Kozhikode


Kozhikode

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Kozhikode | type = city | latd = 11.25 | longd = 75.77
locator_position = right | state_name = Kerala
district = Kozhikode
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = M. Bhaskaran
altitude = 1
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 436,556| population_density =
metro_population = 880,247
area_magnitude= sq. km
area_total =
area_telephone =
postal_code =673001
vehicle_code_range =KL 11
sex_ratio =
unlocode =
website = kozhikode.nic.in
footnotes =

:"For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District."

Kozhikode audio|Kozhikode.ogg|pronunciation in (Malayalam കോഴിക്കോട് ; IPA2|ko:ɹikko:ɖ), also known as Calicut, is a city in the southern Indian state of Kerala. It is the third largest city in Kerala and the headquarters of Kozhikode district. Kozhikode was once the capital of an independent kingdom, and later of the erstwhile Malabar District.

Kozhikode has a population of 436,556 as per 2001 census, with an extended metropolitan population of about 0.9 million, making it the third largest urban agglomeration and the third largest city in Kerala. According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences, earnings and investments, Kozhikode ranked as the second best city in India to reside in. Indicus considered six parameters -- health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment—for preparing their 'reside-in' index of livability. [ [http://www.ibnlive.com/news/best-cities-to-live-invest-and-earn-in/53060-7.html Best cities to live, invest and earn in] ]

Name

The name Kozhikode is derived from koyil (Palace) Kodu (Fortified) and Calicut is the anglicized version of Kozhikode. Traditionally Calicut was a world famous port for trading and it has a long time relationship with the Arabian peninsula. The place surrounded by the fort was known as Koyil (palace) Kotta (fort) and hence the name of the place became Kozhikode. Foreigners called it by different names: for Arabs it was Kalikat, for Chinese it was Kalifo, while the city is known to the outside world by its European name. Tipu Sultan, during the conquest of Malabar, unsuccessfully attempted to change the name of the city to Ferozabad.

History

The ports of the Malabar Coast have participated in the Indian Ocean trade in spices, silk, and other goods for over two millennia. There are documented visits in as early as the 14th century, by Chinese travellers such as Zheng He [Ma Huan: Ying Yai Sheng Lan, "The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores", translated by J.V.G. Mills, 1970 Hakluyt Society, reprint 1997 White Lotus Press. ISBN 974-8496-78-3] . Kozhikode had emerged as the centre of an independent kingdom by the 14th century, whose ruler was known as the Samoothirippadu (often anglicised as Zamorin). Thus Calicut came to be called the "City of Zamorins"

In the year 1498 Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad, about 25 km from Calicut city. This was a major event in the era of European Discoveries, because the discovery of the sea route from Europe to India gave the Portuguese a significant advantage in the control of international trade that lasted for almost a century.

During the 16th century, the Portuguese set up trading posts to the north in Kannur and to the south in Kochi, but the Zamorin resisted the establishment of a permanent Portuguese presence in the city. In 1509 though, the kingdom was forced to accept a Portuguese trading post in Chaliyar Fact|date=February 2007. In 1604 the Samoothirippadu allied with Steven van der Hagen, representing the VOC and by the mid-17th century the Dutch had captured the Malabar Coast spice trade from the Portuguese. In 1766 Hyder Ali of Mysore captured Kozhikode and much of the northern Malabar Coast and came into conflict with the British based in Madras, which resulted in four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Kozhikode and the surrounding districts were among the territories ceded to the British by Tipu Sultan of Mysore at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Mysore War in 1792. The newly acquired possessions on the Malabar Coast were organized into the Malabar District of Madras Presidency, and Calicut became the district capital.

After Indian Independence in 1947, Madras Presidency became the Madras State. In 1956, the Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines. Malabar District was combined with the state of Travancore-Cochin to form the new state of Kerala on November 1 1956. Malabar District was split into the districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad on January 1 1957.

In 1971 Kozhikode had a population of 333,980. ["Encyclopedia Britannica", 1982 edition, Vol. V, p. 907]

Geography

Kozhikode is located at coord|11.25|N|75.77|E| [ [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/13/Kozhikode.html Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kozhikode] ] . It has an average elevation of 1 metre (3 feet).There are many number of rivers and lakes in the district.
Chaliyar puzha, Kallayi Puzha, Korapuzha, Poonoor puzha, and Iravanjhi puzha are some amongst them.

Calicut, is the most important coastal city of Malabar the north region of state of Kerala. It was a leading trading centre for spices on the West Coast of India during the medieval period. Ruled by the Zamorin dynasty, Calicut found a place in World History with the discovery of sea route to India in 1498 by the Portuguese navigator Vasco Da Gama. He landed at Kappad a coastal fishing village and history was changed with the political scanario of India ultimately ending with its colonization by the British. It remained under the Madras Presidency till the formation of Kerala in 1956 after independence.

Once was the dominant international centre of textile manufacture, cotton spinning and textile trade Centre.The famous Calico cloth name is derived from the name of the city of Calicut. It is used a lot in soft furnishing. It has been made by the traditional weavers of calicut called 'chaliyans.'

Calico had originated in Calicut by the 11th century and found mention in Indian literature by the 12th when writer Hemacandra mentioned calico fabric prints done in a lotus design. [2] The Indian textile merchants traded in calico with the Africans by the 15th century—when calico fabrics from Gujarat made its appearance in Egypt. [2] Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. [2] Within India, calico originated in Calicut. [2]

During the Sangam period, the Calicut District formed part of the Chera Empire. It played a leading part in fostering trade relations between Kerala and outside world. Tondi, the present Kadalundi as per scholars, was one of the most flourishing seaports of Kerala that time. Again nothing is known in the post-sangam age which is considered to be the Dark Age in South India's history. In the 9th century, Calicut became a part of the Second Chera Empire. The Chera's also known as Perumals, ruled the territory till 1122 AD. With the fall of Cheras, the kingdom was divided into many independent districts called "Nadus" such as Ernad and Polanad. Originally Calicut area was under the Porlarthris, rulers of Polanad. It became an important town in 13th century with the conquest of Polanad by the King of Ernad.

The Udaiyavar of Ernad, whose headquarters was at Nediyiruppu wanted an outlet to the sea and after fighting with the Polatthiri King for 48 long years conquered the area around Ponniankara and build a fort at a place called Velapuram. Thus the city of Calicut came into existence sometime in the 13th century AD. With the accession of Calicut, the status of Nediyirippu increased and he come to known as Swami Nambiyathiri Thirumulpad, which gradually became Samuri or Samuthiri over the years. The Europeans called him Zamorin. The place surrounded by the fort was known as Koyil (palace) Kotta (fort) and hence the name of the place became Kozhikode. Foreigners called it by different names, for Arabs it was Kalikat, for Chinese it was Kalifo while the city is known to outside world by its European name - Calicut. Interestingly, the name Calicut is derived from "calico", the fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth said to have originated from this place, which was then an important manufacture. Kozhikode passed to British rule in 1792.

Economy

The economy of Kozhikode is mainly depended upon agriculture. Many peoples are employed in fishing. The industrial sector of Kozhikode has vanished with the closing of a large-scale industry at Mavoor.

The service sector of Kozhikode is showing a rapid growth. The trade at Kozhikode which was once renowned to the world has slowly started again. Kozhikode's economy is also growing because of the rapid growth in the real estate sector in the recent years. The business at Calicut has shown a good growth with the opening of a shopping mall in Calicut.

Climate

The district has a generally humid climate with a very hot season extending from March to May. The main rainy season is during the South West Monsoon, which sets in the first week of June and extends up to September. The North East Monsoon extends from the second half of October through November. The average annual rainfall is 3266 mm. The best weather is found towards the end of the year, in December and January—the skies are clear, and the air is crisp. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C in March 1975. The lowest was 14 °C recorded on 26 December 1975.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census [GR|India] , Kozhikode had a population of 436,530.Sex ratio : Females/1000 - 1,057. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kozhikode has an average literacy rate of 92.24%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 96.11%, and female literacy is 88.62%. In Kozhikode, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

People

Kozhikode has been a multiethnic and multi-religious town since the early medieval period, as it was an important trading port in the Indian ocean.
Hindus form the largest community, followed by Muslims and Christians respectively. [ [http://www.kkd.kerala.gov.in/generel.htm Official Website of Kozhikode] ]

The Hindu community is organized on the basis of caste and sub castes as elsewhere in the State. They worship all the major Gods and Goddesses of the Hindu pantheon as well as several minor deities. Vishnu and Siva are the major Gods worshipped. The temples are in many respects different from those of the East Coast. Elaborate rules prescribed by the Sastras are followed in their construction. The Kavu dedicated to the Bhadrakali is a typical example. They have their own oracles called Velichappad. There are also temples devoted to such deities as Ayyappan, Hanuman and Garuda. Serpent worship has been widely prevalent here. Ancestor worship is also practised by the Hindus. [ [http://www.kkd.kerala.gov.in/generel.htm Official Website of Kozhikode] ]

Muslims of Kozhikode are known as Mappilas. The great majority of them are Sunnis following the Shafi school of thought and are known as Mappilas. [ [http://www.kkd.kerala.gov.in/generel.htm Official Website of Kozhikode] ] There are also some smaller communities among the Muslims such as Dawoodi Bohras. [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/2006/05/19/stories/2006051916410400.htm 'Bohras in Calicut'] ] .

Many of the Muslims living in the historic part of the city follow Matriliny. In fact, Mappila is a Dravidian word, meaning a newly-wed husband coming to his wife's house. The argument is that the infant Muslim community in Malabar adopted it as a convenient arrangement that they were familiar with, owing to the increasing number of marriages between West Asian traders who visited the area for business and Malabar women belonging to trading families. [ [http://www.thehindu.com/2007/02/13/stories/2007021310100300.htm The Hindu : Kerala / Kozhikode News: "Let matrilineal system continue"] ]

Media

Kozhikode occupies a prominent place in the history of Malayalam journalism. The origin of journalism in this district can be traced back to 1880. The "Kerala Pathrika" is likely to be the earliest newspaper published from Kozhikode. "Keralam", "Kerala Sanchari" and "Bharath Vilasam" are among the other newspapers that were published from Kozhikode before 1893. Kozhikode is the birth place of one of the top Malayalam dailies "Mathrubhumi".

Many prominent writers of Malayalam literature are from this city. Among them are M T Vasudevan Nair, S K Pottekkadu and Thikkodian.

The Kozhikode station of All India Radio was commissioned on 14 May 1950. It has two transmitters, Kozhikode AM of 100 kilowatt power and Kozhikode FM (Vividh Bharathi) of 10 kilowatt power. A television transmitter has been functioning in Kozhikode from 3 July 1984, relaying programmes from Delhi and Thiruvananthapuram Doordarshan.

Private FM radio stations

*91.9 Radio Mango (Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd)
*93.5 S Fm (SUN Network)
*94.3 Club Fm

Air FM Radio Stations

*Kozhikode - 103.6

Air AM/MW Radio Stations

*Kozhikode - 684

Places of interest

Kozhikode Beach

The beauty and serenity of Kozhikode beach is not yet exploited to develop it into a tourist center. Still people from all around gather here to enjoy the sunset and it is a popular retreat for local people. Two sea piers almost 125 years old extending well inside the sea are a specialty. Lion’s club, children’s park make the evenings pleasant for visiting families. Fishermen with their small rowing boats entering the sea, fighting the waves and returning with varieties of fish are worth watching.

Mananchira Square

Mananchira is the heart of the city and sites important institutions like the Town Hall and the Public Library. One of Kozhikode's oldest institutions, the Commonwealth Trust's office is located here. The large pond and park are well-known landmarks. Once the main courtyard of the Zamorin Rulers palace, Mananchira Square has developed into a beautiful park. Temples, mosques and churches surround the square along with numerous traditional Kerala houses and a large water reservoir nearby.

The nearby Tagore and Ansari parks, and the large maidanam (grounds) have been fused together into one mananchira squareThe maidanam has now a green carpet lawn and the whole complex is circled by a laterite (a kind of stone) sculpted wall. The entire complex is circled by 250 lamp posts that are designed in the colonial style.Mananchira Square also has an artificial stream, a musical fountain, an open-air theater and a music stage.

Kappad Beach

On 27th May 1498, Vasco Da Gama landed in Kappad Beach (Also known as Kappakkadavu) with three vessels and 170 men. If you travel 16 km north of Kozhikode by Kannur road, a small road from Tiruvangoor will guide you to this beach of historical importance. A monument is here to commemorate the historical landing. An ancient temple on a hillock, facing the deep sea, is an added attraction.

Beypore

Beypore is a port city situated 10 km south of Calicut at the mouth of chaliyar river. Beypore is famous for its ancient shipbuilding industry, which constructed "uru", the traditional trading vessels of Arabs. The place was formerly known as Vaypura and Vadaparappanad. Tippu Sultan named the town “Sultan Pattanam”. It is one of the important ports of Kerala and naturally, an important trading centre. It is the major fishing harbour of Kerala. There are two man-made extensions to the sea to facilitate easy access for fishing boats. This is an ideal place for an outing. The 2 km break-water made of stone is another attraction.

Vadakara

This ancient place is now the headquarters of the taluk as well as the municipality of that name. There is a ruined fort in the town. Vadakara was the scene of many exploits of 'Thacholi Othenan', the hero of the ballads of north Malabar (Vadakkan Pattukal). Five km. South-East of Vadakara in Memunda amsom, is the Lokanarkavu which has three rock-cut caves in its vicinity. Annual ceremonies are conducted in memory of Othenan, whose birth place is Manikkoth near Meppayil. Vadakara (Vadakkekara) is so called because of its location just north (Vadakku) of Kotta river. Sri Arakkal Kadappurath Baghavathy Temple is also one of the famous Temple situated at Madappally neer vatakara.

Other places

* Art gallery and Krishna Menon Museum at East Hill in Kozhikode
* Lalitha Kala Academy: An art gallery adjacent to the Kozhikode town hall
* Planetarium
* Thusharagiri: A waterfall situated about 55 km from Calicut Railway Station
* Kozhippara waterfalls is located at the eastern side of the district and offers a good trekking experience.
* Pavayil Cheerpu-a wonder land
* Peruvannamuzhi [http://peruvannamuzhi.tripod.com/] ,Dam site, Boat service, Bird sanctuary and Crocodile sanctuary
* Kakkayam : Dam Site, Hydro-electrical Project, famous for trekking
* Purakkattiri, 10 km from city, famous for house boats

Major places of worship in Kozhikode

Temples

*Tali Mahadeva Temple
*Tali Sree MahaGanapathy BalaSubramanian Temple.
* [http://www.sreevalayanddevi.org Sree Valayanad Devi Temple] Govindapuram
* Sreekandeswara Temple
* Azhakodi Devi Temple
* Thiruvachira Temple, Thiruvachira, 6 Kilometers from City.
* Lokanar kaavu, Vadakara.
* Sree Durgadevi Temple, Poyilkave, Quilandy.
* Pishari kaavu, Quilandy.

Mosques

* Palayam Pattala Palli
* Miskal Mosque [ [http://www.thehindu.com/2007/10/15/stories/2007101573970400.htm The Hindu : Kerala / Kozhikode News : Documenting Kozhikode’s rich tradition ] ]
* Muchundipalli [ [http://www.thehindu.com/2007/10/15/stories/2007101573970400.htm The Hindu : Kerala / Kozhikode News : Documenting Kozhikode’s rich tradition ] ]

Churches

* St.Mary's Church, Nadakkavu [ [http://www.indiatravelite.com/calicut/calicutpilgrimage.htm 'Places of worship'] ]
* Mother of God Church [ [http://www.indiatravelite.com/calicut/calicutpilgrimage.htm 'Places of worship'] ]

Culture

In the field of Malayalam language and literature, Kozhikode has made many significant contributions. The district is famous for folk songs or ballads known as "Vadakkan Pattukal". The most popular songs among them are those which celebrate the exploits of Thacholi Othenan. One of the favourite past times of the Muslims of the district is singing Mappila pattu and Oppana. The songs are composed in a composite language of Arabic and Malayalam. The famous intellectual debate for Vedic scholars to win the coveted position of Pattathanam takes place at Thali temple during the month of Thulam. Kozhikode also has strong associations with ghazals and football.

The city also has a strong mercantile streak to it. The main area of business was once the "Valiyangadi" (Big Bazaar) near the Calicut railway station and as time progressed it shifted to other parts of the city. Now the major vein of commerce is the "Mittai Theruvu", a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from saris to cosmetics, and house restaurants to sweetmeat shops. The name "Mithai Theruvu" or "S M Street" comes from the famous "Kozhikode Halwa" which was often called the Sweet Meat by European traders. The multicultural mix of Kozhikode ensures that Onam, Christmas and Id-ul-Fitr (the festivals of the Hindus, Christians and Muslims) are celebrated with equal pomp.

Cuisine

Kozhikode offers fare for every palate. Vegetarian fare includes the sadya. However, the non-vegetarian food offered in the city is a unique mix of Muslim and Hindu preparations. Some popular dishes include the Biriyani, Ghee Rice with meat curry, sea-food (prawns, mussels, mackerel) and paper thin "Pathiri"s to provide accompaniment to spicy gravy. Another well known Kozhikode specialty is banana chips, which are made crisp and wafer thin. The 'Kozhikode Halwa' is very popular, even overseas.

Educational institutions

Kozhikode is home to two of the premier educational institutions in the country; the IIMK, one of the seven Indian Institutes of Management, and the only National Institute of Technology in Kerala, the NITC.

Some of the other major government institutes in Kozhikode are

*The Calicut Medical College

*The Homeopathic Medical College

*Center for Water Resource Development Management (CWRDM), Kunnamangalam

*Govt. Arts and Science College, Meenchantha

*Indian Spices Research Institute

*Kerala School of Mathematics

*Govt. Polytechnic, West Hill
[http://http://geckkd.ac.in/alumni/index.html]
*Govt. Engineering College, West Hill

Notables

Literature

* N. V. Krishna Warrier - Writer
* S.K. Pottekkatt - Writer
* M.T. Vasudevan Nair - Writer
* Vaikom Muhammad Basheer - Writer
* Thikkodiyan - Writer
* Sanjayan - Satirist
* U.A. Khader - Writer
* N.P. Muhammad - Writer
* N.N. Kakkad - Writer
* A.P.P. Namboodiri - Writer
* Uroob- Writer
* K.T. Mohammed - Dramatist
* P. Valsala - Writer
* [http://www.arsiyer.co.uk ARS Iyer] - Writer
* Dr. M. M. Basheer - Writer and Literary Critic

Politics

* V.K. Krishna Menon - Diplomat
* K. Kelappan - Freedom Fighter
* K.P. Kesava Menon - Social Leader
* C.H. Mohammed Koya- Politician
* P. Kuttikrishanan Nair - Mayor

Entertainment

* P.V. Gangadharan - Eminent film producer
* Balan K. Nair - Cine Actor
* Girish Puthenchery - Lyricist
* I.V. Sasi - Film director
* Hariharan - Film director
* T. Damodharan - Film script writer
* K.P. Ummer - Cine actor
* Sudheesh - Cine Actor
* Kaithapram Damodaran Namboothiri - Lyricist
* Kozhikode Abdul Kader - Playback singer
* Kuthiravattam Pappu - Actor
* M.S. Baburaj - Music director
* Mamukkoya - Cine actor
* P.M. Taj - Dramatist
* Chemancheri Kunjiraman Nair - Kathakali artist

Science and Technology

* Achyuthan A - Scientist
* Vipin Gopal - Scientist/NRI Leader

Business

* P.V. Chandran - Managing Partner - KTC Group
* V.K.C Mammed Koya - Chairman - VKC Group

Sports

* Olympian Abdurahiman - Football player
* P.T. Usha - Athlete turned Coach

Art

* Paul Kallanode - Painter
* Namboothiri - Illusrator
* M.V. Devan - painter, sculptor

Trivia

*The name Calico is derived from the name of the city of Calicut. It is a type of cotton that is used a lot in soft furnishing. It was one of the first export commodities to the European nations. Calico was made by the traditional weavers of calicut called 'chaliyans'.
*Peruvayal panchayat is the largest panchayat in Calicut district. Pantheerankave is one of the known place in Kozhikode

External links

* [http://kozhikode.nic.in Kozhikode District official website]
* [http://www.nitc.ac.in/nitc/layout_specific/sp/main/about_us/location/map.jpgCalicut (Kozhikode) City Map]
* [http://www.india-world.net/op-ed/portuguese.htm Massacre by the Portuguese Forces in Calicut]

References


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