AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon

The AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) is the product of a joint venture between the United States Navy and Air Force to deploy a standardized medium range precision guided weapon, especially for engagement of defended targets at ranges outside that of standard anti-aircraft defenses, thereby increasing aircraft survivability and minimizing friendly losses.

Development information

The AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon or JSOW is currently in the fleet and in use by the US Navy. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) cases have been signed with Poland and Turkey for use with their F-16 fighters. Finland, Greece and Singapore are pursuing FMS cases at this time. [ [http://www.dsca.osd.mil/PressReleases/36-b/2008/Finland_08-85.pdf] ] [ [http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/micro_stories.pl?ACCT=149999&TICK=RTN&STORY=/www/story/04-06-2006/0004335407&EDATE=Apr+6,+2006 Raytheon Makes First International Joint Standoff Weapon Sale to Turkey - Raytheon press release] ] The AGM-154 is intended to provide a low cost, highly lethal glide weapon with a standoff capability. The JSOW family of air-to-surface glide weapons are 1,000 lb (450 kg) class weapons that provide standoff capabilities from 15 nautical miles (28 km) low altitude launch and up to 60 nautical miles (111 km) high altitude launch. The JSOW can be used against a variety of land targets and operates from ranges outside enemy point defenses. The JSOW is a launch and leave weapon that employs a tightly coupled Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS), and is capable of day/night and adverse weather operations. The AGM-154A (JSOW A) uses GPS/INS for terminal guidance, while the AGM-154C (JSOW C) uses a infra-red seeker for terminal guidance.

The JSOW is just over 160 inches (4.1 m) in length and weighs about 1000 pounds (483 kg). The JSOW was originally to be delivered in three variants, each of which uses a common air vehicle, or truck, while substituting various payloads. The AGM-154A (JSOW-A) entered service in 1999. The US Navy and Air Force developed the AGM-154B (JSOW B) up until Multi-Service Operational Test & Evaluation (MOT&E) but the Navy decided not to procure the weapon when the Air Force left the program. The AGM-154C (JSOW BROACH) entered service in February 2005.

During the 1990s JSOW was considered to be one of the most successful development programs in DOD history. The system was introduced to operational use a year ahead of schedule. Unlike most guided weapons and aircraft, the system never had a weight management problem, and was deployed at its target weight. The system introduced a new type of fuze, but was able to obtain authority from an independent safety review in record time. Many observers credited these accomplishments to the management style chosen by the DOD and Texas Instruments. After a competitive selection, the program staff was organized into integrated product teams with members from the government, the prime Texas Instruments and subcontractors. In one case, the prime determined that the best-in-class supplier for a design service was the government, and gave part of its funding back. JSOW was recognized in 1996 with a Laurels Award from Aviation Week & Space Technology. It is notable for a guided weapon to receive this award, which is normally reserved for much larger systems. Because of this history, JSOW has been used as a case study for development programs, and for Integrated Product Teams, and is sometimes cited in academic research on program management.

AGM-154A (baseline JSOW)

The warhead of the AGM-154A consists of 145 BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb (CEB) submunitions. These bomblets have a shaped charge for armor defeating capability, a fragmenting case for materiel destruction, and a zirconium ring for incendiary effects.

AGM-154B (anti-armor)

The warhead for the AGM-154B is the BLU-108/B from the Air Force's Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW) program. The JSOW B was to carry six BLU-108/B submunitions. Each submunition releases four projectiles (total of 24 per weapon) that use infrared sensors to detect targets. Upon detection, the projectile detonates, creating an explosively formed shaped charge capable of penetrating reinforced armor targets. This program concluded development but the Navy decided not to procure the weapon when the Air Force left the program.

AGM-154C (unitary variant)

The AGM-154C uses an Imaging Infrared (IIR) terminal seeker with autonomous guidance. The AGM-154C carries the BROACH warhead. This two stage warhead is made up from a WDU-44 shaped augmenting warhead and a WDU-45 follow through bomb. The weapon is designed to attack hardened targets. It entered service with the US Navy in February 2005.

Production and upgrades

Full rate production started on December 29 1999. In June 2000 Raytheon was contracted to develop an enhanced electronics package for the JSOW to prevent electronic spoofing of GPS signals. This ultimately resulted in the JSOW Block II weapon, incorporating multiple cost reduction initiatives in addition to the Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) capability. JSOW Block II is scheduled to begin production in March 2007.

The JSOW contains a modular control and deployment interface that allows future enhancement and additional configurations since it is likely that additional variants will emerge. The basic airframe is advertised as a "truck" and the JSOW-as-a-truck capability is widely advertised. Raytheon has placed a tremendous investment in the JSOW program and will certainly try to extend the Department of Defense contracts for as long as possible with system upgrades and repackagings for new missions and targets.

JSOW Block III (JSOW-C1)

Raytheon is now under contract to develop the JSOW Block III, which adds a Link-16 weapon data link and moving maritime target capability to the AGM-154C. [cite web|url=http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/micro_stories.pl?ACCT=149999&TICK=RTN&STORY=/www/story/05-28-2008/0004821887&EDATE=May+28,+2008|title=Raytheon Demonstrates New JSOW Seeker for Interdicting Moving Maritime Targets]

AGM-154A-1 (JSOW-A1)

In addition, the AGM-154A-1 configuration is under development by Raytheon for FMS sales. This version replaces the submunition payload of the AGM-154A with a BLU-111 warhead to enhance blast-fragmentation effects without the unexploded ordnance (UXO) concerns with the BLU-97/B payload.

Powered JSOW

The engine for a powered JSOW is being tested. The powered variant name is JSOW-ER, where "ER" is for "extended range". JSOW-ER will increase range from convert|70|mi|km out to 300 miles. [ [http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/micro_stories.pl?ACCT=149999&TICK=RTN&STORY=/www/story/02-20-2007/0004530814&EDATE=Feb+20,+2007 Raytheon Demonstrates Engine for Powered Joint Standoff Weapon] February 20,2007]

Combat history

The AGM-154A was the first variant to be used in combat. The AGM-154A traditionally gets used for SEAD missions. Initial deployment testing occurred aboard USS "Nimitz" and later aboard the USS "Dwight D. Eisenhower". The first combat deployment of the JSOW occurred over southern Iraq on January 25 1999. This weapon enjoyed success since its early use. One adverse event: In February 2001, when a strike of F/A-18s from the USS "Harry S. Truman" battle group launched a massive attack on Iraqi air-defense sites, nearly every weapon missed the target. The cause of the miss was reported as a software problem. This problem was solved soon afterward. [ [http://www.nawcwpns.navy.mil/~pacrange/s1/news/2001/JSOW2.htm Pacific Ranges and Facilities] (JSOW strong on fleet support-July 19, 2001)] Since 1999, at least 400 of the JSOW weapons have been used in the following conflicts: Operation Southern Watch, NATO Operation Allied Force, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. [ [http://www.raytheon.com/products/stellent/groups/public/documents/content/cms01_055754.pdf Raytheon JSOW Product Sheet] (PDF file)]

Operators

*
*
*
*
*
*The Dutch government announced on 7 Nov 2007 that it is starting an evaluation before equipping its F-16's with the JSOW.

Note: USAF terminated production of JSOW in FY 2005, leaving the USN and USMC as the only U.S. services obtaining new JSOWs. [ [http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2006/02/agm154-jsow-wins-us-dod-acquisition-award/index.php#more Defense Industry Daily] ]

General characteristics

*Primary Function: Air-to-surface Standoff from Point Defense (SOPD) weapon, for use against a variety of targets.
*Contractor: Raytheon Co.
*Guidance: GPS/INS (Global Position/Inertial), Terminal IR Seeker (unique to 'C' model)
*Length: 160 inches (4.1 m)
*Diameter: box shaped 13 inches (330 mm) on a side / other source 40.6 x 51.9cm
*Weight: From 1,065 pounds (483 kg) to 1,095 pounds (497 kg)
*Wingspan: 106 inches (2.69 m)
*Aircraft Compatibility:
**Navy: F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F, EA-18G, F-35C
**Air Force: F-16 Block 40/50, B-1B, B-2A, B-52H, F-15E, F-35A
*Range:
**Low altitude launch - 12 nautical miles (22 km)
**High altitude launch - 70 nautical miles (120 km)
*Warhead(s):
**BLU-97/B - Combined Effects Bomblets (JSOW A)
**BLU-108 - Sensor fused weapon (JSOW B - now cancelled)
**BROACH multi-stage warhead (JSOW C)
*Unit Cost:
**AUPP AGM-154A, $282,000. Total program cost: $3,327,000.
**AGM-154B, $484,167. Total program cost: $2,033,500.
**AGM-154C, $719,012. Total program cost: $5,608,000.
*Date Deployed: January 1999 [ [http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2100&tid=300&ct=2 U.S. Navy Fact File - AGM-154] ]

References

External links

* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/agm-154.htm AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon - GlobalSecurity.org]
* [http://www.raytheon.com/products/jsow/ Raytheon: Joint Stand Off Weapon]
* [http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-154.html Raytheon (Texas Instruments) AGM-154 JSOW - Designation Systems]
* [http://www.af.mil/news/airman/0104/dmissi.html Airborne Tactical and Defence Missiles]


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