alcoholic beverageof Japan, most commonly distilled from barley, sweet potatoor rice. Typically it is 25% alcohol by volume, making it weaker than whisky, but stronger than wineand sake.
Shōchū is produced everywhere in Japan, yet the home of shochu is
Kyūshūisland.cite web|title = What is Shochu?|url=http://cocktailtimes.com/dictionary/shochu.shtml|accessdate = 2006-12-31]
process. Its flavour is often described as "nutty" or "earthy".
* on the rocks, i.e., mixed with ice.
* diluted with water.
* diluted with hot water.
* mixed with
oolongtea or fruit juice.
chūhai, a mixed drink consisting of shōchū, soda, ice and some flavouring, often lemon, grapefruit, appleor ume.
* mixed with a low-alcohol beer-flavoured beverage known as hoppy; this mixture is also referred to as hoppy.
Shōchū is widely available in supermarkets, liquor stores and convenience stores in
Japan, however it is not yet sufficiently well known to be widely available outside of Asia, apart from select regions with large enough Japanese populations. Canned chuhai drinks are also sold in some of Japan's ubiquitous vending machines.
In Kyūshū, the centre of production, shōchū is far more common than sake. Indeed here "sake" generally means shōchū, and is normally enjoyed mixed with hot water. First hot water is poured into the glass, then shōchū is gently added. The liquids mix naturally and stirring is unnecessary. Typically the amount of shōchū exceeds the amount of hot water, creating a pleasant aroma, and it causes only mild inebriation. To achieve a perhaps more authentic and subtle taste, mix the shōchū and water, leave it to stand for a day, and then gently heat.
Some shōchū makers label their products for US export as "
soju", the Korean distilled liquor, due to a loopholein liquor licensing laws in New Yorkand Californiathat allows restaurants with a beer & wine license to sell soju. This allows these establishments to sell cocktails based on soju or shochu while avoiding the expense and restrictions of obtaining a full bar license.
Shōchū recently became the focus of a consumer boom, and in 2003 shipments within Japan surpassed those of
sakefor the first time.cite web|title=Shochu|first=Masami|last=Ito|publisher=The Japan Times|url=http://search.japantimes.co.jp/print/features/life2004/fl20040530x1.htm|accessdate = 2007-01-01] Shōchū bars appeared serving shōchū exclusively, and premium brands with a focus on particular ingredients, production methods, or aging techniques entered the market. It has undergone a complete change of image; whilst it used to be seen as an old-man's drink it has now become trendy amongst young women. The boom also had negative effects: It caused a serious shortage of sweet potatoes, a basic ingredient of some popular types of shōchū and, with the emergence of expensive premium brands, pricing scams appeared.
In 2005 a Japanese Television program called [http://wiki.d-addicts.com/Kiken_na_Aneki Kiken na Aneki] illustrated this change in drinking habits. Its plot surrounded the Minagawa family of Miyazaki province, who were brewers of a sweet potato shōchū called imojōchū. The lead character Hiroko [http://wiki.d-addicts.com/Ito_Misaki (Ito Misaki)] spends the majority of the series trying to come up with enough money to save the brewery from loan sharks, but in the process becomes involved with corporate distilleries. The larger companies formulate an advertising campaign that results in the imojōchū becoming a popular drink. In this fictional account the beverage is marketed to young women, when it previously had been mostly consumed by the older male generation.
There are several reasons for shōchū's recent popularity. With increasing health-consciousness, many people see it as more healthy than some alternatives. Shōchū is a low-calorie drink whose few calories are converted to heat by the body and emitted. There have been well-publicized claims of medical benefits, including that it can be effective in preventing
thrombosis, heart attacks, and diabetes. It is also a versatile drink that is suited to most styles of cuisine.cite web|title=Kyushu's Spirit - Shochu|url=http://www.fukuoka-now.com/features/article_display.php?fn_code=429082|accessdate = 2007-01-01]
Shōchū has become better known as a result of one man who consumed it regularly.
Shigechiyo Izumi, a Japanese citizen who up until recently held the world record for longest life span (120 years), made shōchū part of his daily dietary regimen. This fact was mentioned along with his record in the " Guinness Book of World Records". Because of his intimate passion for shōchū, many have speculated that shōchū is healthy and can actually promote longevity. This even prompted some local Ryūkyūshōchū brewers to market a special Longevity Liquor shōchū bearing his likeness on the front label. Despite these claims, Izumi's personal physician strongly advised against drinking shōchū, as his kidneyswere not strong enough to process shōchū in his advanced age. But Izumi went on to say: "Without shōchū there would be no pleasure in life. I would rather die than give up drinking."cite web|title=Secrets of the oldest man in the world|publisher=The Moscow News|url=http://english.mn.ru/english/issue.php?2002-18-26|accessdate = 2007-01-01]
The exact origin of shōchū is unclear. Originally alcohol the strength of shōchū was called araki (arak) or rambiki (
alembic) in Japan; "arak" is a generic term for a variety of distilled alcoholic drinks throughout the Middle East. Shōchū likely first arrived either in Kyūshū through Thailandand Ryukyu ( Okinawa) cite web|title=The Shochu|url=http://www.maborosi-shochu.com/eng|accessdate=2007-01-19] , or in Iki Islandfrom KoreaFact|date=February 2008 which adopted it from the Mongolswho themselves acquired the distillation process from Persia.cite web|title = Moving Beyond the Green Blur: a History of Soju|url=http://www.tomcoyner.com/moving_beyond_the_green_blur.htm|accessdate = 2008-01-19] The distilled alcoholic beverage in Okinawa is known as Awamori.
As far as can be determined from Japanese historical record, shōchū appears to have been made since at least as far back as the 16th century. For example, when the missionary
Francis Xaviervisited Kagoshima Prefecturein 1549, he recorded that "the Japanese drink arak made from rice [...] but I have not seen a single drunkard. That is because once inebriated they immediately lie down and go to sleep."cite web|title=Xavier and the Oldest Record of Shochu|url=http://www.denen-shuzo.co.jp/chisiki/tisiki07.htm|accessdate = 2006-12-31]
Kōriyama Hachiman shrinein Ōkuchi, Kagoshima, the oldest existing direct reference to shōchū in Japan can be found. There, two carpenters working on the shrine in 1559 inscribed the following graffiti on a wooden plank in the roof:cite web|title= 『焼酎』現存する最古の文字|url=http://www1.ocn.ne.jp/~akatuka/syutendouji/006_0100rakugaki.html|accessdate=2007-01-22] "The high priest was so stingy he never once gave us shōchū to drink. What a nuisance!"cite web|title=Kōriyama Hachiman Shrine (郡山八幡神社)|url=http://www.washimo-web.jp/Trip/Hachiman/hachiman.htm|accessdate = 2007-01-21 Source of the photo of the graffiti at Kōriyama Hachiman Shrine.]
From these early times through to the
Edo periodshōchū was produced throughout Japan the traditional kasutori way with a single round of distillation. In the Meiji periodmachinery for repeated distillation was imported from Great Britain, making cheap mass-production of high-purity shōchū possible during this time of chronic rice shortages. Originally shōchū made the traditional way was called "old-style shōchū" and that produced using the new multiple-distillation machinery "new-style shōchū."cite web|first=Sadakiyo|last=Tsukada|title=Satsuma and Shochu|url=http://www.denen-shuzo.co.jp/essay/04satumanoshochu7.htm|accessdate = 2006-12-31]
Definition and classification
Japan's alcohol taxation law, as revised in April 2006, defines two categories of shōchūcite web|title=On the legal definition of distilled alcohol|last=Shibatani|first=Tomohiro|url=http://homepage3.nifty.com/japanspirits/howto/syuzei.htm|accessdate=2006-12-31] cite web|title=The definition of honkaku shochu and Awamori|url=http://www.japansake.or.jp/honkaku/about/all/index.html|accessdate=2006-12-31] (also called "white liquor"). These definitions are somewhat stricter than previously.
Alcohol distilled more than once with special machinery for that purpose, with
alcohol by volumeof less than 36%, that meets the following conditions:
# Fruit, or grain that has been allowed to germinate, is not used as a base ingredient in whole or in part (eliminates whisky).
# It is not filtered through charcoal (eliminates
# If sugar is used as a base ingredient, in whole or in part, then the result of distillation must be at least 95%
alcohol by volume(see discussion under brown sugar shōchū).
# It is not fortified at distillation time with other than expressly permitted ingredients (eliminates
Until the 2006 revision the law referred to this category as nihongo|kōrui shōchū|焼酎甲類|shōchū kōrui, sometimes abbreviated to "kōshu". Very sweet varieties of shōchū imported from Korea have recently grown in popularity and fall into this category (see
It is generally distilled from a fermented liquid similar to molasses. Repeated distillation forms
ethylalcoholof high purity which is typically odourless and has a taste of little distinction. Water is then added, and the precise nature of this water has subtle effects on the taste and palatability of the shōchū.
The specialized distillation equipment, called a
patent still, lends it to mass production at low cost, so large corporations produce this kind of shōchū in high volume. In Japan it retails in plastic bottle, can, and paper cupform and is consumed as a cheap alcoholic drink. It forms the base of several cocktails and liqueurs such as chūhaiand umeshu.
Alcohol distilled using other than multiple-distillation machinery, with
alcohol by volumeof no more than 45%, from one of the following:
# ferment whose primary ingredient is grain or potato and their "kōji"
# ferment whose primary ingredient is grain koji
# ferment whose primary ingredient is sake lees, possibly with rice and/or its koji (see kasutori shōchū)
# ferment whose primary ingredient is sugar (restricted types) and rice koji (see brown sugar shōchū)
# ferment whose primary ingredient is grain or potato and their koji along with other ingredients, The large variety of permissible ingredients includes
ashitaba, azuki beans, amachazuru, aloe, oolong tea, umeseeds, enokitake, otaneninjin, pumpkin, milk, ginkgo nuts, kudzupowder, kumazasa, chestnut, green peas, acorns, sesame, kombu, saffron, cactus, shiitakemushroom, shisoleaf, daikonradish, no-fat powdered milk, onion, various seaweeds, horse chestnut, tomato, dates, carrots, nori, peppers, water chestnut, sunflowerseeds, safflower, matatabi vine, matcha, lilyroot, mugwort, lotusand wakame.] provided the other ingredients form no more than 50% by weight
# other substances with certain restrictions
Until the 2006 revision the law referred to this category as nihongo|otsurui shōchū|焼酎乙類|shōchū otsurui, sometimes abbreviated to "otsushu".
The equipment used for single distillation is called a
pot still. As the shōchū is distilled just once it retains the character of the base ingredient, typically rice, barley or potato, with a strongly individual taste and aroma. Small-to-medium size enterprises make most brands, with the island of Kyūshū famous as the centre of production. Recently however larger corporations have been entering the market.
Until 2006 Japanese postwar tax law classified shōchū into "korui" and "otsurui" types. In Japanese these words mean something akin to "high-grade" and "low-grade" respectively.
Fearing a tendency to believe that otsurui shōchū is somehow inferior to korui shōchū, the Kyūshū Otsurui Shochu Producers' Association lobbied the Finance Ministry, and in 1962 succeeded in having nihongo|honkaku shōchū|本格焼酎|honkaku shōchū, or authentic shōchū, recognized as an alternative name. The name is believed to have been coined in 1957 by Enatsu Junkichi, the president of Kirishima Brewery of Miyakonojō,
Miyazaki Prefecture. cite web|title=Sake Glossary|url=http://www.sakesake.com/comu/word/S_topic1.html|accessdate=2007-01-26 (Japanese)]
However, since the term was not formally defined naming disputes arose. As a result on
1 November 2002the law was clarified and shōchū satisfying any of conditions 1 to 5 of the above definition of singly-distilled shōchū can be called honkaku shōchū. Those satisfying the final condition are excluded.
Most singly-distilled shōchū is moromitori shōchū. This name derives from its production process:cite paper|author=Akihito Endo and Sanae Okada|title=Monitoring the Lactic Acid Bacterial Diversity during Shochu Fermentation by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electropherosis|publisher=Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering|date=2004-09-15|url=http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jbb/99/3/216/_pdf|format=
# Raw material treatment. Usually rice or barley is steeped in water, then steamed to promote starch gelatinization and cooled.
# Kōji production. "kōjikin", or koji mold spores, are cultivated onto the material to form koji mould which creates enzymes as it grows. The enzymes break starch molecules down into sugar molecules that can be fermented, a process called "saccharization".
# Primary fermentation. The koji is mashed by adding water and fermented for several weeks in a tank or vat to form unrefined alcohol, called moto or (first stage) moromi.
# Secondary fermentation. The steamed main ingredient and water are added to the unrefined alcohol and fermented again to form (second stage) moromi. The ingredient added during this second stage determines the variety of shōchū; for example if sweet potato is added then it becomes potato shōchū.
# Distillation. Purification of the unrefined moromi alcohol.
nihongo|Kōji mould|麹 has a profound effect on the final taste of the shōchū. There are three varieties of kōji mould with distinct characteristics.cite web|title=In-depth|url=http://www.nobori-sake.com/untiku.html|accessdate = 2007-01-24 (Japanese)] cite web|url=http://www.nymtc.com/pl_shochu/shochu_what.html|title=What is Shochu?|accessdate = 2007-01-24] cite web|title=Other terminology relating to Shochu and Awamori|url=http://www.sakesake.com/comu/word/S_topic6.html|accessdate=2007-01-27 (Japanese)]
* White. Discovered at the beginning of the
Taishō periodwhen natural mutation and separation of some black kōji to white was observed. This effect was researched and white kōji was successfully grown independently. White kōji is easy to cultivate and its enzymes promote rapid saccharization; as a result it is used to produce most shōchū today. It gives rise to a drink with a refreshing, gentle, sweet taste.
* Black. Mainly used in Okinawa to produce Awamori. It produces plenty of citric acid which helps to prevent the souring of the moromi. Of all three kōji it most effectively extracts the taste and character of the base ingredients, giving its shōchū a rich aroma with a slightly sweet, mellow taste. Its spores disperse easily, covering production facilities and workers' clothes in a layer of black. Such issues led to it falling out of favour, but due to the development of New Kuro-"kōji" (NK-"kōji") in the mid-1980s cite web|url= http://www.shochucircle.com| title= Shochu Circle| accessdate= 2007-12-11] , interest in black kōji resurged amongst honkaku shōchū makers because of the depth and quality of the taste it produced. Several popular brands now explicitly state they use black kōji on their labels.
* Yellow. Used to produce sake, and at one time all honkaku shōchū. However yellow kōji is extremely sensitive to temperature; its "moromi" can easily sour during fermentation. This makes it difficult to use in warmer regions such as Kyūshū, and gradually black and white kōji became more common. Its strength is that it gives rise to a rich, fruity refreshing taste, so despite the difficulties and great skill required it is still used by some manufacturers. It is popular amongst young people and women who previously had no interest in typically strong potato shōchū, playing a rôle in its recent revival.
There is a broad variety of moromitori shōchū. Four locations have achieved protection as
geographical indications under World Trade OrganizationTRIPS article 23 and are noted below.
Kumamoto Prefectureis particularly well-known for its production of rice shōchū. Notably nihongo|Kuma shōchū|球磨焼酎 produced in Hitoyoshi-bonchi is protected as a geographical indication.
nihongo|Barley shōchū|麦焼酎|mugijōchū is generally less distinctive than rice shōchū and easy to drink. However if cask-aged the taste can be quite sharp and strongly reminiscent of single-malt whisky. cite web|title=Shochu by Category|url=http://nymtc.com/pl_shochu/shochu_b-category.html|accessdate=2007-01-26]
Oita Prefectureand Iki in Nagasaki Prefectureare strong centres of production. nihongo|Iki shōchū|壱岐焼酎 as also been given protection as a geographical indication. cite paper|title=Relationship between trademarks and geographical indications|publisher= AIPPI|url=http://www.aippi.org/reports/q191/q191_japan.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-01-27]
nihongo|Potato shōchū|芋焼酎|imojōchū uses sweet potato, widely cultivated across southern Kyūshū since the
Edo period, as its base ingredient. Originally it was almost exclusively produced in Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures, but nowadays is made across Japan using locally-grown sweet potatoes.
It tends to have has a strong taste and a distinctive smell, sharply dividing drinkers into those who do and don't like it. More recently producers have made varieties whose aroma is somewhat suppressed.
Kagoshima's nihongo|Satsuma shōchū|薩摩焼酎 has been given protection under WTO rules as a
The 1956 film" The Teahouse of the August Moon" portrayed an American-occupied Okinawan village rebuilding its economy with potato shōchū.
The taste of potato shōchū is particularly evocative of
Brown sugar shōchū
From the Edo Period through to the time of the
Pacific War, the Amami Islandsproduced drinks such as Awamori and a distilled alcohol based on brown sugar. From the middle of the war through to the American occupation, because of a shortage of rice (the base ingredient of Awamori) and an inability to export the sugar-based alcohol to the mainland, a large surplus was produced. In 1953, when the Amami Islands were returned to Japanese sovereignty, the alcohol was not classified as "shōchū" under the 1949 alcohol tax law and therefore would attract a high rate of tax. The Ministry of Finance, taking into account the desire of local residents and as part of a strategy to promote the region, gave special recognition to the local alcohol as nihongo|brown sugar shōchū|黒糖焼酎|kokutōjōchū. This recognition was geographically restricted to certain islands of Kagoshima Prefectureand was conditional on the use of rice koji. This regional restriction remains in place to this day; as can be seen in the legal definition of singly-distilled shōchū above. Contrary to what might be expected brown sugar shōchū has a mild and not particularly sweet taste. Nowadays it is produced throughout the Amami Islands but Awamori is no longer made.
Before the war another alcoholic drink based on brown sugar was made in the
Ogasawara Islands. Its name translates as "sugar alcohol" and could be seen as a form of brown sugar shōchū. Production ceased because of the war, but recently, aiming to revive its popularity, a similar alcohol has been introduced. However as Ogasawara does not qualify for the above special regional exemption this alcohol is instead classified as rum.
Soba, or buckwheat, nihongo|shōchū|そば焼酎|sobajōchū has origins going back to just 1973 when Unkai Brewery Co., of Gokase, MiyazakiPrefecture, developed it using soba from the local mountainous region as its base ingredient. Since then shōchū producers across Japan have produced it, sometimes as part of a shōchū blend.
Taste is milder than barley shōchū.
Okinawa is the home of nihongo|Awamori|泡盛|awamori shōchū, which uses rice as its base ingredient. Prior to April 1983 it was labeled otsurui shōchū, but is now properly called "Authentic Awamori".
Awamori is made from Thai long-grained "Indica" crushed rice, not the usual short-grained "Japonica" of standard shōchū. The fermentation process employs black koji mould indigenous to Okinawa rather than the standard white variety, and secondary fermentation is not performed. cite web|title=Chuko Distillers Corporation|url=http://www.chuko-awamori.com/english.html|accessdate=2007-01-04] cite web|title=Suntory Shochu Q&A|url=http://www.suntory.co.jp/customer/FAQ/shochu_type.html|accessdate=2007-01-05] Fermentation is done in a way that creates plenty of citric acid, allowing it to be produced all year round despite Okinawa's hot climate. After distillation its strength is reduced with water to about 25% alcohol by volume, although some varieties go as high as 43%.
Japanese law classifies Awamori as singly-distilled honkaku shōchū despite the different production process.
With its method of production Awamori could theoretically be made anywhere in Japan, but Ryūkyū Awamori is a protected
geographical indicationrestricted to Okinawa.
Japanese law admits a very wide range of unusual base ingredients, such as
shisoleaf, sesameand chestnut, and shōchū made from most if not all of these exists. For example, there is a milk shōchū brand called "Makiba-no Yume" [http://www.matsumotoya-sake.com/makiba.html] . Others are generic shōchū mixed with a particular fruit juice or extracts.
With its peculiarity, such shōchū is typically intended to catch the eye of visitors to a region and has attracted limited broader appeal. Soba shōchū is perhaps a good example of one that has managed to break out of this mould with more widespread success.
In contrast to moromitori shōchū, nihongo|kasutori shōchū|粕取り焼酎 is made by distilling the
sakelees left over from the fermentation of sake. It is a form of honkaku shōchū.
It first became popular in the north of Kyūshū, and then spread to other areas, being manufactured during a period when it was not possible to brew refined sake across Japan. It is also widely used in sake production to stop fermentation before it is complete, which can help prevent degradation or give a dry taste. Shōchū made for this purpose is called nihongo|hashira shōchū|柱焼酎.
Edo Periodshōchū lees were used as a fertilizer during the rice-planting season. Many farms therefore installed distillation equipment to distill sake lees to produce shōchū lees. Whilst the lees were used in the fields, the distilled alcohol was drunk, or offered to the gods, at the nihongo|sanaburi|早苗響 festival held at the end of the rice-planting season to pray for a bountiful harvest. Kasutori shōchū has therefore also come to be known as sanaburi shōchū.cite web|title=Honkaku Shochu Glossary|url=http://homepage3.nifty.com/japanspirits/dic/03sa.htm|accessdate = 2007-01-03] cite web|title=Drink Kasutori in the Summer, Be Happy|url=http://www.president.co.jp/dan/special/slowfood/008.html|accessdate = 2007-01-03]
Owing to the recent surge in popularity of shōchū in Japan, an increasing number of manufacturers have been making kasutori shōchū.
Most kasutori shōchū is made in modern ways, shōchū made via older production processes has decreased sharply. People who wish to preserve Japanese culture call shōchū produced the historical way nihongo|Seichō kasutori shōchū|正調粕取焼酎, such drinks have been revitalized by their activities.cite web|title=Kasutori Shōchū introduction of Kenji|url=http://beefheart.sakura.ne.jp/tankentai/tanteidan/gairon.html|accessdate = 2007-05-09]
Confusingly kasutori is also a slang term for a separate, inferior form of shōchū. After the
Pacific War, in a chaotic society with a shortage of good alcohol, moonshineshōchū began to circulate. Its source and ingredients were not apparent, and in extreme cases contained toxic methyl alcoholdiluted with water. Such shōchū with ill side-effects became known as "kasutori", and the association with poor shōchū lingered, sometimes even affecting the image of "real" respectable kasutori shōchū.
The expressions "kasutori literature" and "kasutori culture" also came to be associated with the upheavals of the postwar period.
Singly-distilled and multiply-distilled shōchū can be mixed to form blended shōchū. Formerly it was often mislabelled "honkaku shōchū", or had no indication of mixing or relative volumes. From 2005 the industry regulated itself and created the nihongo|blended shōchū|混和焼酎|konwashōchū mark, with subcategorization based upon the relative volumes used.
Singly-distilled shōchū makes up 50%-95% of the total volume of "singly-distilled blended shōchū". This category is targeted at those viewing pure singly-distilled shōchū as having too strong a smell or taste, aiming to be softer and more easily drinkable.
In "multiply-distilled blended shōchū" singly-distilled shōchū makes up 5%-50% of the total volume. With a focus on price, this tries to combine the cheap mass-production benefits of multiply-distilled shōchū whilst introducing some of the distinctive flavour and aroma of the singly-distilled form.
Awamori- Distilled Okinawan alcoholic drink
Sake- Brewed Japanese rice wine
Rice baijiu- Distilled Chinese alcoholic drink
Soju- Distilled Korean drink that is similar to Shōchū
Rượu đế- Distilled Vietnamese alcoholic drink
Arrack- Distilled spirits in South and South-East Asia
*Arak - Distilled alcoholic drink produced in the eastern Mediterranean countries
References and notes
* Shōchū entry on the Japanese Wikipedia.
** [http://homepage3.nifty.com/japanspirits/ 本格焼酎の楽しみ] (Japanese only)
** [http://beefheart.sakura.ne.jp/tankentai/tankentai.html 九州焼酎探検隊] (Japanese only)
* Okinawa Prefectural Government, "Awamori", Okinawa: Cultural Promotion Division, Okinawa Tourism and Cultural Affairs Bureau, 1996.
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