- African Jews
Since Biblical times, the
Jewish people have had close ties with Africa, beginning with Abraham's sojourns in Egypt, and later the Israelitecaptivity under the Pharaohs. Some Jewish communities in Africa are among the oldest in the world, dating back more than 2700 years. African Jews have ethnic and religious diversity and richness. African Jewish communities include:
*Scattered African groups who have not maintained contact with the wider Jewish community from ancient times, but who assert descent from ancient Israel or other connections to
Judaism. These include:
**Groups who observe Jewish rituals, or rituals bearing recognizable resemblance to Judaism. Although there are a number of such groups, the majority of world Jewry recognize only the
Beta Israelof Ethiopiaas historically Jewish.
**Groups such as the the
Lemba, most of whom practice Christianity), but who have preserved some rituals and customs believed to be Jewish in origin. This group has also been found to have genetic traits that other Jewish population group s possess, thereby bolstering their claims to Jewish ancestry.
Sephardi Jewsand unicode|Mizraḥi Jews living in North Africa, including Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Egypt. The vast majority of them have emigrated, chiefly to Israeland France, with substantial numbers also emigrating to Brazil, Canadaand the USA. Small but active communities remain in Morocco and Tunisia.
South African Jews, who are mostly Ashkenazi Jews, descended mostly from pre-and post-Holocaust immigrant Lithuanian Jews.
Although not all African Jews are religious, most of the practices found in African Jewish communities are Orthodox.
Ancient Jewish communities
The most ancient communities of African Jews known to the
Western worldare the Sephardic and Mizrahi Jewsof North Africa.
Largely unknown in the West until quite recently are communities of the African Jews such as the
Lemba( Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Northern South Africa) and the Beta Israelin ( Ethiopia). Some among the Igbo of Nigeria, the Annang/ Efik/ Ibibioof Akwa Ibom Stateand Cross River Stateof Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea) claim descent from East African Jewish communities.
In the seventh century, many
Spanish Jewsfled persecution under the Visigothsto North Africa, where they made their homes in the Byzantine-dominated cities along the Mediterranean coast. Some, however, moved further inland and actively proselytized among the Berber tribes. A number of tribes, including the Jarawa, Uled Jari, and some tribes of the Daggatunpeople, converted to Judaism. [Hirschberg, Haim Z. "The Problem of the Judaized Berbers." "Journal of African History" 4, no. 3 (1963): 317.] Ibn Khaldunreported that Kahina, a female Berber warlord who led the resistance against the Arabinvaders of North Africa in the 680's and 690's, was a Jew of the Jarawa tribe. With the defeat of the Berber resistance, none of the Jewish tribes were forced to convert to Islam. [Ausbel, Nathan. "Pictorial History of the Jewish People. New York: Crown, 1953. 225-227.] Remnants of longstanding Jewish communities remain in Morocco, Tunisiaand the Spanish cities of Ceutaand Melilla. There is a much-diminished but still vibrant community on the island of Djerbain Tunisia. Many Jews emigrated to North America in the early 20th century. Most other Jews emigrated to Israel, Franceand Spain, since 1948.:"See also: Jewish exodus from Arab lands."
In 1975, the
Israeli government recognized the Beta Israelof Ethiopiaas legally Jewish . Many who wanted to emigrate were air-lifted to Israel under the leadership of Prime Minister Menahem Begin. Significant immigration continues into the 21st century. Begin had obtained an official ruling from the Israeli Sephardi Chief Rabbi(or "Rishon LeTzion") Ovadia Yosefthat the Beta Israel were descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes. Rabbis believed they were probably descendants of the Tribe of Dan, as rabbinical responsathat discuss issues concerning them dated back hundreds of years.
Historical and DNA evidence, however, suggested different origins. Rabbi Yosef therefore ruled that upon arrival in Israel, the Beta Israel had to undergo a "pro forma"
conversion to Judaism. They had to declare their allegiance to a halachic way of life and the Jewish people, in conformity with practices followed by Orthodox Rabbinical Judaism. He did not demand the normal rigid requirements that the halacha imposes on potential gentile proselytes, (such as a brit milahor immersion in a mikveh). (Ashkenazi Orthodox rabbis do require that members of Beta Israel undergo a formal conversion and, without reliable proof of Jewish ancestry, regard them the same as converts.) Many rabbinic authorities consider the conversions to be actual conversions, not "pro forma".
The practices of the Beta Israel differed significantly from those of other forms of
Judaism. In Ethiopia the Beta Israel community was for the most part isolated from the Talmud. They did, however, have their own Oral Law. In some cases there were practices similar to those of KaraiteJudaism, and in others more similar to rabbinical Judaism.
In many instances their religious elders, or priestly, class known as "kessim" or "qessotch", interpreted the Biblical Law of the
Tanachin a way similar to the RabbiniteJewish communities in other parts of the worldFact|date=January 2008. In that sense, the Beta Israel had a tradition analogous to that of the Talmud, although at times at variance with the practices and teachings of other Jewish communities.
Today, they are a community in flux. Some of the kessim accept normative Judaism, "i.e.", the rabbinic/Talmudic tradition that is practiced by non-Ethiopian
Orthodox Jews. Many of the younger generation of Ethiopian-Israelis have been educated in yeshivasand received rabbinical semikha. A certain segment of traditionalist "kessim" insist on maintaining their separate and distinct form of Judaism, as it had been practiced in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Many of the Ethiopian Jewish youth who have immigrated to Israel have either assimilated to the dominant form of Orthodox Judaism as practised in Israel, or to a secular lifestyle.
One significant difference is that the Beta Israel lacked the festivals of
Purimand Hanukkah, probably because they branched off from the main body of Judaism before these non-Biblical holidays began to be commemorated. Today, most members of the Beta Israel community living in Israel do observe these holidays.
In Ethiopia the community known as
Beit Avrahamhas some 50,000 members. This community also claims Jewish heritage. Several scholars think that they broke off from the Beta Israel community several centuries ago, hid their Jewish customs, and outwardly adopted Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity.
Beit Avraham have traditionally been on the lower rungs of Ethiopian social life and have held occupations similar to those of the Beta Israel, such as crafts. Recently, the Beit Avraham community has made attempts to reach out to the world Jewish community. They formed the
Ethiopian North Shewa Zionist Organizationin an attempt to save their Jewish identity. [Page on [http://www.blackjews.org/Rabbi%20Paris%20Trip%20to%20Ethiopia%202006.htm blackjews.org] , visited 22 November, 2006] Another name of this group is Falashmura. Without reliable proof of Jewish ancestry, they are required to complete a formal conversion to be recognized by Israel or other Jewish communities as Jews and are considered converts.
Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan (West Africa)
According to Muslim records the Tarikh el-Fettash (16th cent.) and the Tarikh el Soudan (17th cent.), several Jewish communities existed as parts of the Ghana, Mali, and later Songhay empires. One such community was formed by a group of Egyptian Jews, who allegedly traveled by way of the Sahel corridor through Chad into
Mali. Manuscript C of the Tarikh el-Fettash described a community called the Bani Israel that in 1402 CE existed in Tindirma, possessed 333 wells, and had seven princes as well as an army.
Another such community was that of the Zuwa ruler of Koukiya (located near the Niger river). His name was known only as Zuwa Alyaman, meaning "He comes from Yemen". According to local legends, Zuwa Alyaman was a member of one of the Jewish communities transported from Yemen by Abyssinians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of
Dhu Nuwas. Zuwa Alyaman was said to have traveled into West Africa along with his brother. They established a community in Kukiya near the Niger River. According to the Tarikh el-Soudan, after Zuwa Alyaman, there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya before the rise of Islam in the region.
Other sources stated that other Jewish communities in the region arose from migrations from Morocco, Egypt, and Portugal. Some communities were said to have been populated by certain Berber Jews, like a group of Kal
Tamasheqknown as Iddao Ishaak, who traveled from North Africa into West Africa for trade. In addition, some migrated into the area away from Muslim rule in North Africa.
Lembaare a group of people in southern Africa. Although they speak Bantu languagessimilar to their neighbours, they have specific religious practices similar to those in Judaism and other Semitic traditions. They also have a tradition of being a migrant people, with clues pointing to an origin from Yemeni Jews.
They have restrictions on intermarriage with non-Lemba. It is difficult for male non-Lemba to become part of the community. A significant number of individuals carry a genetic signature on the Y chromosome known as the
Cohen modal haplotype, indicative of a Semitic patrilineal ancestry. Amongst Jews, this Y chromosome trait is particularly associated with the Kohanimor priests, a distinct subgroup of Israelites. It can also be found in other non-Jewish Y-DNA Haplogroup J populations across the Middle Eastand beyond.
Whether or not the Lemba are descended from Jewish ancestors, they have not practised Judaism for many centuries. Although the vast majority of Lemba do not see a contradiction in proclaiming their Hebrew heritage while practising Christianity or Islam, lately some have wanted to shift towards mainstream Judaism. Outside sources have been aiding in their desire to become full members of the world-wide Jewish community.
The Igbo Jews of Nigeria are one of the components of the Igbo ethnic group. They are said to have descended from North African or Egyptian Hebraic and later Israelite migrations into West Africa. Oral legends among the Igbo state that this migration started around 1,500 years ago. According to the Igbo lore of the Eri, Nri, and Ozubulu families, Igbo ethnic groups with Israelite descent are of the Benei Gath, Benei Zevulun, and Benei Menashe lineages.
Igbo oral legends also state that certain Nri families may be descendants of Levitical priests who migrated from North Africa. These oral histories tell that ancestors of the Igbo were family clans of Israelites, who left the northern kingdom of Israel before and during the Assyrian and Babylonian sieges. Because the Israelites came directly from the kingdom of Israel, their tribal names were carried forward in oral traditions in Nigeria.
Godians and Ibrim were Jews who maintained most of the Hebraic traditions within Igbo peoples. These groups maintained the Jewish traditions because they were more isolated from the rest of Nigerian society. The majority of the ethnic Jewish communities lost their traditions.
Certain Nigerian communities with Judaic practices have been receiving help from individual Israelis and American Jews who work in Nigeria, out-reach organizations like
Kulanu, [ [http://www.kulanu.org Kulanu website] , especially relevant is the [http://www.kulanu.org/nigeria/ Nigeria] page, which treats the Igbo question more extensively.] and African-American Jewish communities in America. Jews from outside Nigeria founded two synagogues in Nigeria, which are attended and maintained by Igbos.
Because no formal census has been taken in the region, the number of Igbos in Nigeria who identify as either Israelites or Jews is not known. There are currently 26 synagogues of various sizes. Some researchers estimate there may be as many as 30,000 Igbos practicing some form of Judaism.
Akwa Ibom and Cross River Jews
Annnag, Efikand Ibibiopeople of Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria have had ancient religious practices that strongly resembled some of the Jewish Torah. These include their traditional sacrifice of animals (rituals) by the presiding male of each village, or of a group of villages, for purification, especially during times of sickness. According to Nair (1975), in early history of Nigeria, the Efik people (people of old Calabar Kingdomwere often referred to as Efik Eburutu. Eburutu being a term that came into being as a result of the curruption of the word "Hebrew", and Ututu. Ututu being one of the early settlements of the Efik people in the coastal southeastern Nigeria. Hence, the Efik/ Ibibio/ Annangpeople were known in early history as being of Hebrews who settled in Ututu.
European missionaries arriving in their land in the early 1400s AD called their religious practices "traditional religion". However, they identify their religious practices and heritage with the Jews. They are believed to be members of the Northern Kingdom of Israel who left before the Babylonian captivity and migrated to the Efik/Ibibio/Annang land of Nigeria from Egypt via Ethiopia and Sudan. They have active synagogues in the area. Synagogue services (Shabbat Services) of this region of Nigeria can be seen on the Internet, including the YouTube website.
There are some who believe that a Jewish presence may have at one time existed in Cameroon via merchants who arrived from Egypt for trade. According to some accounts these communities observed rituals such as separation of dairy and meat products as well as wearing tefillin. There are also claims that Jews migrated into Cameroon after being forced southward due to the Islamic conquests of North Africa.
The claims of a Jewish presence in Cameroon are made by Rabbi Yisrael Oriel. Rabbi Oriel, formerly Bodol Ngimbus-Ngimbus, was born into the Ba-Saa tribe. The word Ba-Saa, he said, is from the Hebrew for 'on a journey' and means blessing. Rabbi Oriel claims to be a Levite descended from Moses. Reportedly, Rabbi Oriel made aliya in 1988 and was ordained as a rabbi by the Sephardic Chief Rabbi and appointed rabbi to Nigerian Jews.
Rabbi Oriel claims that in 1920 there were 400,000 'Israelites' in Cameroon, but by 1962 the number had decreased to 167,000 due to conversions to Christianity and Islam. He admitted that these tribes had not been accepted halachically, although he claimed to prove their Jewish status from medieval rabbinic sources. [ [http://www.haruth.com/JewsCameroon.htm Jews in Cameroon] from [http://www.haruth.com haruth.com] , accessed 22 November, 2006]
Yaphet Kotto's parents were Cameroon Jews and Kotto himself maintains his Jewish identity.
The largest influx of Jews to Africa came after the
Spanish Inquisitionand expulsion of the Jews in Spain in 1492, and Portugal and Sicily soon afterwards. Many of these Sephardic Jews settled in North Africa.
ão Tomé e Príncipe
Manuel I of Portugalexiled about 2,000 Jewish children to São Tomé and Príncipearound 1500. Most died, but in the early 1600s "the local bishop noted with disgust that there were still Jewish observances on the island and returned to Portugal because of his frustration with them." [J.P. Sand's [http://www.mindspring.com/~jaypsand/mozambique.htm São Tomé é Príncipe page] . Visited 22 November, 2006.] Although Jewish practices faded over subsequent centuries, there are people in São Tomé and Príncipe who are aware of partial descent from this population. Similarly, a number of Portuguese ethnic Jews were exiled to Sao Tomeafter forced conversions to Roman Catholicism.
There are several thousand people of undoubted Jewish ancestry in
Timbuktu, Mali. In the 14th century many Moorsand Jews, fleeing persecution in Spain, migrated south to the Timbuktu area, at that time part of the Songhai empire. Among them was the Kehath (Ka'ti) family, descended from Ismael Jan Kot Al-yahudi of Scheida, Morocco. Sons of this prominent family founded three villages that still exist near Timbuktu -- Kirshamba, Haybomo, and Kongougara. In 1492, Askia Muhammed came to power in the previously tolerant region of Timbuktu and decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave; Judaism became illegal in Mali, as it did in Catholic Spain that same year. As the historian Leo Africanuswrote in 1526: "The king (Askia) is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods."
The Kehath family converted with the rest of the non-Muslim population. The Cohens, descended from the Moroccan Islamicized Jewish trader El-Hadj Abd-al-Salam al Kuhin, arrived in the Timbuktu area in the 18th century, and the Abana family came in the first half of the 19th century. According to Prof. Michel Abitbol, at the Center for the Research of Moroccan Jewry in
Israel, in the late 19th century Rabbi Mordoche Aby Serour traveled to Timbuktu several times as a not-too-successful trader in ostrich feathers and ivory. Ismael Diadie Haidara, a historian from Timbuktu, has found old Hebrew texts among the city's historical records. He has also researched his own past and discovered that he is descended from the Moroccan Jewish traders of the Abana family. As he interviewed elders in the villages of his relatives, he has discovered that knowledge of the family's Jewish identity has been preserved, in secret, out of fear of persecution. [ [http://www.kulanu.org/timbuktu/timbuktu.html The Renewal of Jewish Identity in Timbuktu] by Karen Primack, on Kulanu's website. Viewed 22 November, 2006.]
Emergent modern communities
There is an extremly tiny Jewish community in Côte d'Ivoire. In history, most of the Jews from Côte d'Ivoire have emigrated to nearby
Ghanaand have settled there.
The House of Israel community of Sefwi Wiawso and Sefwi Sui in Western
Ghanaclaim that their Sefwiancestors are descendants of Jews who migrated south through Côte d'Ivoire. The continuous practice of Judaism in this community, however, dates back to only the early 1970s.
A relatively small emergent community has been forming in
Laikipia, Kenya, abandoning their Christian beliefs in exchange for Judaism. There are an estimated 5,000 of them at the present time. This group has connections to the Black Hebrewsmovement. Although at first Messianic, they concluded that their beliefs were incompatible with Judaism and are now waiting to be instructed in traditional Judaism. [ [http://www.timesnews.co.ke/16apr06/nwsstory/news5.html "Kenyan Hebrew converts celebrate Easter in style"] from the Kenyan "Sunday Times" newspaper. Accessed 22 November, 2006.] Some of the younger children of this community have been sent to the Abayudayaschools in Uganda to be instructed in Judaism and other subjects. There are also some amongst the ethnic groups in Kenya that claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel. [" [http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/6085/edition_id/113/format/html/displaystory.html Kenyan political exile finds Jewish home, soul in S.F.] ", accessed from [http://www.jewishsf.com/ JewishSanFrancisco.com] on 22 November, 2006.]
In addition to the established Jewish communities in Nigeria described above, other communities are forming Messianic congregations. Unlike other places, where Messianic Judaism leads Jews away from their faith by believing in Jesus, in Africa, Messianic Judaism is often the first step in the path towards normative Judaism, as Messianic communities gradually abandon their belief in Jesus.
Abayudayaof Ugandaare a group which has enthusiastically embraced Judaism in relatively recent times—their practice of the religion dates only from 1917. [Henry Lubega, [http://www.ugandamission.org/news/Abayudaya.htm Mbale's Jews] . Retrieved from the [http://www.ugandamission.org/ UgandaMission.org website] on 22 November, 2006.]
Jews of Rusape, Zimbabweclaim ancient Hebrew tribal connections—in fact, they claim that most Black Africans (especially the Bantu peoples) are actually of Ancient Hebrew origin. However, the active practice of Judaism in the Rusape community dates back only to the early twentieth century; in this case, to 1903. (Despite the chronological proximity of the beginnings of observance in these two communities, a historical relationship between them should not be inferred: there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate the existence of any relationship between them, aside from their interest in Judaism.) This community, although no longer believing in Jesus as the Messiah like Christians do, does believe that Jesus was a prophet, however the community also believes that all people on Earth are prophets as well and so Jesus had no high or special status. Currently the community is moving towards more mainstream Judaism. This group believes that the majority of African peoples are descendants of the 12 lost tribes of Israel and that most Africans have Hebraic practices.
European Jewish Community
The Zimbabwe Jewish Community was established with the first white colonialists in the 1890s and at its peak in the early 1970s numbered some 7,500 souls (80% of Ashkenazim descent) - split between communities in Harare and Bulawayo. Smaller country communities did exist for short periods in Kwe Kwe, Mutare and Kadoma. For a full history of the this community which now (2007) numbers a total of 270 souls - see "
Zimbabwe Jewish Community". Other references on the history of this community until the 1960s include MAJUTA, by Barry Kosmin (Mambo Press). The community has traditionally had strong links with Israel, financial contributions to Palestinelater Israelwere the highest in the diasapora up until the 1970s. Tragically, the Bulawayo Shul was burn down in an anti-semitic act of violence in 2003.> [A Shtetl in Africa [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1212659716508&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull] . June 12, 2008.]
Modern communities of European descent
* There is a substantial, mostly
Ashkenazic Jewish community in South Africa. These Jews arrived mostly from Lithuaniaprior to World War II, though others have origins in Britain, Germany, and Eastern Europe. To a lesser extent, SephardicJews, primarily originating from the Island of Rhodesalso settled in sub-Saharan Africa, in territories such as the Belgian Congo. Subsequently, members of these Jewish communities migrated to South Africa. Connected to them were the small European Jewish communities in Namibia(South West Africa), Zimbabwe(Southern Rhodesia), Lesotho(Basutuland), Swaziland, Botswana(Bechuanaland), Zaire(Belgian Congo, mostly Sephardim [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/zaire.html] ), Kenya, Malawi(Nyasaland), Zambia(Northern Rhodesia) all of which had synagogues and even formal Jewish schools usually based in the capitals of these countries. (See History of the Jews in South Africa.)
* Historically, there was a Jewish community in
Maputo, Mozambique, but after the independence of the country, most left. The government has officially returned the Maputo synagogue to the Jewish community, but "little or no Jewish community remains to reclaim it." [J.P. Sand's [http://www.mindspring.com/~jaypsand/dispersed.htm Dispersed communities page] . Viewed 22 November, 2006.] [J.P. Sand's [http://www.mindspring.com/~jaypsand/mozambique.htm Mozambique page] . Viewed 22 November, 2006.]
Who is a Jew?
Law of Return
Ten Lost Tribes
Islam and Judaism
Christianity and Judaism
Christianity in Africa
Islam in Africa
British Uganda Program, a British idea to create a Jewish homeland in East Africa
Jews of Nigeria
House of Israel
List of Jews in the African diaspora
List of Jews from Sub-Saharan Africa
Jews and Judaism in the African diaspora
Notes and references
* [http://www.dinur.org/resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryid=806&rsid=478 Resources>Jewish communities>Magreb] The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* [http://www.mindspring.com/~jaypsand/index.htm Jay Sand's site about African Jews]
* [http://www.kulanu.org Non-Profit Organization Kulanu Assisting Communities throughout the World specifically Africa -Uganda, Ghana, Nigeria etc...]
* [http://www.KulanuBoutique.com Kulanu Organizations HandCrafted Ritual Items by African Jewish Communities]
* [http://www.shonasporch.com/brownjewsforum An Online Forum for and about Orthodox Jews of Color]
* [http://scatteredamongthenations.org/pages/nations/index.html Scattered Among The Nations]
* [http://www.shavei.org Shavei Israel - "For Our Lost Brethren"]
* [http://www.chabad.org/centers/default.asp?AID=9315 Chabad-Lubavitch Centers in Africa]
* [http://www.zjc.org.il History of the Zimbabwe Jewish Community]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2706israel.html Interview with Tudar Parfit on PBS concerning the Lemba]
* [http://www.biblemysteries.com/library/dna.htm Information about the DNA testing done on the Lemba]
* [http://www.bxscience.edu/publications/forensics/articles/dna/f-dna05.htm Forensic Biology: Priestly Caste of Jews Linked to Aaron and South African Tribe Might Actually Be Jewish]
* [http://www.dangoor.com/72page25.html African Tribe Presses Bid: Lemba]
Nigeria and Uganda
* [http://www.thejewsofuganda.org The Committe To Save Ugandan Jewry - A Website For And By The Abayudaya]
* [http://members.fortunecity.com/takruri/afri.htm The Awakening & In-Gathering of The Ibos]
* [http://rabbihowardgorin.org/ Rabbi Howard Gorin's web-site: Travels Amongst Nigeria's and Uganda's Jews]
* [http://www.aranpa.com/Tribes.htm Legends of the Lost Tribes: Documentary series] (Episode 3 on Igbos)
* [http://re-emergingfilm.com Re-emerging: The Jews of Nigeria - a documentary film]
* [http://www.kulanu.org/ghana/visit_to_ghana.html A visit to the Ghanaian Jewish community]
* [http://www.haruth.com/JewsGhana.html Jews of Ghana]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/ghana.html History of the Jewish community in Ghana]
* [http://www.jewishaz.com/issues/story.mv?051209+ghana Shabbat in Ghana]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1911321.stm Timbuktu: City of Legends]
* [http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2004/08/DJIAN/11470 "Les manuscrits trouvés à Tombouctou"] , by Jean-Michel Djian
* [http://www.dayan.org/articles/JewsandBerbers.pdf "Jews and Berbers"] , by Dr. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman
*"Wars of the Jews: A Military History from Biblical to Modern Times", Hipporcrene Books, New York, 1990, by Monroe Rosenthal and Isaac Mozeson
*"Jewish Communities in Exotic Places",
Jason AronsonInc., Jerusalem, by Ken Blady
*"Jews In Africa: Ancient Black African Relations", Fact Paper 19-II, By Samuel Kurinsky
* [http://www.ktav.com/product_info.php?products_id=1023 "Jews in Places You Never Thought of"] , Ktav Publishing, by Karen Primak
*"Hebrewisms of West Africa: From Nile to Niger With the Jews",
The Dial Press, NY, 1931, by Joseph J. Williams
* [http://www.zjc.org.il "History of the Zimbabwe Jewish Community"]
*"Jews in Africa: Part 1 The Berbers and the Jews", by Sam Timinsky (Hebrew History Federation)
*"Tarikh es Soudan", Paris, 1900, by Abderrahman ben-Abdall es-Sadi (trad. O. Houdas)
*"The Jews of Timbuktu", Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999, by Rick Gold
*"Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu", Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara
*"Igbos, Jews in Africa?, (Volume 1)", Mega Press Limited, Abuja, Nigeria, 2004, by Remy Ilona
*"Northern Tribes of Nigeria", Volume 1, Oxford, page 66, by C.K. Meek
* [http://www.kwenu.com/publications/ojukwu/interview/okafor_ogbaji.htm "Jews of Nigeria: The Aro Empire", by Eze Okafor-Ogbaji]
*Nair, Kannan K. (1975). Origins and Development of Efik Settlements in Southeastern Nigeria. Ohio University, Center for International Studies.
Cape Verde and Guinea Coast
*"Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast", Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban
*"Stigma "Gojjam": The Abyssinian Pariah Orits", Guihon Books, University of Geneva, 1993, by Muse Tegegne
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