The Wilmot Proviso was introduced on
August 8, 1846, in the United StatesHouse of Representatives as a rider on a $2 million appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican-American War. The intent of the proviso, submitted by Democratic Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the introduction of slaveryin any territory acquired from Mexico. The proviso did not pass in this session or in any other session when it was reintroduced over the course of the next several years, but many consider it as the one of first events on the long slide to secession and Civil War which would accelerate through the 1850s.
After an earlier attempt to acquire Texas by treaty had failed to receive the necessary two-thirds approval of the Senate, the
United Statesannexed the Republic of Texasby a joint resolution of Congress that required simply a majority vote in each house of Congress. President John Tylersigned the bill on March 1, 1845in the waning days of his presidency. As many expected, the annexation led to war with Mexico. When the war began to wind down, the political focus shifted to what territory, if any, would be acquired from Mexico. Key to this was the determination of the future status of slavery in any new territory.
Both major political parties had labored long to keep divisive slavery issues out of national politics. The Democrats had generally been successful in picturing those within their party attempting to push a purely sectional issue as extremists that were well outside the normal scope of traditional politics. [Silbey pg. 123] However, midway through Polk’s term, Democratic dissatisfaction with the administration was growing within the
Martin Van Buren, or Barnburner, wing of the Democratic Party over other issues. Many felt that Van Buren had been unfairly denied the party’s nomination in 1844 when southern delegates resurrected a convention rule, last used in 1832, requiring that the nominee had to receive two-thirds of the delegate votes. Many in the North were also upset with the Walker tariffwhich reduced the tariff rates; others were opposed to Polk’s veto of a popular river and harbor improvements bill, and still others were upset over the Oregon settlement with Great Britain where it appeared that Polk did not pursue the northern territory with the same vigor he used to acquire Texas. Polk was seen more and more as enforcing strict party loyalty primarily to serve southern interests. [Morrison p.42. Johannsen pg. 202. Potter pg. 22-29]
The Whigs faced a different scenario. The victory of James Polk (D) over
Henry Clay(W) in the 1844 presidential election had caught the southern Whigs by surprise. The key element of this defeat, which carried over into the congressional and local races in 1845 and 1846 throughout the South, was the party’s failure to take a strong stand favoring Texas annexation. Southern Whigs were reluctant to repeat their mistakes on Texas, but, at the same time, Whigs from both sections realized that victory and territorial acquisition would again bring out the issue of slavery and the territories. In the South in particular there was already the realization, or perhaps fear, that the old economic issues that had defined the Second Party Systemwere already dead. Their political goal was to avoid any sectional debate over slavery which would expose the sectional divisions within the party. [ Cooper pg. 225-229.]
Introduction and debate on the proviso
August 8, 1846President Polk submitted to Congress a request for $2,000,000 in order to facilitate negotiations with Mexicoover the final settlement of the war. The request came with no public warning after Polk had failed to arrange for approval of the bill with no Congressional debate. With Congress scheduled to adjourn that Monday, Democratic leadership arranged for the bill to be immediately considered in a special night session. Debate was to be limited to two hours with no individual speech to last more than ten minutes. [Potter pg. 18-19] David Wilmot, a Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania, and a group of other Barnburner Democrats including Preston Kingof New York, Hannibal Hamlinof Maine, Gideon Wellesof Connecticut, and Jacob Brinkerhoff[Earle pg. 233 fn. 1. Brinkerhoff is claimed by some historians to have been the actual author of the proviso.] of Ohio, had already been meeting in early August strategy meetings. Wilmot had a strong record of supporting the Polk administration and was close to many Southerners. With the likelihood that Wilmot would have no trouble gaining the floor in the House debate, he was chosen to present the amendment to the appropriations bill that would carry his name. [Silbey pg. 124. Potter pg. 21. Richards pg. 150. Fire-eater William L. Yancey (D) in 1846 considered Wilmot as the one northerner that could be trusted. Walther pg. 91] Wilmot offered the following to the House in language modeled after the Northwest Ordinanceof 1787: William W. Wick(D) of Indianaattempted to eliminate total restriction of slavery by proposing an amendment that the Missouri Compromise line of latitude 36°30' simply be extended west to the Pacific. This was voted down 89-54. The vote to add the proviso to the bill was then called, and it passed by 83-64. A last ditch effort by southerners to table the entire bill was defeated by 94-78, and then the entire bill was approved 85-80. Most ominously, these votes all fell overwhelmingly along sectional rather than party lines. [Morrison pg. 41. Potter pg. 22. Richards pg. 152]
The Senate took up the bill late in its Monday session. Democrats hoped to reject the Wilmot Proviso and send the bill back to the House for a quick approval of the bill without the restrictions on slavery. Whig John Davis of Massachusetts attempted to forestall this effort by holding the floor until it would be too late to return the bill to the House, forcing the Senate to accept or reject the appropriation with the proviso intact. However before he could call the vote, due to an eight minute difference in the official House and Senate clocks, the House had adjourned and the Congress was officially out of session. [Potter pg. 22-23]
The issue resurfaced at the end of the year when Polk, in his annual message to Congress, renewed his request with the amount needed increased to three million dollars. Polk argued that, while the original intent of the war had never been to acquire territory (a view hotly contested by his opponents), an honorable peace required territorial compensation to the United States. [Morrison pg. 53] The Three Million Dollar Bill, as it was called, was the sole item of business in the House from February 8, 1847 until February 15. Preston King reintroduced the Wilmot Proviso, but this time the exclusion of slavery was expanded beyond merely the Mexican territory to include "any territory on the continent of America which shall hereafter be acquired". This time Representative
Stephen Douglas(D) of Illinois reintroduced the proposal to simply extend the Missouri Compromiseline to the west coast, and this was again defeated 109-82. The Three Million Bill with the proviso was then passed by the House 115-106. In the Senate, led by Thomas Hart Benton (D), the bill was passed without the proviso. When the bill was returned to the House the Senate bill prevailed; every Northern Whig still supported the proviso, but 22 northern Democrats voted with the South. [ Richards pg. 152-153. Johannsen pg. 204. Silbey pg. 130-131]
In 1848 the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgoending the war was submitted to the Senate for approval. Douglas, now in the Senate, was among those who joined with the South to defeat an effort to attach the Wilmot Proviso to the treaty. [Unlike appropriations bills that constitutionally were required to be initiated in the House, since a treaty was involved the debate this time would only involve the Senate.] In the prior year's debate in the House Douglas had argued that all of the debate over slavery in the territories was premature; the time to deal with that issue was when the territory was actually organized by Congress. [Johannsen pg. 216-217] Lewis Cass(D) in December 1847, in his famous letter to A. O. P. Nicholson in Tennessee, further defined the concept of popular sovereigntywhich would soon evolve as the mainstream Democratic alternative to the Wilmot Proviso:
With the approval of the treaty, the issue moved from one of abstraction to one involving practical matters. The nature of the Constitution, slavery, the value of free labor, political power, and ultimately political realignment were all invoved in the debate. [Holt pg. 50] Historian Michael Morrison argues that from 1820-1846 a combination of "racism and veneration of the Union" had prevented a direct northern attack on slavery. [Morrison pg. 53] While the original southern response to the Wilmot Proviso was measured, it soon became clear to the South that this long postponed attack on slavery had finally occurred. Rather than simply the politics of the issue, historian William Freehling noted, "Most Southerners raged primarily because David Wilmot’s holier-than-thou stance was so insulting." [Freehling pg 461]
In the North, the most immediate repercussions involved
Martin Van Burenand the state of New York. The Barnburners were successfully opposed by their conservative opposition, the Hunkers, in their efforts to send a pro-proviso batch of delegates to the 1848 Democratic National Convention. The Barnburners held their own separate convention and sent their own slate of delegates to the convention in Baltimore. Both delegations were seated with the state's total votes split between them. When the convention rejected a pro-proviso plank [ [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/showplatforms.php?platindex=D1848 Political Party Platforms ] ] and selected Lewis Cassas the nominee, the Barnburners again bolted and were the nucleus of forming the Free Soil Party. [Richards pg. 154-155] Historian Leonard Richards writes of these disaffected Democrats:
cquote|Overall, then, Southern Democrats during the 1840s lost the hard core of their original
doughfacesupport. No longer could they count on New England and New York Democrats to provide them with winning margins in the House. …
To them [Free Soil Democrats] the movement to acquire Texas, and the fight over the Wilmot Proviso, marked the turning point, when aggressive slavemasters stole the heart and soul of the Democratic Party and began dictating the course of the nation’s destiny. [ Richards pg. 159]
Historian William Cooper presents the exactly opposite southern perspective:
Alabama, with no available candidate sufficiently opposed to the proviso, William L. Yancey secured the adoption by the state Democratic convention of the so-called " Alabama Platform," which was endorsed by the legislatures of Alabama and Georgia and by Democratic state conventions in Floridaand Virginia. The platform called for no Federal restrictions of slavery in the territories, no restrictions on slavery by territorial governments until the point where they were drafting a state constitution in order to petition Congress for statehood, opposition to any candidates supporting either the proviso or popular sovereignty, and positive federal legislation overruling Mexican anti-slavery laws in the Mexican Cession. However the same Democratic Convention that had refused to endorse the proviso also rejected incorporating the Yancey proposal into the national platform by a 216-36 vote. Unlike the Barnburner walkout, however, only Yancey and one other Alabama delegate left the convention. Yancey’s efforts to stir up a third party movement in the state failed. [ Walther p. 102-117. Niven pg. 314 South Carolina had boycotted the entire convention, but a single South Carolinian was admitted by the convention as the state’s delegation and he made all nine of the state’s votes at the convention.]
Southerner Whigs looked hopefully to slaveholder and war hero General
Zachary Tayloras the solution to the widening sectional divide even though he took no public stance on the Wilmot Proviso. However Taylor, once nominated and elected, showed that he had his own plans. Taylor hoped to create a new non-partisan coalition that would once again remove slavery from the national stage. He expected to be able to accomplish this by freezing slavery at its 1849 boundaries and by immediately bypassing the territory stage and creating two new states out of the Mexican Cession. [Cooper pg. 243-245, 273-176]
The opening salvo in a new level of sectional conflict occurred on
December 13, 1848when John G. Palfrey(W) of Massachusettsintroduced a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia. Throughout 1849 in the South "the rhetoric of resistance to the North escalated and spread". The potentially secessionist Nashville Conventionwas scheduled for June 1850. [ Walther p. 118-122] When President Taylor in his December 1849 message to Congress urged the admission of Californiaas a free state, a state of crisis was further aggravated. Historian Allan Nevins sums up the situation which had been created by the Wilmot Proviso:
Combined with other slavery related issues, the Wilmot Proviso led to the
Compromise of 1850, which helped buy another shaky decade of peace. Radical secessionists were temporarily at bay as the Nashville Convention failed to endorse secession. Moderates rallied around the Compromise as the final solution to the sectional issues involving slavery and the territories. At the same time, however, the language of the Georgia Platform, widely accepted throughout the South, made it clear that the South’s commitment to Union was not unqualified; they fully expected the North to adhere to their part of the agreement.
* [http://blueandgraytrail.com/event/Wilmot_Proviso Wilmot Proviso]
*Berwanger, Eugene H. "The Frontier Against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy". (1967) ISBN 0-252-07056-9.
*Cooper, William J. Jr. "The South and the Politics of Slavery 1828-1856". (1978) ISBN 0-8071-0775-1.
*Earle, Jonathan H. "Jacksonian Antislavery & the Politics of Free Soil, 1824-1854". (2004) ISBN 0-8078-2888-2.
*Foner, Eric. "Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War". (1970) ISBN 0-19-509981-8.
*Freehling, William W. "The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay 1776-1854". (1990) ISBN 0-19-505814-3.
*Holt, Michael F. "The Political Crisis of the 1850s". (1978) ISBN 0-393-95370-X.
*Johnansen, Robert W. "Stephen A. Douglas". (1973) ISBN 0-252-06635-9.
*Levine, Bruce. "Half Slave and Half Free: The Roots of Civil War". (1992) ISBN 0809053527.
*McKnight, Brian D., article on Wilmot Proviso in "Encyclopedia of the American Civil War", edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
*Morrison, Michael A. "Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War". (1997) ISBN 0-8078-2319-8.
*Nevins, Allan. "Ordeal of the Union: Fruits of Manifest Destiny 1847-1852". (1947)
*Niven, John. "John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union: A Biography". (1988) ISBN 0-8071-1451-0.
*Potter, David M. "The Impending Crisis 1848-1861". (1976) ISBN 0-06-131929-5.
*Richards, Leonard L. "The Slave Power and Southern Domination 1780-1860". (2000) ISBN 0-8071-2537-7.
*Silby, Joel H. "Storm over Texas: The Annexation Controversy and the Road to the Civil War". (2005) ISBN 0195139445.
*Walther, Eric H. "William Lowndes Yancey: The Coming of the Civil War". (2006) ISBN 0-8078-3027-5.
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