Haud (or Hawd) is a region of thorn-bush and grasslands in the
Horn of Africa, which includes the northeastern part of the Ogadenterritory of Ethiopia, as well the adjacent parts of Somalia. The Haud is of indeterminate extent; some authorities consider it denotes the part of Ethiopia east of the city of Harar. I.M. Lewis provides a much more detailed description, indicating that it reaches south from the foothills of the Golia and Ogo mountains. "The northern and eastern tips lie within the Somali Republic, while the western and southern portions (the later merging with the Ogaden plateau) form part of the Harari Province of Ethiopia." [I.M. Lewis, "A Modern History of the Somali", fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), pp. 2f] For decades following the Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1941 it (as well as the entire Ogaden) has been an area of conflict and controversy.
The British exerted control of the Ogaden beginning in 1941 as part of the
Anglo-Ethiopian Agreementin order to help rebuild Ethiopia. The British administered the Haud as part of their adjacent colony of British Somaliland; even though Ethiopian sovereignty was still recognized in the area. Even after Great Britainremoved itself from the rest of Ethiopia, it retained a military presence in the Haud until 1954. Afterwards the British stressed the area's importance by requiring the Ethiopians to allow Somali tribes free access to grazing lands in the Haud. The British signed a treaty with Ethiopia for this purpose. The precise location of the boundary between Ethiopia and neighboring Italian Somalilandwas disputed, which further complicated the issue. Despite UN efforts to promote an agreement, none was reached during the 1950s.
In 1960 when
Somalia(British and Italian Somaliland as one nation) gained its independence it refused to recognize any pre-1960 treaties defining the Somali-Ethiopian borders. Somalia's government did not want to indirectly recognize any Ethiopian sovereignty over the area. The Haud continued to be used by traditional herdsmen. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s frequent border hostilities took place between the two countries, culminating in the 1977-78 Ogaden Warwhich ended in defeat for Somalia. Although a truce was called following this war, sporadic violence continued in the Ogaden and Haud. This involved the Ethiopian military and police and armed traditional Somali herdsmen in this area, and sometimes the Somali military along the border.
* Theodore M. Vestal, "Consequences of the British Occupation of Ethiopia During World War II".
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haud — haud; up·haud; … English syllables
HAUD — i. e. lignum, Arabibus absolute dicitur aroma, quod ξύλοχον vel ξυλοχία Graecis, cum agallocho seu xylaloe minime confundendum: de quo vide Salmas. ad Solin. p. 1054. et 1055. nec non infra Tarum … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Haud — Karte Ogadens bzw. der heutigen Somali Region mit Haud Haud oder Hawd bezeichnet den nordöstlichen Teil des heute äthiopischen Ogaden (Region Somali), östlich der Stadt Harar. Das nicht genau abgegrenzte Gebiet umfasst eine Fläche von etwa 64.750 … Deutsch Wikipedia
haud — ˈhȯd chiefly Scotland variant of hold * * * haud /höd/ noun and verb (pap huddˈen) a Scottish form of ↑hold1 * * * haud «hd», transitive verb, intransitive verb, noun. Scottish. hold1. * * * haud Sc. form of … Useful english dictionary
haud — I Scottish Vernacular Dictionary HoldHaud oan a meenit, or ah ll panel yerr coupon II North Country (Newcastle) Words hold: had your tongue , tack haud … English dialects glossary
haud — hold, stay ; haud your hand. N … A glossary of provincial and local words used in England
hauḍ — हौड् … Indonesian dictionary
haud dubius — index infallible, undeniable, undisputed Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
haud one's wheesht — hold one s whisht or (Scot) haud one s wheesht To remain silent • • • Main Entry: ↑whisht … Useful english dictionary
Haud est virile terga fortunae dare. — См. Крепость и волю дарует борьба … Большой толково-фразеологический словарь Михельсона (оригинальная орфография)