Hornby Railways is the leading brand of
model railwayin the United Kingdom. Its roots date back to 1901, when founder Frank Hornbyreceived a patent for his Meccanoconstruction toy. The first clockwork train was produced in 1920. In 1938 Hornby launched its first OO gauge train. In 1964, Hornby and Meccano were bought by their competitor Tri-AngCite book | author=Brown, Kenneth Douglas | authorlink= | coauthors= | title=The British Toy Business: A History since 1700 | date= | publisher=Hambledon & London | location= | isbn=1-85285-136-8 | pages=183-184] , and sold on when Tri-ang went into receivership. In the 1980s Hornby Railways became independent.
Early history: 1920 - 1938
Hornby, then known as
Meccano Ltdand based in Liverpool, released its first train, a clockwork 0 gauge(1:48) model, in 1920. An electric train soon followed but was under-designed and the few that were made were sold out in France. In 1925 a much more successful electric model was introduced , operating on high voltage (220-240V) AC power. Safety concerns saw low voltage 4V and then 6V motors introduced, followed by a reliable 20V AC system, which was developed in the early 1930s. However, clockwork remained the mainstay of the Hornby 0 gauge trains until 1937, and became the only power available in Liverpool-made 0 gauge trains from 1949.
A factory was established in France, which developed its own range of French outline trains, but Liverpool dominated export activity elsewhere, with large numbers of Hornby trains exported to Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and Scandinavia. Even though the export models were often painted in 'foreign' liveries, Hornby trains looked very British. Hornby attempted to break into the American market by setting up a factory in 1927 in
Elizabeth, New Jersey, to make American-style trains. These were colourful and attractive, but low market and only clockwork. They probably would have failed in the marketplace because several established U.S. firms could undercut them and Hornby offered no better-class goods or electric models, but the Wall Street Crash precipitated matters. In late 1929, Meccano Ltd. sold its New Jersey factory to the A. C. Gilbert Company, and Hornby trains had vanished from the U.S. market by 1930. The leftover inventory was sold in Canadaand in the UK, and some of the tooling was reused for products in other markets.
Hornby Dublo era: 1938 - 1963
Hornby introduced its
00 gaugetrains in 1938 under the name 'Hornby Dublo'. The locomotives were die-cast, and the carriages and wagons were generally made of tinplate. This was a very well planned range of electric models, successfully consolidating 12 V DC as the standard for 00 gauge. The range expanded quickly, but was curtailed from 1940 due to World War II, production being completely suspended in 1942. Production resumed after the war but did not reach full capacity until 1948.
Like its counterparts
Bassett-Lowkeand Exleyin the UK and Lionel and American Flyerin the US, Hornby thrived in the first half of the decade but struggled in the late 1950s. The company were slow to recognise the threat posed by rival manufacturers (particularly Triang-Rovex) and to realise the potential of plastic. In 1959, far too late, Hornby introduced two-rail track, but even then the system was complicated and difficult to use in comparison to its rivals. Meanwhile the company plugged on producing a range of very old-fashioned 0 gauge models, in 1957 completely retooling much of the range instead of taking the opportunity to discontinue it, indicative of major failings at management level.
In 2008, a special commemorative model of
Sir Nigel Gresleywas produced, in period packaging, to celebrate the 70th anniversery.
Tri-ang Hornby: 1964 - 1980
Lines Bros Ltd., the parent company of rival Tri-ang Railwayspurchased Meccano Ltd., and merged Hornby and Tri-ang into "Tri-ang Hornby". The former Hornby line was discontinued in favour of Tri-ang's less costly plastic designs. The Hornby Dublo tooling was sold to G & R Wrenn, which continued to make most of the loco range and 'superdetail' rolling stock. Remaining stocks of 0 gauge were either scrapped or sold to the local retailer Hattons. In 1967 Hornby was merged internally into Rovex Industries, which by 1969 was Rovex Tri-ang Ltd.
The Tri-ang group was disbanded in 1971 when Meccano Ltd's owner Lines Bros. filed for bankruptcy. The former Tri-ang Hornby was sold to Dunbee-Combex-Marx, becoming "Hornby Railways" in 1972. By 1976 Hornby was facing challenges from
Palitoyand Airfix, both of which were producing high quality detailed models. Detail on the models was upgraded to make the product line more attractive to adult hobbyists.
A multiple train control system named Zero 1 was introduced in the mid 1970s. This
digitalsystem was a forerunner to the Digital Command Control(DCC) system, an NMRA open standard, which appeared in the 1990s.
By 1980 the market was extremely tough and Dunbee-Combex-Marx was liquidated, placing Rovex in
Hornby Hobbies: 1980 - present
In 1980 Hornby became "Hornby Hobbies" and in 1981 a management buyout saw the company back on a sound footing. It went public in 1986. " locomotives have now been produced.
Since then Hornby has bought Lima, an Italian model railway equipment manufacturer that had previously acquired
Jouef, a French manufacturer. Some of the ex-Lima models appear in the main Hornby products list. This range is known as Hornby International. This acquisition also included the Rivarossi line of HO-scale products, also originally from Italy, and the Arnold brand of N-scale products.
With competition mainly from
Bachmann, Hornby Railways now (in 2007) produce a large range of detailed British steam and diesel locomotives, such as the BR 9F, SR Merchant Navy, Class 60, Class 50, Class 31 and Class 08.
In November 2006, Hornby Hobbies acquired
Airfixand Humbrolpaints for the sum of £2.6 million [citeweb|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6134988.stm|title=Hornby snaps up Airfix for £2.6m|publisher=BBC News|date=2006-11-10|accessdate=2008-05-02] .The parent company went into administration earlier that year after cashflow problems.
Airfix fans had been concerned that it could be the end of the brand, but thankfully it has been saved, all of these companies are still a successful business.
In May 2008, Hornby announced the acquisition of
Corgi Classics Limited, one of the world's oldest makers of collectible die-cast models of trucks, buses, cars and aeroplanes, from Corgi International Limitedfor £7.5million. [citeweb|url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/mergersNews/idUKL0166601520080501|title=Hornby to buy Corgi|publisher=Reuters|date=2008-05-01|accessdate=2008-05-01] [citeweb|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7376855.stm|title=Hornby to buy Corgi in £7.5m deal|publisher=BBC News|date=2008-05-01|accessdate=2008-05-01]
Skaledale is a range of resin buildings and track accessories for 00 gauge railways. The range is produced by Hornby. Many models of buildings are very similar to those of Lyddle End, except they are made to the larger scale of 1:76. Available in the range are station buildings, shops, houses, platforms and street and track accessories amongst others.
Lyddle End is the new range of
N scalemodel railway buildings for HornbyRailways. The buildings are created from high quality die cast resinand are made to represent the fictional village of Lyddle End, somewhere in England. Most of the buildings are models of GWR style buildings made out of red sandstone. Hornbycreated these buildings thanks to the success of their 00 gaugebuildingsFact|date=August 2007, which they call "Skaledale". Many of the buildings are the same, except in different scales, to save the cost of designing a new modelFact|date=August 2007. Lyddle End models are popular with adult modellersFact|date=August 2007.
List of cultural icons of England
* Foster, Michael (1980) "Hornby Dublo Trains: 1938-1964: The story of the perfect table railway", Hornby Companion Series, vol. 3, New Cavendish Books, ISBN 0-904568-18-0
* Hornby PLC (2004) "Hornby OO Scale Model Railways: Fiftieth Edition", Product catalogue: R8108, Limited anniversary edition, EAN 501-0-9634810-8-7
* Schneider, Lewis (May 2000) Hornby's made-in-USA trains, "Classic Toy Trains", vol. 13, p. 84
* [http://www.hornby.com/ Company website]
* [http://www.modeltrains.net.au/hornby/ Online database of Hornby Railways models 1959 - 1990]
* [http://www.lickeyincline.co.uk Resource of model railway history and references]
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