Infobox Russian city
Golden Horn Bay
CityDay=First Sunday of July
Charter of Vladivostok
July 2, 1860
April 22, 1880
Vladivostok (audio-ru|Владивосто́к|ru-Vladivostok.ogg) is
Russia's largest port city on the Pacific Oceanand the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. It is situated at the head of the Golden Horn Bay not far from the Russo-Chinese border and North Korea. It is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet.
The name Vladivostok (Владивосток) loosely translates from Russian as "rule the East" a name based on that of
Vladikavkaz, at that time a Russian fortress in the Caucasus. The traditional Chinese name for the city is "Hǎishēnwēi" (海參崴; literally " sea cucumbercliffs"). In mainland China( PRC), it is often known under the transliteration of "Fúlādíwòsītuōkè" (符拉迪沃斯托克) today [Example at [http://ru.china-embassy.org/chn/xwdt/t185339.htm 中国驻符拉迪沃斯托克领事办公室正式开馆] zh icon] but not in Taiwan ( ROC). [ [http://terms.nict.gov.tw/search1.php?s=Vladivostok&type=&s_type=0&Submit2=%ACd%A1%40%A1%40%B8%DF National Institute for Compilation and Translation Academic Noun Search] zh icon] The Japanese name of the city is "Urajiosutokku" (ウラジオストック; a rough transliteration of the Russian originally written in Kanjias 浦塩斯徳 and often shortened to "Urajio"; ウラジオ; 浦塩). In Korean, the name is transliterated as "Beulladiboseutokeu" (블라디보스토크) in South Korea, "Ullajibosŭttokhŭ" (울라지보스또크) in North Korea, and "Beullajiboseu-ttokeu" (블라지보스또크) by Koreans in China.
Before Russia acquired the Maritime Province by the
Treaty of Aigun(1858), the Pacific coast near Vladivostok had been settled by the Jurchenand Manchu. A French whaler visiting the Zolotoy Rogin 1852 discovered several huts of Chinese or Manchu fishermen on the shore of the bay.
The naval outpost was founded in 1859 by Count
Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, who named it after the model of Vladikavkaz, a Russian fortress in the Caucasus. The first child was born in Vladivostok in 1863. An elaborate system of fortifications was erected between the 1870s and 1890s. A telegraph line from Vladivostok to Shanghaiand Nagasaki was opened in 1871, the year when a commercial port was relocated to this town from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. The municipal coat of arms, representing the Siberian tiger, was adopted in March 1883.
The city's economy was given a boost in 1903, with the completion of the
Trans-Siberian Railwaywhich connected Vladivostok to Moscowand Europe. The first high schoolwas opened in 1899. In the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution, Vladivostok was of great military importance for the Far Eastern Republic, the Provisional Priamurye Government, and the Allied intervention, consisting of foreign troops from Japan, the United States, Canada, Czechoslovakia, and other lands. [ [http://utpjournals.metapress.com/content/h1x40w1535233070/fulltext.pdf Benjamin Isitt, "Mutiny from Victoria to Vladivostok, December 1918," "Canadian Historical Review", 87:2 (June 2006)] ] The taking of the city by Ieronim Uborevich's Red Armyon 25 October 1922marked the end of the Russian Civil War.
As the main naval base of the
Soviet Pacific Fleet, the city was closed to foreigners during the Soviet years. Nevertheless, it was at Vladivostok that Leonid Brezhnevand Gerald Fordconducted the Strategic Arms Limitation Talksin 1974. At the time, the two countries decided quantitative limits on various nuclear weaponssystems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBMlaunchers.
The city is located in the southern extremity of
Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.
The highest point is
Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m. Eagle's Nest Mountis often called the highest point of the city; however, with the height of only 199 m (214 m according to other sources), it is the highest point of the downtown area, but not of the whole city.
Vladivostok shares the latitude with
Sapporo, Sukhumi, Almaty, Florence, Marseille, A Coruña, Boston, and Toronto.
Railroad distance to
Moscowis 9,302 km. The direct distance to Moscow is 6,430 km. Direct distance to Bangkokis 5,600 km, to Darwin—6,180 km, San Francisco—8,400 km, Lisbon—10,100 km, London—8,500 km, to Seoul—750 km, to Tokyo—1,050 km, to Beijing—1,331 km.
:Mean annual temperature: C to F|4.3:Average temperature in January: C to F|-13.7:Average temperature in August: C to F|20.2:Average annual precipitation: 722 mm (strong summer maximum):
Köppen climate classification: Dwb (monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, warm summers)
location = Vladivostok
Jan_Hi_°C = -9.3 |Jan_REC_Hi_°C = 5.0
Feb_Hi_°C = -5.9 |Feb_REC_Hi_°C = 9.9
Mar_Hi_°C = 1.2 |Mar_REC_Hi_°C = 15.2
Apr_Hi_°C = 8.8 |Apr_REC_Hi_°C = 22.7
May_Hi_°C = 14.2 |May_REC_Hi_°C = 29.5
Jun_Hi_°C = 17.0 |Jun_REC_Hi_°C = 31.8
Jul_Hi_°C = 21.1 |Jul_REC_Hi_°C = 33.6
Aug_Hi_°C = 23.3 |Aug_REC_Hi_°C = 33.0
Sep_Hi_°C = 19.6 |Sep_REC_Hi_°C = 30.0
Oct_Hi_°C = 12.9 |Oct_REC_Hi_°C = 23.4
Nov_Hi_°C = 2.9 |Nov_REC_Hi_°C = 17.5
Dec_Hi_°C = -5.9 |Dec_REC_Hi_°C = 19.3
Year_Hi_°C = 8.4 |Year_REC_Hi_°C = 33.6
Jan_Lo_°C = -17.1 |Jan_REC_Lo_°C = -31.4
Feb_Lo_°C = -14.0 |Feb_REC_Lo_°C = -28.9
Mar_Lo_°C = -6.1 |Mar_REC_Lo_°C = -22.0
Apr_Lo_°C = 1.2 |Apr_REC_Lo_°C = -8.1
May_Lo_°C = 6.2 |May_REC_Lo_°C = -0.8
Jun_Lo_°C = 10.6 |Jun_REC_Lo_°C = 3.7
Jul_Lo_°C = 15.6 |Jul_REC_Lo_°C = 8.8
Aug_Lo_°C = 17.8 |Aug_REC_Lo_°C = 10.1
Sep_Lo_°C = 13.0 |Sep_REC_Lo_°C = 2.2
Oct_Lo_°C = 5.7 |Oct_REC_Lo_°C = -9.7
Nov_Lo_°C = -4.1 |Nov_REC_Lo_°C = -23.0
Dec_Lo_°C = -13.0 |Dec_REC_Lo_°C = -28.1
Year_Lo_°C = 1.4 |Year_REC_Lo_°C = -31.4
Jan_Precip_cm = |Jan_Precip_mm = 15
Feb_Precip_cm = |Feb_Precip_mm = 19
Mar_Precip_cm = |Mar_Precip_mm = 25
Apr_Precip_cm = |Apr_Precip_mm = 54
May_Precip_cm = |May_Precip_mm = 61
Jun_Precip_cm = |Jun_Precip_mm = 100
Jul_Precip_cm = |Jul_Precip_mm = 124
Aug_Precip_cm = |Aug_Precip_mm = 153
Sep_Precip_cm = |Sep_Precip_mm = 126
Oct_Precip_cm = |Oct_Precip_mm = 66
Nov_Precip_cm = |Nov_Precip_mm = 38
Dec_Precip_cm = |Dec_Precip_mm = 18
Year_Precip_cm = |Year_Precip_mm = 799
source = Pogoda.ru.netcite web
url = http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/31960.htm | title = Pogoda.ru.net| accessmonthday = September 8| accessyear = 2007
publisher = | language = Russian]
accessdate = 8.09.2007
accessdate2 = -->
From 1958 to 1991, only Soviet citizens were allowed to live in or even visit Vladivostok (and even Soviet citizens had to obtain official permission in order to enter the city). Before this closure, the city had large Korean [ [http://www.vladmission.org/russianparishes/Vladivostok/vladivostok.htm Most Holy Mother of God, Vladivostok] ] and Chinese populations. [ [http://www.f8.com/FP/Russia/Avlad.html Vladivostok] ] Some
Koreans who were deported during Stalin's rule from the Russian Far East have since returned, particularly to Vladivostok. [ [http://vlad.tribnet.com/1997/iss149/focus.htm Coming home] ] In recent times, North Korean refugeeshave also begun settling in the city. [ [http://in.news.yahoo.com/041116/137/2hwkw.html Russia may be eyed as new North Korean escape route] ] Dead link|date=July 2008
Recently many Chinese illegal immigrants have moved to this city. They tend to work in the retail trading, catering and farming industries. This is considered such a serious social and economic problem to some that the government is actively legislating against them. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6713509.stm BBC — Russia's Far East looks to China]
Vladivostok has one of the largest Armenian communities in eastern Russia. There are a number of Armenian
bakeriesand restaurantsin the city. There are also sizable communities of Chechens, Azerisand Tajiksin the city. [ [http://www.asiapacificms.com/articles/vladivostok_terror/ Russian Far East: Crime Central] ] According to the latest statistics, there are currently about 100,000 Muslims living in the Russian Far East. [ [http://vn.vladnews.ru/issue546/Social_life/Mosque_and_chapel_to_preach_tolerance Mosque and chapel to preach tolerance – Vladivostok News] ]
The city's main industries are
shipping, commercial fishing, and the naval base. Fishing accounts for almost four-fifths of Vladivostok's commercial production. Other food production totals 11%.
In 1995 Updateneed, Vladivostok's annual
international tradetotalled 725 million USD, including 206 million USD of exported goods, and 519 million USD of imported goods. The main export items were fish, timberproducts, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, and ships. The main import items were food products, medicine, clothing, footwear, automobiles, household technical items, and ships.
Since the dissolution of the
Soviet Union, many businesses have opened offices in Vladivostok, taking advantage of its location on the Pacific Oceanand in East Asia.
Trans-Siberian Railwaywas built to connect European Russiawith Vladivostok, Russia's most important Pacific Oceanport. Finished in 1905, the rail line ran from Moscow to Vladivostok via several of Russia's main cities. Part of the railroad, known as the Chinese Eastern Line, crossed over into Manchuria, China, passing through Harbin, a major city in Manchuria.
Air routes connect
Vladivostok International AirportwithJapan, People's Republic of China, North Korea, South Koreaand Vietnam.It is possible to get to Vladivostok from several of the larger cities in Russia. Regular flights to Seattle, Washingtonwere available in the 1990s but have been canceled since. Vladivostok Airresumed flying to Anchorage in July 2008. They had previously been available in the 1990s.
28 June 1908, Vladivostok's first tram line was started along Svetlanskaya Street from the railway station in Lugovaya Street. On 9 October 1912, the first wooden cars manufactured in Belgium entered service. Today, Vladivostok's means of public transportation include trolleybus, bus, tram, train, funicular, ferryboat and cutter. The main urban traffic lines are City Center—Vtoraya Rechka, City Center—Balyayeva, and City Center—Lugovaya Street.
Vladivostok is home to numerous educational institutions, including six universities:
Far Eastern National University(Дальневосточный государственный университет, or ДВГУ),
Far Eastern State Technical University(Дальневосточный государственный технический университет имени Куйбышева or ДВГТУ),
Marine State University(Морской государственный университет имени адмирала Г.И. Невельского),
Far Eastern State Technical Fishery University(Дальневосточный государственный технический рыбохозяйственный университет or Дальрыбвтуз),
Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service(Владивостокский государственный университет экономики и сервиса or ВГУЭС),
Vladivostok State Medical University(Владивостокский государственный медицинский университет), and
Pacific State University of Economics(Тихоокеанский государственный экономический университет).
The Presidium of the Far Eastern Division of the
Russian Academy of Sciences(ДВО РАН) as well as ten of its research institutes are also located in Vladivostok, as is the Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography(Тихоокеанский научно-исследовательский рыбохозяйственный центр or ТИНРО).
newspapers and regional additions to Moscow publications are issued in Vladivostok. The largest newspaper of the Primorsky Kraiand the whole Russian Far Eastis "Vladivostok" with a circulation of 124,000 copies at the beginning of 1996. Its founder, joint-stock company Vladivostok-News, also issues a weekly English-language newspaper " [http://vn.vladnews.ru/ Vladivostok News] ". Another source of information on the city is the online daily [http://www.vladivostoktimes.com/ Vladivostok Times] . The subjects of the publications issued in these newspapers vary from information around Vladivostok and Primorye to major international events. Newspaper "Zolotoy Rog" ("Golden Horn") gives every detail of economic news. Entertainment materials and cultural news constitute a larger part of Novosti (News) newspaper which is the most popular among Primorye's young people.
As of 1999, there are also seven radio stations, the most popular being 24-hour VBC (612 kHz, 101.7 MHz) and Europa+ (738 kHz, 104.2 MHz). Europa+ normally broadcasts popular modern British-American music, while the ratio of Russian and foreign songs over VBC is fifty-fifty. Every hour one can hear local news over these radio stations. Radio Vladivostok (1098 kHz) operates from 06:00 till 01:00. It broadcasts several special programs which are devoted to the music of the 1950s-1980s as well as New Age.
Arguably Russia's most famous rock band,
Mumiy Troll(Мумий Тролль), hails from Vladivostok and frequently puts on shows there. In addition, the city played host to the now-legendary "VladiROCKstok '96"International Music Festival in September 1996. Hosted by the Mayor and Governor, and organized by two young American expatriates, the festival drew nearly 10,000 people and top-tier musical acts from St. Petersburg ( Akvariumand DDT (band)) and Seattle (Supersuckers), as well as several leading local bands. Fact|date=March 2008
It is the nearest city to the massive
Sikhote-Alin Meteorite, which fell on February 12, 1947, in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, approximately 440 km northeast of Vladivostok.
Two thirds of Vladivostok's suburbs are so polluted that living in them is classified as a health hazard, according to the local ecological specialists, "Ecocenter". Some areas, such as those near the printing works in Pokrovsky Park and the
Far Eastern National Universitycampus, are so polluted that they are defined as ecological disaster zones. Only a few areas have permissible levels of contamination. Professor Boris Preobrazhensky, a top ecologist at the Pacific Institute of Geography said that there was nowhere in the area that was really healthy to live in.
The "Ecocenter" report has taken ten years to compile and is believed to be the most comprehensive of its kind. It was based on analysis of over 30,000 samples of water, snow, soil, air and human tissues taken between 1985 and 1993. Samples showed significant rises over that period in the levels of heavy metals, such as
cadmium, zirconium, cobalt, arsenic, and mercury, which severely affect the respiratory and nervous systems.
The pollution has a number of causes, according to "Ecocenter" geo-chemical expert Sergey Shlykov. Vladivostok has about 80 industrial sites, which may not be many compared to Russia's most industrialized areas, but those around the city are particularly environmentally unfriendly, such as shipbuilding and repairing, power stations, printing, fur farming and mining. In addition, Vladivostok has a particularly vulnerable geography which compounds the effect of the pollution. Winds cannot clear pollution from some of the most densely populated areas around the Pervaya and Vtoraya Rechka as they sit in basins which the winds blow over. In addition, there is little snow in winter and no leaves or grass to catch the dust to make it settle down.B. V. Preobrazhensky, A. I. Burago, S. A. Shlykov. Primorye Ecology. Ecological Situation. [http://www.fegi.ru/ecology/e_sit/index.htm Contamination of Sea and Water] ]
Vladivostok is home to the football club
FC Luch-Energia Vladivostok, who play in the Russian Premier League, and basketball club Spartak Primorje, who play in the Russian Basketball Super League.
Vladivostok is a
Busan South Korea
*flagicon|USA San Diego, USA
*flagicon|USA San Francisco, USA
*flagicon|USA Tacoma, USA
*flagicon|USA Juneau, USA
*flagicon|Philippines Davao City, Philippines
Makati City, Philippines
Wellington, New Zealand
Igor Ansoff, mathematician
Vladimir Arsenyev, explorer
Feliks Gromov, admiral
Boris Gryzlov, politician
Ksenia Kahnovich, model
Eugene Kozlovsky, writer
Igor Kunitsyn, tennis player
Elmar Lohk, architect
Yul Brynnerfilm actor
Mary Losseff, singer and film actress
Igor Tamm, physicist
Alexey Volkonsky, canoer
Victor Dmitrievich Zotov, botanist
Mumiy Troll, Russian rock group:
Eugene "Sdwig" Zvidionny
Ira Fedorenko, singer and Russian ambassador
32nd Rifle Division
Russian Far East
*Trofimov, Vladimir et al, 1992, "Old Vladivostok". Utro Rossii Vladivostok, ISBN 5-87080-004-8
*Poznyak, Tatyana Z. 2004. Foreign Citizens in the Cities of the Russian Far East (the second half of the XIX — XX centuries). Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2004. 316 p. (ISBN 5-8044-0461-X).
*Stephan, John. 1994. The Far East a History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. 481 p.
* [http://map.primorye.ru/map.asp?l=eng&v=vladivostok-eng Vladivostok Map (IE 5.0+)]
* [http://www.SiberianExpedition.ca Siberian Expedition] website, by Benjamin Isitt
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.