19_2006.html#Z13] ]

In May 2005 the Zimbabwean government demolished shantytowns in Harare and the other cities in the country in Operation Murambatsvina (Operation "Drive Out Trash"). This caused a sharp reaction in the international community because it took place without prior warning and no advance plans were made to provide alternative housing. It was widely alleged that the true purpose of the campaign was to punish the urban poor for supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change and to reduce the likelihood of mass action against the government by driving people out of the cities. The government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of criminality and disease.

This was followed by Operation Chikerema (Operation "Better Living") a year later which consisted of building concrete housing. Critics however, stated that these were inadequate citing the lack of electricity, plumbing or other infrastructure in poorly accessible areas.

ister cities

*flagicon|United Kingdom Nottingham, United Kingdom
*flagicon|Germany Munich, Germany
*flagicon|United States Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (Suspended in protest of recent election.) [ [http://news.cincinnati.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080628/NEWS0108/806280357/1169/NEWS Mallory cuts off Zimbabwe sister city | Cincinnati Enquirer | Cincinnati.Com ] ]
*flagicon|Italy Prato, Italy
*flagicon|Italy Lago, Italy

Image gallery

ee also

*
*Place names in Zimbabwe
*Provinces of Zimbabwe
*Districts of Zimbabwe

References

External links

* [http://www.hararecity.co.zw Official website]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Harare — Harare …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Harare — Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • HARARE — HARARE, Zimbabwe Capitale du Zimbabwe, Harare est l’ancienne Salisbury (capitale de l’ancienne Rhodésie du Sud). La ville avait une population estimée à 1 185 000 habitants en 1992. Salisbury a été fondée par un groupe de pionniers en 1890; elle… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Harare — (antigua Salisbury), con una población estimada en 1992 de 1.485.615 habitantes, es la capital de Zimbabue. Es la mayor ciudad del país y su centro administrativo, comercial y de comunicaciones. Es un centro de intercambio de tabaco, maíz,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hararė — Harãrė dkt. Po šių̃ atóstogų susižavėjau Hararè …   Bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodyno antraštynas

  • Haráre — m (do 1980. Salisbury), glavni grad Zimbabvea …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

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  • Harare — [hä rä′rē] capital of Zimbabwe, in the NE part: pop. 1,184,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Harare —  Cet article traite de la capitale du Zimbabwe, à ne pas confondre avec la cité éthiopienne, voir Harar 17° 51′ 50″ S 31° 01′ 47″  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Harare — /heuh rahr ay/, n. a city in and the capital of Zimbabwe, in the NE part. 675,000. Formerly, Salisbury. * * * I formerly Salisbury City (pop., 1999 est.: 1,686,000), capital of Zimbabwe. Located in northeastern Zimbabwe, it was founded as… …   Universalium


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