Prem Rawat


Prem Rawat

Prem Rawat in Lisbon, Portugal 2007
Born 10 December 1957 (1957-12-10) (age 53)
Haridwar, India
Spouse Marolyn Rawat
Parents Shri Hans Ji Maharaj, Rajeshwari Devi

Prem Pal Singh Rawat (Hindi: प्रेम पाल सिंह रावत; born 10 December 1957), also known as Maharaji and formerly known as Guru Maharaj Ji and Balyogeshwar, teaches a meditation practice he calls Knowledge.[1]

At the age of eight, he succeeded his father Hans Ji Maharaj as leader of the Divine Light Mission (Divya Sandesh Parishad) and as the new Satguru (English: Perfect Master) to millions of Indian followers.[2][3][4][5] Rawat gained further prominence when he traveled to the West at age 13 to spread his message.[4][5][6] His claimed ability to impart direct knowledge of God attracted a great deal of interest from young adults, and many saw him as an incarnation of the divine. Under his charismatic leadership, the Divine Light Mission (DLM) became the fastest growing new religious movement in the West, though it was sometimes described as a cult. Rawat also attracted media attention, being ridiculed in the US for his youth and his supposed divine status, with journalists noting luxury automobiles and multiple residences made available to him by his followers.

When Rawat turned sixteen in 1973 he took administrative control of the American organisation and became more active in guiding the movement.[7] The following May, against his mother's wishes, he married an American.[7] His mother disowned him and appointed his eldest brother as head of the Indian DLM.[8] Rawat retained control of the movement outside India and later abandoned the Indian aspects of his teachings to make his message more widely acceptable.[9][10][11] The Divine Light Mission was disbanded in the West in the early 1980s, succeeded by the organizations Elan Vital (1983) and The Prem Rawat Foundation (2001).[12]

The core of Prem Rawat's teaching is that the individual’s need for fulfillment can be satisfied by turning within to contact a constant source of peace and joy. Rather than a body of dogma, he emphasizes a direct experience of transcendence, which he claims is accessible through the techniques of meditation which he teaches. Prem Rawat has been criticized for a lack of intellectual content in his public discourses.

Contents

Biography

1960s

Prem Rawat in traditional mourning clothes, speaking after the death of his father in July 1966.

Prem Rawat was born in Haridwar, northern India, on 10 December 1957. The fourth and youngest son of guru Shri Hans Ji Maharaj and his second wife, Jagat Janani Mata Shri Rajeshwari Devi, Rawat attended St. Joseph's Academy elementary school in his hometown of Dehra Dun.[13] At the age of three he began speaking at his father's meetings, and at six his father taught him the "techniques of Knowledge." He was given the title Balyogeshwar Param Hans Satgurudev Shri Sant Ji Maharaj, or just "Balyogeshwar" (roughly "born saint" or "born lord of Yogis") on account of his youth and spiritual precociousness.[13][14] His father died in 1966, and during the customary 13 days of mourning his mother and senior officials of the organization discussed the succession. Both his mother, Mata Ji, and eldest brother, Satpal Maharaj, were suggested as potential successors, but before either could be nominated, Prem addressed the crowd of mourners, reminding them that their master was immortal and was still among them.[13] In response, his mother, brother and the senior disciples accepted Prem as their "Perfect Master", bowed to his feet and received his blessing.[13] Previously known to his father's followers as Sant Ji, Prem now assumed the title "Guru Maharaj Ji".[14][15][16][17] From that time, Rawat spent his weekends and school holidays travelling as his father had, addressing audiences on the subject of Knowledge and inner peace. Because of his youth, effective control of the DLM was shared by the whole family.[11][18][19]

During the 1960s, Westerners in India searching for spiritual guidance met members of his father's Divine Light Mission and a few became initiates or premies (from the Hindi prem, meaning "love".) British initiates invited him to visit the West, and in 1969 he sent one of his closest Indian students (known as Mahatmas) to London to teach on his behalf.[20] In 1970, many of his new Western followers flew to India to see him, and were present at India Gate, Delhi, when, still only twelve years old, he delivered an address known as the "Peace Bomb," which marked the start of his international work.[21][22]

1970–1973

Arriving in the US. Prem Rawat at Los Angeles Airport

In 1971, Prem Rawat travelled to the West against his mother’s wishes.[4][5] His three-month tour included planned stops in Hollywood, New York, Washington, Canada and South Africa.[23] His arrival in the United States was met with some ridicule, as the teenaged Rawat was seen as immature and hence unfit to be a religious leader.[18][24] But he also created an extraordinary amount of interest among young adults who were willing to examine his claimed ability to give a direct experience of God.[18] His first western address was given in June 1971 at the first Glastonbury Fayre,[25] and in September he spoke to a large gathering in Colorado. A US based Divine Light Mission was established in Denver, Colorado by Bob Mishler.[26][27] Many were attracted by the sense of joy, peace and commitment shown by Rawat's followers.[28] One witness said that Rawat "played the whole time he was there ... he played with squirt guns, flashed pictures of himself for all to see, and took movies of everybody ... Love flowed back and forth between him and his devotees."[29] Enthusiastic new members spread the message that the 13-year-old Rawat could reveal God.[30] He returned to India later that year with 300 westerners who chartered an Air India Boeing 747 to accompany him and stayed in the mission's ashrams.[20]

Rawat took flying lessons beginning when he was 13,[31] and had begun training in a jet by age 15.[32] In 1972 two Cessna airplanes were obtained for his use.[33][34] Travelling almost constantly, he was reported to have residences in London, New York, Colorado, California, India, and Australia.[33][35]

The 1972 Hans Jayanti, an annual festival celebrating Rawat's father's birthday,[36] was attended by over 500,000 people. Six Jumbo jets were chartered by American followers who paid extra so that South Americans could fly from New York to India for free. Other countries made similar arrangements to help the less financially able.[37] On arrival, Indian customs impounded a suitcase containing cash, jewelry and wristwatches worth between US$27,000 and $80,000 which they said had not been properly declared.[38][39] Rawat said, "It has nothing to do with me, it is an attempt to harm the Divine Light Mission. When someone grows, others get jealous of him, and the Divine Light Mission has just blasted like an atomic bomb all over the world.”[40] A DLM spokesman said that the money had been pooled by 3,000 followers to cover expenses, and that the valuables were gifts.[41] The finances of Rawat and the DLM in India and overseas were investigated by the Indian government.[42] In June 1973 the investigation was still under way, and Rawat had to post a $13,300 bond in order to leave the country.[43] Charges were never filed, and the Indian government later issued an apology.[44][45]

A reporter who attended an event in Boston in August 1973 which drew 9,000 attendees wrote that Rawat appeared humble and human, and seemed to intentionally undercut the claims of divinity made by followers.[46] Sociologist James Downton said that from his beginnings Rawat appealed to his followers to give up concepts and beliefs that might impede them from fully experiencing the Knowledge (or life force), but this did not prevent them from adopting a fairly rigid set of ideas about his divinity, and to project millennial preconceptions onto him and the movement.[47] Followers stressed "love, peace and happiness" in their lives, but public attitudes were often unsympathetic.[24] Sociologist Stephen A. Kent wrote that as a 22-year-old hippie, he found Rawat's message to be banal and poorly delivered, though his companions spoke about it glowingly.[48]

In August 1973, Rawat was hit by a pie thrown by a person who was later attacked by followers.[44][49][50] Rawat expressed shock and regret at the beating and concern for the victim's welfare.[51]

Rawat's publicity campaign was unparalleled. One journalist reported,

"Thousands of people follow him wherever he goes; posters of his round, cheerful face adorn the walls of buildings in every major Western city; newspaper reporters and TV cameras cover his every public appearance – particularly his mass rallies, which attract hundreds of thousands of followers each."[52]

A tour of US cities was cut short in early September 1973, when Rawat was hospitalized with an intestinal ulcer. His personal physician said that his body, weakened by the pace of continual travel, showed the stresses of a middle-aged executive.[53]

The Hans Jayanti of 1973, which was named "Millennium '73", was held in the Houston Astrodome. Press releases said that the event would mark the beginning of "a thousand years of peace for people who want peace."[44][54] The main organizers were Rawat's eldest brother Satpal Rawat (then known as Bal Bhagwan Ji) and activist Rennie Davis, who predicted an attendance of 100,000 or more. The event attracted only about 20,000. It was not covered by the national television news, although it received extensive coverage in the print media and was depicted in the award-winning US documentary "Lord of the Universe".[55] The premies were described as "cheerful, friendly and unruffled" and seeming "nourished by their faith". To the 400 premie parents who attended, Rawat was "a rehabilitator of prodigal sons and daughters", though some reporters found "a confused jumble of inarticulately expressed ideas."[35][56] The event was called the "youth culture event of the year".[57]

The failure of the event to meet expectations hurt the Divine Light Mission and left it heavily in debt, forcing changes within the movement. By 1976, the DLM was able to reduce the debt to $80,000.[11][58] According to Thomas Pilarzyk, the Millennium economic deficit was partly the result of poor management by the "holy family" (Rawat's mother and three older brothers), and partly the much lower than anticipated attendance.[59]

Because of Prem Rawat's youth, his mother, Mata Ji, and eldest brother, Satpal, managed the affairs of the worldwide DLM. When Rawat reached sixteen years of age he wanted to take a more active part in guiding the movement. According to the sociologist James V. Downton, this meant he "had to encroach on his mother's territory and, given the fact that she was accustomed to having control, a fight was inevitable".[20][60] In December 1973, Rawat took administrative control of the Mission's US branch, and his mother and Satpal returned to India.[11]

By the end of 1973, the DLM was active in 55 countries.[61] Tens of thousands had been initiated, and several hundred centers and dozens of ashrams formed.[11] 1973 has been called the "peak of the Mission's success".[15]

Rawat's affluent lifestyle was a source of controversy in the early 1970s.[62] Some media reports said that Rawat "lived more like a king than a Messiah".[24] Critics said that his lifestyle was supported by the donations of followers and that the movement appeared to exist only to support Rawat's "opulent existence".[9][63] Supporters said there is no conflict between worldly and spiritual riches. That Rawat did not advise anyone to "abandon the material world", but said it is our attachment to it that is wrong.[64] Press reports listed expensive automobiles such as Rolls-Royces, Mercedes-Benz limousines[35] and sports cars, some of them gifts.[65][66] Rawat said, "I have something far more precious to give them than money and material things – I give peace".[67] "Maharaj Ji's luxuries are gifts from a Western culture whose fruits are watches and Cadillacs," a spokesman said.[64] Some premies said that he did not want the gifts, but that people gave them out of their love for him.[68] They saw Rawat's lifestyle as an example of a lila, or divine play, which held a mirror to the "money-crazed and contraption-collecting society" of the West.[57]

1974–1983

In May 1974, a judge gave Rawat his consent to marry without parental permission.[69] His marriage to Marolyn Johnson, a 24-year old follower from San Diego, California, was celebrated at a non-denominational church in Golden, Colorado.[70] Rawat's mother, Mata Ji, had not been invited.[71]

Rawat's marriage to a non-Indian finally severed his relationship with his mother.[9][10] She retained control of the Indian DLM and appointed her eldest son, Satpal, as its leader.[8] Mata Ji said she was removing Rawat as Perfect Master because of his "unspiritual" lifestyle and lack of respect for her wishes.[7][72][73] Rawat retained the support of the Western disciples. Most of the mahatmas either returned to India or were dismissed.[60] Rawat had become wealthy as a result of contributions from his Western devotees, and led the life of an American millionaire. He ran a household for his wife, his brother (Raja Ji) and his sister-in-law (Claudia), and financed travel for the close officials and mahatmas who accompanied him on his frequent trips around the globe to attend the Mission's festivals.[60][74] By early 1974 the number of full-time DLM staff had increased from six to over one thousand.[37]

In November 1974, seeking more privacy for himself, his wife and his entourage following security concerns, Rawat moved to a 4-acre (16,000 m2) property in Malibu, California.[75][76] Purchased by the DLM for $400,000, the property served as the DLM's West Coast headquarters.[75][76][77] Controversy around a helipad on the property[78] was resolved by installing emergency water storage for the Los Angeles County Fire Department and by limiting the number of permitted flights.[79]

By 1976, most students viewed Rawat primarily as a spiritual teacher, guide and inspiration.[80] In January 1976 Rawat encouraged them to leave the ashrams and discard Indian customs and terminology.[81] Rawat said that the organization had come between his devotees and himself.[82] He dismissed Bob Mishler, co-founder of DLM, as International President. According to one source, he "resented the advice given to him by his chief subordinate" and dismissed him "when a clash of wills occurred".[27] Rawat decentralized some decision making to local premie communities, while he maintained his status as the ultimate authority over spiritual and secular matters. The staff at the Denver headquarters were reduced from 250 to 80.[81] He described the managerial mentality that had grown in the Mission as "only cosmetic and totally unnecessary. It's like trying to take a cow and put lipstick on it. You can do it, but it's unnecessary in practical terms".[83]

His appearance on 20 December 1976 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, wearing a traditional Krishna costume for the first time since 1975, signaled a resurgence of Indian influence and devotion. During 1977, many returned to ashram life, and there was a shift back from secular tendencies towards ritual and messianic beliefs.[81][84] In 1977 Rawat became a US citizen.[85]

In October 1978, the hillsides surrounding Rawat's Malibu estate were burned by a brushfire.[76] His family and the DLM headquarters subsequently moved to Miami Beach, Florida.[36] The family, which grew to four children, returned to Malibu in 1984.[36]

In January 1979 the Los Angeles Times reported that Rawat was maintaining his Malibu following despite a rising mistrust of cults.[76] Bob Mishler and Robert Hand, a former vice president of the movement, complained that money was increasingly diverted to Rawat's personal use,[11] warning that a situation like the recent Jonestown incident could occur with the followers of Rawat.[86] Mishler complained that the ideals of the group had become impossible to fulfill, but his charges found little support and did not affect the progress of the Mission.[11]

12 October 1981. Prem Rawat speaking at the Royal Albert Hall, London

In 1980, Rawat removed all the "religious" aspects of the movement and declared he now wanted "no movement whatsoever".[87] The Hindu references and religious parables that had been prominent in his teachings gave way to a focus on the meditation techniques. Once called "Perfect Master", Prem Rawat abandoned his "almost divine status as guru" [9][11] but affirmed his status as a master. Scholars such as Kranenborg and Chryssides describe the departure from divine connotations.[88][89]

1983–2000s

In 1983 the Divine Light Mission was renamed Elan Vital and Rawat closed the last western ashrams, marking the end of his use of Indian methods for international objectives.[10]

According to a 1983 article, Rawat continued to "energetically serve his followers", flying to speaking engagements in major cities around the world almost continually. In two years he spoke at over 100 programs in 37 international cities, including New York, London, Paris, Kuala Lumpur, Rome, Delhi, Sydney, Tokyo, Caracas and Los Angeles.[87][90]

The number of Rawat's students grew in the 1980s and 1990s as Rawat toured extensively,[20] speaking in over 40 countries, including Japan, Taiwan, the Ivory Coast, Slovenia and Venezuela.[11] In 1990 there were said to be 1.2 million followers worldwide, with 50,000 in the United States.[89] 1999 saw the commencement of regular satellite broadcasts to North America and other countries.[91]

In 2001, Rawat founded The Prem Rawat Foundation (TPRF),[92] a Public Charitable Organization for the production and distribution of materials promoting his message, and also for funding worldwide humanitarian efforts. TPRF has provided food, water and medical help to war-torn and impoverished areas.[93]

Between January 2004 and June 2005, Rawat delivered 117 addresses in Asia, Europe, and North America focusing on a universal message of peace and self-fulfillment. His message is currently distributed in eighty-eight countries in print and on video, and his program "Words of Peace" is broadcast on TV channels such as Canal Infinito in South America, Channel 31 in Australia, and Dish Network in the USA.[94][95]

30 June 2003. Prem Rawat addressing the first "Conference on Peace" at the University of Salamanca

Elan Vital states that the only effective way of reaching out to the over 80 countries where his message is now promoted is by leased private jet, which Rawat self-pilots, flying around a quarter million miles a year.[20] In 2007 during a two-month tour of India, Sri Lanka and Nepal, Rawat spoke at 36 events, addressing over 800,000 people, and by live satellite broadcasts reached an additional 2.25 million.[96]

A biography of Rawat, Peace is Possible, by Andrea Cagan, was published in 2006 with a foreword by Emilio Colombo, a former President of the European Parliament and former Prime Minister of Italy.[97] In 2009, Rawat was made "Ambassador of Peace" for the Basilicata region of Italy; in 2010, he spoke at the "Words of Peace for Europe" conference in Brussels, at the invitation of European Parliament Vice-President Gianni Pittella.[98][99]

Teachings

A number of scholars have said that Rawat's teachings began in the North Indian Sant Mat or Radhasoami tradition,[11] which dismisses ritual and claims that true religion is a matter of loving and surrendering to God who dwells in the heart.[100][101] Geaves argues that this is not quite correct; referring to Rawat's own statements about his lineage,[102][103] he places Rawat and his father within the tradition established by Totapuri, which also gave rise to the Advait Mat movement.[103] Geaves argues that while the teachings within Totapuri's lineage have similarities with those of the Radhasoami tradition and developed in the same geographical area[104] they are nevertheless distinct. He adds that Rawat "is unusual in that he does not consider his lineage to be significant and does not perceive his authority as resting in a tradition."[102]

Prem Rawat claims that light, love, wisdom and clarity exist within each individual, and that the meditation techniques which he teaches, and which he learned from his father, are a way of accessing them. These techniques are known as the ‘Knowledge’. In his public talks he quotes from Hindu, Muslim and Christian scriptures, but he relies on this inner experience for his inspiration and guidance.[105][106][107][108]

Before they receive the Knowledge, Rawat asks practitioners to promise to give it a fair chance and to stay in touch with him. He also asks that they not reveal the techniques to anyone else, but allow others to prepare to receive the experience for themselves.[109] Rawat has been criticized for a lack of intellectual content in his public discourses.[11][110][48]

Practitioners describe Knowledge as internal and highly individual, with no associated social structure, liturgy, ethical practices or articles of faith.[9] According to sociologist Alan E. Aldridge, Rawat says he offers practical ways to achieve spiritual tranquillity that can be used by anyone. Aldridge writes that Rawat originally aspired to bring about world peace, but now he places his attention on helping individuals rather than society.[111]

Reception

Media

From Rawat's first travels in the West, he and his followers attracted media attention. In an interview in Der Spiegel in 1973, Rawat said, "I have lost confidence in newspapers. I talk with them [about this] and the next day something completely different is printed."[112] In 1973, the Divine Light Mission's 50-member public relations team concluded that Rawat's credibility had been compromised by his youth, his physical appearance, and the Rolls Royce, as well as the Detroit "pieing" incident and an allegation of smuggling (which was never prosecuted). The head of the team said that they needed to get the public to look past these factors to judge Rawat's credibility.[113] Rawat's last known press conferences was in 1973.[114] Rawat has often been termed a cult leader in popular press reports,[115][116] as well as anti-cult writings.[117][118]

Charisma and leadership

Melton says Rawat's personal charisma was one of the reasons for the rapid spread of his message among members of the 1960s counterculture.[119] Several scholars refer to Max Weber's classification of authority when describing Rawat as a charismatic leader.[110][120][121]

Dutch sociologist Paul Schnabel described Rawat as a pure example of a charismatic leader. He characterized Rawat as materialistic, pampered and intellectually unremarkable compared to Osho, but no less charismatic.[110]

Meredith McGuire sees formalization resulting from Rawat's desire to consolidate his power and authority over the movement in the United States.[120]

Lucy DuPertuis, a sociologist and one-time follower who assisted James V. Downton with his book about the Divine Light Mission, described Rawat's role as a Master as emerging from three interrelated phenomena: traditional or theological definitions of Satguru, adherents' first-hand experiences of the Master, and communal accounts and discussions of the Master among devotees.[122]

David G. Bromley described the difficulty of a charismatic leader in proving to be above normal human failings such as not to suffer ill health or indulge in worldly pursuits. He presents Rawat's marriage as such a situation.[123] Bromley described Prem Rawat and other founders of new religions as being held in awe by their early followers, who ascribe extraordinary powers to them that set them apart from other human beings.[124]

Thomas Pilarzyk, a sociologist, wrote in a 1978 paper that the distribution of power and authority in the DLM was officially based on the charismatic appeal of Maharaj Ji, which he described as being somewhat ambiguous, and that many followers were not certain about his position in the organizational scheme of the movement, or the claim that he was the only true spiritual master.[125]

Stephen J. Hunt said that in Rawat's case the notion of spiritual growth is not derived — as is traditionally the case with other gurus — from his personal charisma, but from the nature of his teachings and the benefits to the individuals applying them.[126]

Ron Geaves, a professor of religion and an early Western student of Prem Rawat,[citation needed] states that Rawat is not a renunciate, and he has made great efforts to assert his humanity and take apart the hagiography that has developed around him.[20]

Following

Estimates of the number of Rawat's adherents have varied widely over time. Petersen states that Rawat claimed 7 million disciples worldwide in 1973, with 60,000 in the US.[127] Rudin & Rudin give a worldwide following of 6 million in 1974, of which 50,000 were in the US. According to these authors, the adherents had fallen to 1.2 million for Prem Rawat's personal worldwide following in 1980, with 15,000 in the US.[128] Spencer J. Palmer and Roger R. Keller published a general DLM membership of 1.2 million worldwide, with 50,000 in the US., in 1990 and 1997.[129]

Downton said by 1976 the vast majority of students viewed Rawat "as their spiritual teacher, guide and inspiration". Quoting a student he had studied, Downton said a typical view was that "the only thing he (Rawat) wants is to see people living happily and harmoniously together".[130] Downton concluded that the students had changed in a positive way, "more peaceful, loving, confident and appreciative of life".[131]

Former followers became known as "ex-premies",[132][133][134][135] and Elan Vital has characterised the vocal critics among them as disgruntled former employees.[133] Based on an analysis of Sophia Collier's Soul Rush, John Barbour, a professor of religion,[136] concludes that Collier's deconversion from DLM was uncharacteristic compared to other deconversions from other movements, in that her deconversion brought her no emotional suffering.[137]

Stephen Hunt writes that Western followers do not see themselves as members of a religion, but rather as adherents of a system of teachings focused on the goal of enjoying life to the full.[9]

According to Prem Rawat's official website,[138] in the eight years prior to May 2008, Key Six sessions were attended by 365,237 people in 67 countries. These are the video sessions where the techniques of Knowledge are taught by Rawat.[139]

See also


Footnotes

  1. ^ Ron Geaves in Christopher Partridge (Eds.), New Religions: A Guide: New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities pp.201-202, Oxford University Press, USA (2004) ISBN 978-0195220421
  2. ^ "Millennium programme glossary". And It is Divine (Houston, Texas) 4 (2): pp. 17–26. 10 November 1973. 
  3. ^ *Price
    *Hunt 2003
    *CBY
    *Thousands Bow At Guru Throne By ANDREW WALLACE 1973
    *Dupertuis
    *Geaves 2004
  4. ^ a b c Downton (1979), p. 3
  5. ^ a b c Lewis (1998a), p. 83
  6. ^ "Junior Guru". Time Magazine. 27 November 1972. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,944540,00.html. 
  7. ^ a b c Downton (1979), p. 192.
  8. ^ a b "Guru Maharaj Ji," Biography Resource Center, Thomson Gale, 2007
  9. ^ a b c d e f Hunt (2003)
  10. ^ a b c Miller (1995), p. 474
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Melton (1986), pp. 141-145
  12. ^ "The Prem Rawat Foundation website". http://www.tprf.org/. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  13. ^ a b c d Mangalwadi (1992), pp. 135–136
  14. ^ a b Geaves (2006b), p. 64
  15. ^ a b Aagaard (1980)
  16. ^ US Department of the Army (2001)
  17. ^ Fahlbusch et al. (1998), p.861
  18. ^ a b c Melton (1986), p. 141–2
  19. ^ Fahlbusch et al. (1998), p. 861
  20. ^ a b c d e f Geaves (2006a), pp. 44-62.
  21. ^ Navbharat Times, 10 November 1970
  22. ^ Kranenborg (1982), p. 64
  23. ^ Greenberg, Peter; Newsweek Feature Service (1 September 1971). "Teen-Age Guru...Maharaj Looks for Followers World Tour". News Journal (Mansfield, Ohio). 
  24. ^ a b c Downton (1979), p. 5 & 7
  25. ^ Geaves (2004)
  26. ^ Downton (1979), p. 4
  27. ^ a b Price, Maeve (1979): The Divine Light Mission as a social organization. (1) Sociological Review, 27, Page 279-296
  28. ^ Derks, Frans, and Jan M. van der Lans. 1983. Subgroups in Divine Light Mission Membership: A Comment on Downton in the book Of Gods and Men: New Religious Movements in the West. Macon edited by Eileen Barker, GA: Mercer University Press, (1984), ISBN 0-86554-095-0 pages 303-308
  29. ^ Downton (1979), p. 132
  30. ^ Downton (1979), p. 4 & 146
  31. ^ "Pretty Far-Out Little Dude" Henry Allen, Washington Post, 14 September 1971
  32. ^ Cameron (1973)
  33. ^ a b Moritz, (1974)
  34. ^ "Gifts for a Guru" in Stars and Stripes, 15 November 1972.
  35. ^ a b c Morgan (1973)
  36. ^ a b c Galanter (1999), p. 22
  37. ^ a b Messer, Jeanne. "Guru Maharaj Ji and the Divine Light Mission" in The New Religious Consciousness by Charles Y. Glock and Robert N. Bellah, eds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976, ISBN 0-52003-472-4, pp. 52-72.
  38. ^ "Guru's Pupil Slates Talk", SYRACUSE POST-STANDARD 3 Feb. 1973. p. 3
  39. ^ "Gifts for a guru". AP, THE STARS AND STRIPES 15 November 1972. p.4
  40. ^ THE TIMES SATURDAY NOVEMBER 19, 1972
  41. ^ India still studying goods confiscated from youthful guru. New York Times, 18 July 1973
  42. ^ "Boy Guru Suspected of Smuggling", AP, Sat., Oakland Tribune, 25 Aug. 1973
  43. ^ Winnipeg Free Press, Tuesday, 19 December 1972
  44. ^ a b c Moritz 1974
  45. ^ Downton (1979), pp. 187-8
  46. ^ EastWest Journal "An Expressway over Bliss Mountain" by Phil Levy P 29
  47. ^ Downton, James V. (1979). Sacred journeys: the conversion of young Americans to Division Light Mission. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04198-5. 
  48. ^ a b Kent (2001)
  49. ^ "Guru Gets Testimonial And Some Pie in Face" in New York Times. 8 August 1973, p. 43. At NYT website
  50. ^ Bartel, Dennis (November 1983). "Who's Who in Gurus". Harper's: p. 55. 
  51. ^ "Guru Wants To Help". Sun News (Las Cruces, New Mexico): p. B2. 22 August 1973. 
  52. ^ Jeremy 1974
  53. ^ "The 'Perfect Master' from India has an ulcer", AP, THE STARS AND STRIPES 4 September 1973 p. 6
  54. ^ Levine 1974
  55. ^ "Videotape Explorers on the Trail of a Guru" by Dick Adler, Los Angeles Times, 23 February 1974 p. B2
  56. ^ Collier (1978), p. 176
  57. ^ a b Foss & Larkin (1978)
  58. ^ All Gods Children: The Cult Experience - Salvation Or Slavery? by Carrol Stoner and Jo Anne Parke The New Religions ... Why Now? p. 36
  59. ^ Pilarzyk (1978)
  60. ^ a b c Downton (1979), ch. 12
  61. ^ Downton (1979), p. 5
  62. ^ Bromley & Shupe (1981), p. 137
  63. ^ TIME, 7 April 1975
  64. ^ a b "'You're a Perfect Master'", Newsweek 19 November 1973
  65. ^ "The guru who minds his mother", By MALCOLM N. CARTER, AP. 11/4/73 Stars and Stripes
  66. ^ "Boy guru weds Calif. woman, 24". Associated Press, Long Beach, Calif. Independent, 22 May 1974
  67. ^ San Francisco Examiner, 7/21/73, as quoted in "What's Behind the 15-Year-Old Guru Maharaj Ji?" Gail Winder and Carol Horowitz, The Realist 12/73
  68. ^ "Through a 'Third Eye' Comes The Divine Light", By PHIL HASLANGER (Of The Capital Times Staff), Capital times, 2/16/73
  69. ^ "Guru, 16, marries secretary" AP Tues. 21 May 1974 Greeley Tribune
  70. ^ "The Guru's Wife Is Another Devotee", Robert P. Dalton, AP Staff Writer, Oakland Tribune. 23 May 1974.
  71. ^ Downton (1979), p. 191.
  72. ^ "Guru Tries to Take Control of Mission" in The Ruston Daily Leader, 9 April 1975:
  73. ^ "MOTHER OUSTS 'PLAYBOY' GURU" in Los Angeles Times. Wednesday 2 April 1975, PART II, p. 6A
  74. ^ Price (1979), pp. 279–96
  75. ^ a b "Maharaj Ji Buys $400,000 Home Base in Malibu Area", JOHN DART, Los Angeles Times, 27 Nov 1974; p. B2
  76. ^ a b c d "Malibu Guru Maintains Following Despite Rising Mistrust of Cults" Mark Foster, Los Angeles Times 12 January 1979 p. 3
  77. ^ Finke, Nikki. "MALIBU Metamorphosis: Is Hollywood's Haven Growing Into Just Another Miami Beach?" in Los Angeles Times. 3 September 1989. At L. A. Times Archives
  78. ^ "1-Year Trial OKd for Sect's Helipad" in Los Angeles Times. 22 May 1981, p. F6. At L. A. Times Archives
  79. ^ Pasternak, Judy. "Maharaji Denied in Bid to Triple Copter Use" in Los Angeles Times. 7 July 1985, p. 1. At L. A. Times Archives
  80. ^ Downton (1979), p. 199
  81. ^ a b c Downton (1979)
  82. ^ Björkqvist, K (1990): World-rejection, world-affirmation, and goal displacement: some aspects of change in three new religions movements of Hindu origin. In N. Holm (ed.), Encounter with India: studies in neohinduism (pp. 79-99) - Turku, Finland. Åbo Akademi University Press - "In 1976, Maharaj Ji declared that he felt that the organization had come between his devotees and himself, and he disposed of the headquarters altogether."
  83. ^ Downton (1979), p. 196
  84. ^ Downton (1979), pp. 210–211
  85. ^ "Guru Maharaj Ji becomes a citizen of the U.S." Rocky Mountain News, Wednesday, 19 October 1977, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.
  86. ^ Brown, Chip, Parents Versus Cult: Frustration, Kidnapping, Tears; Who Became Kidnappers to Rescue Daughter From Her Guru, The Washington Post, 15 February 1982
  87. ^ a b Björkqvist, K (1990): World-rejection, world-affirmation, and goal displacement: some aspects of change in three new religions movements of Hindu origin. In N. Holm (ed.), Encounter with India: studies in neohinduism (pp. 79-99) - Turku, Finland. Åbo Akademi University Press
  88. ^ Kranenborg (2002), p. 178
  89. ^ a b Chryssides (2001), pp. 210–211
  90. ^ "Whatever Happened to Guru Maharaj Ji?". Hinduism Today (Himalayan Academy). October 1983. ISSN 08960801. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5roQYWw8F. 
  91. ^ Contact Info - Broadcasts
  92. ^ "About Prem Rawat" at the website of The Prem Rawat Foundation
  93. ^ "Charity report". BBB Wise Giving Alliance. http://charityreports.give.org/Public/Report.aspx?CharityID=3098. Retrieved March 2007. 
  94. ^ Conversation with Prem Rawat, Available online. (Retrieved January 2006)
  95. ^ "Words of Peace" by Maharaji receives TV Award in Brazil" Press release.
  96. ^ "Over 3 million people participate in events with Prem Rawat in India". The Prem Rawat Foundation. http://www.tprf.org/Prem_Rawat_press_releases/Prem_Rawat_addreses_over_3_million_in_India_events.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  97. ^ Andrea Cagan: Peace is Possible, The Life and Message of Prem Rawat. Mighty River Press, ISBN 0-9788694-9-4
  98. ^ "WORDS OF PEACE FOR EUROPE: LA BASILICATA PROTAGONISTA NEL PROCESSO DI PACE". Agenzia Internazionale Stampa Estero. 2 July 2010. http://www.agenziaaise.it/esteri/unione-europea/65024-.html. 
  99. ^ "Domani a Bruxelles la conferencia "Words of Peace for Europe". basilicatanet.eu. http://www.basilicatanet.eu/news/print.asp?Id=734979. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  100. ^ Lipner (1994), pp. 120-1
  101. ^ Schomer (1987)
  102. ^ a b Geaves (2006b), p. 66
  103. ^ a b Geaves (2007), pp. 267
  104. ^ Geaves (2007), p. 280
  105. ^ Geaves, Ron, Globalization, charisma, innovation, and tradition: An exploration of the transformations in the organisational vehicles for the transmission of the teachings of Prem Rawat (Maharaji), 2006, Journal of Alternative Spiritualities and New Age Studies, 2 44–6 – Although Rawat does not see himself as part of a tradition or as having to conform to the behavior of any predecessor, in my view, the best way to place him is to identify him with Vaudeville’s definition of the sant
  106. ^ Drury, Michael, The Dictionary of the Esoteric: 3000 Entries on the Mystical and Occult Traditions, pp.75-6, (2002), Sterling Publishing Company, ISBN 1-842-93108-3
    Maharaj Ji [teaches] meditation upon the life-force. This meditation focuses on four types of mystical energy, known as the experiences of Light, Harmony, Nectar, and the Word. These allow the practitioner to develop a deep and spiritual self-knowledge
  107. ^ Chryssides, George D. Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements pp.210-1, Scarecrow Press (2001) ISBN 0-8108-4095-2
    "This Knowledge was self-understanding, yielding calmness, peace, and contentment, since the innermost self is identical with the divine. Knowledge is attained through initiation, which provides four techniques that allow the practitioner to go within.
  108. ^ Hunt, Stephen J. Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction (2003), pp.116-7, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-3410-8".
    The major focus of Maharaji is on stillness, peace, and contentment within the individual, and his 'Knowledge' consists of the techniques to obtain them. Knowledge, roughly translated, means the happiness of the true self-understanding. Each individual should seek to comprehend his or her true self, which brings a sense of well-being, joy and harmony. The Knowledge includes four meditation procedures: Light, Music, Nectar and Word. The process of reaching the true self within can only be achieved by the individual, but with the guidance and help of a teacher. Hence, the movement seems to embrace aspects of world-rejection and world-affirmation. The tens of thousands of followers in the West do not see themselves as members of a religion, but the adherents of a system of teachings that extol the goal of enjoying life to the full."
  109. ^ "Three promises". thekeys.maharaji.net. http://thekeys.maharaji.net/keys/threepromises.php. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  110. ^ a b c Schnabel (1982), p. 99
  111. ^ Aldridge, Alan — Religion in the Contemporary World (2007) — p.59
  112. ^ Der Spiegel - 8 October 1973
  113. ^ "The Guru Who Minds His Mother", MALCOLM N. CARTER. Associated Press THE STARS AND STRIPES, 4 November 1973 Page A6
  114. ^ UPI 1976
  115. ^ Callinan, Rory. "Cult Leader Jets In to Recruit New Believers: Millionaire cult leader Maharaj Ji is holding a secret session west of Brisbane this weekend" in Brisbane Courier-Mail. 20 September 1997
  116. ^ Mendick, Robert. "Cult leader gives cash to Lord Mayor appeal" in Evening Standard. London, 2007-05-31, p. 4. At HighBeam Research
  117. ^ Larson, Bob (1982). Larson's book of cults. Wheaton, Ill: Tyndale House Publishers. p. 205. ISBN 0-8423-2104-7. 
  118. ^ Rhodes, Ron The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions: The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Ch. 1: Defining Cults. Zondervan, 2001, ISBN 0310232171, p. 32.
  119. ^ Partridge, Christopher H. (2004). New religions: a guide: new religious movements, sects and alternative spiritualities. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522042-0. 
  120. ^ a b McGuire (2002) ch. 5, p. 175
  121. ^ DuPertuis (1986)
  122. ^ Dupertuis, Lucy, "How People Recognize Charisma: The Case of Darshan in Radhasoami and Divine Light Mission", University of Guam, Sociological Analysis 1986, 47, 2.111-124
  123. ^ Hammond, Phillip E.; Bromley, David G. (1987). The Future of new religious movements. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. pp. 36. ISBN 0-86554-238-4. 
  124. ^ Bromley, David G. (2007). Teaching New Religious Movements (Aar Teaching Religious Studies Series). An American Academy of Religion Book. pp. 156. ISBN 0-19-517729-0. 
  125. ^ Pilarzyk, Thomas. The Origin, Development, and Decline of a Youth Culture Religion: An Application of Sectarianization Theory, Review of Religious Research, Vol. 20, No. 1. (Autumn, 1978), pp. 23-43.
  126. ^ Hunt, Stephen J. Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction (2003), pp. 116–7, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-3410-8
  127. ^ Petersen, William J. Those Curious New Cults in the 80s. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing (1982); p. 146., as quoted in "Adherents.com"[1]
  128. ^ Rudin & Rudin (1980), p. 63
  129. ^ Spencer J. Palmer & Roger R. Keller, Religions of the World, p. 95. 1990 edition quoted in: Adherents.com, entry Divine Light Mission
  130. ^ Downton (1979), p. 198
  131. ^ Downton (1979), p. 210
  132. ^ HinduismToday1983"
  133. ^ a b ;Keim, Tony. "Police block drive-in protest against guru", Courier Mail, Australia, 4 September 2002.
  134. ^ "Blinded by the Light", Good Weekend, Sydney (Australia), 31 August 2002.
  135. ^ "Former Guru on a Different Mission", Rocky Mountain News, 30 January 1998.
  136. ^ "John Barbour, Professor of Religion". St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota. http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/religion/faculty/barbour.html. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  137. ^ Barbour (1994), p. 173
  138. ^ "Domain tools". http://whois.domaintools.com/maharaji.net. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  139. ^ "The Keys, by Maharaji". The Prem Rawat Foundation. https://thekeys.maharaji.net/home/index.php?_a=knowledgebase&_j=questiondetails&_i=372&nav=+%26gt%3B+%3Ca+href%3D%27index.php%3F_a%3Dknowledgebase%26_j%3Dsubcat%26_i%3D52%27%3EThe+Keys%3C%2Fa%3E. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Prem Rawat — dando una conferencia en Barcelona, en 2004. Prem Rawat, cuyo nombre completo es Prem Pal Singh Rawat nacido en Haridwar (India) el 10 de diciembre de 1957 [1] es un maestro que preconi …   Wikipedia Español

  • Prem Rawat — („Maharaji“), 2007 in Lissabon Prem Rawat (vollständig: Prem Pal Singh Rawat; * 10. Dezember 1957 in Kankhal, Indien) ist ein spiritueller Lehrer, der sich weltweit für den Frieden einsetzt. Er wurde am 10. Dezember 1957 im indischen Kankhal… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Prem Rawat — Nom de naissance Prem Pal Singh Rawat Naissance 10 décembre 1957 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Enseñanzas de Prem Rawat — Prem Rawat, conocido como Maharaji por sus estudiantes promueve paz interna y técnicas que él llama Conocimiento . Él habla y enseña en un número de temas referente a la paz interna y al desarrollo personal. Los puntos principales de las… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Maharaji (Prem Rawat) — Prem Rawat, conocido también como Maharaji, habla a personas de todo el mundo sobre la posibilidad de conocer la paz y la satisfacción interior. Su mensaje es simple y a la vez profundo. Durante una intervención en el Centro de conferencias de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Teachings of Prem Rawat — The core of Prem Rawat s teaching is that the individual’s need for fulfillment can be satisfied by turning within to contact a constant source of peace and joy. Rather than a body of dogma, he emphasizes a direct experience of transcendence,… …   Wikipedia

  • The Prem Rawat Foundation — (TPRF) Rechtsform: Non Profit Organisation Zweck: Verbreitung der Prem Rawat Botschaft, sowie humanitäre Hilfe in Notstandsgebieten Vorsitz: Linda H. Pascotto …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fundación Prem Rawat — La Fundación Prem Rawat es una organización benéfica registrada en California, Estados Unidos y clasificada en la categoría 501(c)3 . Está dedicada a fomentar y difundir las conferencias, presentaciones, expresiones artísticas y musicales,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Bibliography of Prem Rawat and related organizations — lists bibliographical material regarding Prem Rawat and organizations like Divine Light Mission, Elan Vital and The Prem Rawat Foundation.;Legenda *Except in verbatim quotes (of titles etc.) Prem Rawat is always listed under that name in the… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Prem Rawat-related topics — This list is of topics related to Prem Rawat (Maharaji). Family * Hans Ram Singh Rawat, known as Hans Ji Maharaj, father Notable students, past and present * Jonathan Cainer, astrologer ,Fact|date=April 2008 * Sophia Collier, author of the book * …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.