Second Battle of Zürich


Second Battle of Zürich

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Second Battle of Zürich


caption=François Bouchot. The Battle of Zurich, 25th September 1799
partof=the War of the Second Coalition
date=25–26 September 1799
place=Zürich, Switzerland
result=French victory
combatant1=flagicon|France France
combatant2=flagicon|Holy Roman EmpireAustria
flagicon|Russia Russia
commander1=André Masséna
commander2=Alexander Korsakov, Friedrich von Hotze
strength1=75,000
strength2=60,000
casualties1=Unknown
casualties2=22,000|

The Second Battle of Zürich (25–26 September 1799) was a French victory over an Austrian and Russian force near Zürich. It broke the stalemate that had resulted from the First Battle of Zürich three months earlier and led to the withdrawal of Russia from the Second Coalition.

Background

After he had been forced out of the city in June, general André Masséna had fortified his position on the Zürichberg. General Korsakov's Russians took control of the city. General Alexander Suvorov was also supposed to join forces, marching across the Gotthard pass, but Suvorov's army was harassed by a small force sent by Masséna and did not reach Zürich in time. The coalition forces greatly outnumbered the French, so Korsakov sent more than half his force of around 60,000 men to cut off the French line of retreat.

Battle

Masséna turned on the coalition army under General Korsakov, which he defeated, capturing their cannons and other supplies and inflicting about 8,000 casualties.

Most of the fighting took place on both banks of the river Limmat up to the gates of Zürich, and within the city itself. General Oudinot commanded the French forces on the right bank and general Mortier those on the left. At the same time General Soult attacked and defeated the Austrians on the river Linth under Field Marshal Baron Hotze, who was killed early in the day.

Masséna then rounded on the Austrian commanders with a brilliant offensive operation and drove their army away; killing, wounding and capturing almost 14,000 Austrians and Russians.

Aftermath

France was saved from an imminent invasion because Russia withdrew from the Second Coalition. The Helvetic Republic was weakened, losing its support among the population, leading to the Act of Mediation of 1803, partly restoring pre-revolutionary conditions.

ee also

*Switzerland in the Napoleonic era
*

External links

* [http://www.stub.unibe.ch/stub/ryhiner/images/ch/rec00001/r0000906.htm map of French fortifications in June 1799]
*http://www.raefis-burgerau.ch/geschichte.htm


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