Friday

Friday (pronunciation IPAEng|ˈfraɪdeɪ, ˈfraɪdi) is the day of the week falling between Thursday and Saturday. It is the sixth day in countries that adopt a "Sunday-first" convention. In ISO 8601, in work-based customs, and in countries adopting "Monday-first" conventions, it is the fifth day of the week. ("See" Days of the week for more on the different conventions.)

In most countries with a five-day work week, Friday is the last workday before the weekend and is, therefore, viewed as a cause for celebration or relief. In some offices, employees are allowed to wear less formal attire on Fridays, known as Casual Friday or Dress-Down Friday.In Saudi Arabia & Iran, however, Friday is the last day of the weekend and Saturday is the first workday. Moreover, in some countries, Friday is the first day of the weekend, and Sunday is the first workday. Friday is also used as a substitute for "drunk, or drinking". For example a "Friday" Party would be one that has alcohol. Or a person that "was friday'd" would be somebody that was drunk.

Etymology

The name "Friday" comes from the Old English "frigedæg," meaning the day of Frige the Anglo-Saxon form of Frigg, a West Germanic translation of Latin "dies Veneris", "day (of the planet) Venus." However, in most Germanic languages the day is named after Freyja—such as "Frīatag" in Old High German, "Freitag" in Modern German, "Freyjudagr" in Old Norse, "Vrijdag" in Dutch, "Fredag" in Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish—but Freyja and Frigg are frequently identified with each other.

The word for Friday in most Romance languages is derived from Latin "dies Veneris", "day (of the planet) Venus" (a translation of Greek "Aphrodites hemera") such as "vendredi" in French, "venerdì" in Italian, "viernes" in Spanish, and "vineri" in Romanian. In most of the Indian languages, Friday is "Shukravar" (or a derived variation of Sukravar), named for Shukra, the Sanskrit name of the planet Venus. In other Indo-European languages the day is not related to the planet Venus. Russian uses an ordinal number for this day of the week-- "piatnítsa," meaning "fifth." Similarly, the Portuguese is "sexta-feira", the sixth day.

Astrology

In astrology Friday is connected with the planet Venus. This associates Friday with love, peace, and relaxation, as well as with emotional intensity and quashed dreams. It is also connected with the Astrological signs Libra and Taurus.

Superstition

In some cultures, Friday is considered unlucky. This is particularly so in maritime circles; perhaps the most enduring sailing superstition is that it is unlucky to begin a voyage on a Friday. [Citation
last = Bassett
first = Fletcher S.
author-link =
title = Legends and Superstitions of the Sea and of Sailors in All Lands and at All Times
place =
publisher = S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington
year = 1885
volume =
edition =
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=PkIKAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA445&lpg=PA443&dq=&source=web&ots=IMhD_FHtnZ&sig=U7Mebd7KC0_PuWO3ypv2kP6ohgo&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPA443,M1
isbn = 0-548-22818-3
] [Citation
last = Vigor
first = John
author-link =
title = The Practical Encyclopedia of Boating
place =
publisher = McGraw-Hill Professional
year = 2004
volume =
edition =
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=VLg6Lx5yRP0C&pg=RA1-PA258&lpg=RA1-PA258&dq=hms+friday&source=web&ots=jwjvPat_7k&sig=W9HUiMZmAVxOaOaW_HcRZOmOdAc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result
isbn = 0-07-137885-5
] In the 19th century Admiral William Henry Smyth, writing in his nautical lexicon "The Sailor's Word-Book", described Friday ascquote|The "Dies Infaustus", on which old seamen were desirous of not getting under weigh, as ill-omened. [Citation
last = Smyth
first = William Henry
author-link = William Henry Smyth
title = The Sailor's Word-Book
publisher = Conway Maritime Press
year = 1991
volume =
edition =
url = http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/26000
isbn = 0-85177-972-7
]
("Dies Infaustus" means "unlucky day". [cite web|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dies%20infaustus|title=Merriam-Webster Online, "dies infaustus"|accessdate=2008-09-27] ) This superstition is the root of the well-known urban legend of HMS|Friday.

However, this superstition is not universal, notably in Scottish Gaelic culture::"Though Friday has always been held an unlucky day in many Christian countries, still in the Hebrides it is supposed that it is a lucky day for sowing the seed. Good Friday in particular is a favourite day for potato planting—even strict Roman Catholics make a point of planting a bucketful on that day. Probably the idea is that as the Resurrection followed the Crucifixion, and Burial so too in the case of the seed, and after death will come life." [Citation
last = Dwelly
first = Edward
author-link = Edward Dwelly
title = Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary
place =
publisher = Gairm Publications
year = 1988
volume =
edition =
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=dP1eIAAACAAJ&dq=inauthor:%22Edward+Dwelly%22&ei=pFDeSKe0A6iUswO83uTeDg
isbn = 0-901771-92-9
]

In modern times, Friday the 13th is considered to be especially unlucky, due to the conjunction of Friday with the unlucky number thirteen.

tatistical anomaly

The use of the Gregorian calendar and its leap year system results in a small statistical anomaly, that the 13th of any month is "slightly" more likely to fall on a Friday than any of the other seven days. [ The calculation is explained online here: [http://www.jimloy.com/math/friday13.htm] ] The figures are 688/4800 (43/300) which is .1433333..., being just slightly greater than 1 in 7.

After the United States acquired Alaska from Russia in 1867, Friday October 6 was immediately followed by Friday October 18, adjusting to the adoption of the 1582 Gregorian calendar changes by the British colonies in 1752, and the shifting of the International Date Line. Prior to that change, Alaska began Russia's day, with the date line following the partially-defined border between Russian Alaska and British North America, including the colony of British Columbia.

Religious observances

The Jewish Sabbath begins at sunset on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday.

In Christianity Good Friday is the Friday before Easter. It commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus.

Traditionally, Roman Catholics were obliged to refrain from eating the meat of land animals on Fridays, although fish was allowed. However, episcopal conferences are now authorized to allow some other form of penance to replace abstinence from meat. Many still choose the traditional form of Friday penance.

The 1983 Code of Canon Law states::Canon 1250. The days and times of penance for the universal Church are each Friday of the whole year and the season of Lent. :Canon 1251. Abstinence from meat, or from some other food as determined by the Episcopal Conference, is to be observed on all Fridays, unless a solemnity should fall on a Friday. Abstinence and fasting are to be observed on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. :Canon 1253. The Episcopal Conference can determine more particular ways in which fasting and abstinence are to be observed. In place of abstinence or fasting it can substitute, in whole or in part, other forms of penance, especially works of charity and exercises of piety. [ [http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0017/_P4M.HTM Code of Canon Law: Days of Penance] ]

Some Anglo-Catholics also practice abstinence either on all Fridays or on Fridays in Lent. More generally, traditional Anglican Prayer Books prescribe weekly Friday abstinence for all Anglicans. [http://www.eskimo.com/~lhowell/bcp1662/info/tables/rules.html] [http://web.archive.org/web/20070814210627/http://www.prayerbook.ca/bcp/fasting.html]

The Eastern Orthodox Church continues to observe Fridays (as well as Wednesdays) as fast days throughout the year (with the exception of several fast-free periods during the year. Fasting on Fridays entails abstinence from meat or meat products (i.e., four-footed animals), poultry and dairy products. Unless a feast day occurs on a Friday, the Orthodox also abstain from using oil in their cooking and from alcoholic beverages (there is some debate over whether abstention from oil involves all cooking oil or only olive oil). For the Orthodox, Fridays throughout the year commemorate the Crucifixion of Christ and the Theotokos (Mother of God), especially as she stood by the foot of the cross. There are hymns in the Octoekhos which reflect this liturgically. These include "Theotokia" (hymns to the Mother of God) which are chanted on Wednesdays and Fridays called "Stavrotheotokia" ("Cross-Theotokia"). The dismissal at the end of services on Fridays begin with the words: "May Christ our true God, through the power of the precious and life-giving cross...."

Quakers traditionally refer to Friday as "Sixth Day" eschewing the pagan origins of the name. In Slavic countries, it is called "Fifth Day" (Polish _pl. "piątek", Russian _ru. "пятница" – "pyatnitsa").

In Islam, Friday is the day of public worship in mosques (see Jumu'ah). In some Islamic countries, the week begins on Sunday and ends on Saturday, just like the Jewish and Christian week. In most other Islamic countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran & Iraq, the week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. Friday is also the day of rest in the Bahá'í Faith.cite book |first=Shoghi |last=Effendi |authorlink= Shoghi Effendi |coauthors= The Universal House of Justice |editor= Hornby, Helen (Ed.) |year= 1983 |title= Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File |publisher= Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India |id= ISBN 8185091463 |url= http://bahai-library.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance | pages = pp. 109]

In Thailand, the color associated with Friday is blue, see Thai solar calendar.

Parasceve

:Paraskeva and Parasceve redirect here, for the saint, "see" Paraskevi.Parasceve (Greek "paraskevé") seems to have supplanted the older term, prosábbaton 'pre-sabbath', used in the translation of Judith, viii, 6, and in the title –"not to be found in Hebrew"– of Psalm 92 (93). It became, among Hellenistic Jews, the name for Friday, and was adopted by Greek ecclesiastical writers after the writing of "The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles". Apparently it was first applied by the Jews to the afternoon of Friday, then to the whole day, its etymology pointing to the "preparations" to be made for the Sabbath, as indicated in the King James Bible, where the Greek word is translated by "Day of Preparation". That the regulations of the Law might be minutely observed, it was made imperative to have on the Parasceve, three meals of the choicest food laid ready before sunset (the Sabbath beginning on Friday night); it was forbidden to undertake in the afternoon of the sixth day any business which might extend to the Sabbath; Augustus relieved the Jews from certain legal duties from the ninth hour (Josephus, "Antiq. Jud.", XVI, vi, 2).

Parasceve seems to have been applied also to the eve of certain festival days of a sabbatic character. Foremost among these was the first day of the unleavened bread, Nisan 15. We learn from the Mishna (Pesach., iv, 1, 5) that the Parasceve of the Pasch, on whatever day of the week it fell, was kept even more religiously than the ordinary Friday, in Judaea work ceasing at noon, and in Galilee the whole day being free. In the schools the only question discussed regarding this particular Parasceve was, when should the rest commence: Shammai said from the very beginning of the day (evening of Nisan 13); Hillel said only from after sunrise (morning of Nisan 14).

The use of the word Parasceve in the Gospels raises the question concerning the actual day of Christ's crucifixion. All the Evangelists state that Jesus died on the day of the Parasceve (Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54; John 19:14, 31), and there can be no doubt from Luke 23:54-56 and John 19:31, that this was Friday, but on what day of the month of Nisan did that particular Friday fall? Saint John distinctly points to Nisan 14, while the Synoptics, by implying that the Last Supper was the Paschal meal, convey the impression that Jesus was crucified on Nisan 15. But this is hardly reconcilable with the following facts: after the Supper, he and his disciples left the city, as also did the men detailed to arrest him–this, on Nisan 15, would have been contrary to Exodus 12:22; the next morning the Jews had not yet eaten the Passover; moreover, during that day the Council convened; Simon was apparently coming from work (Luke 23:26); Jesus and the two robbers were executed and were taken down from the crosses; Joseph of Arimathea bought fine linen (Mark 15:46), and Nicodemus brought "a mixture of myrrh and aloes about an hundred pound weight" (John 19:39) for the burial; lastly the women prepared spices for the embalming of the Saviour's body (Luke 23:55)–all things which would have been a desecration on Nisan 15. Most commentators, whether they think the Last Supper to have been the Paschal meal or an anticipation thereof, hold that Christ, as Saint John states, was crucified on the Parasceve of the Pasch, Friday, Nisan 14.

Named days

*Good Friday is the Friday before Easter in the Christian calendar. It commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus.
*Black Friday refers to any one of several historical disasters that happened on Fridays.
*In the United States, Black Friday is also the nickname of the day after Thanksgiving, the first day of the traditional Christmas shopping season.
*Casual Friday (also called Dress-down Friday or Aloha Friday) is a relaxation of the formal dress code employed by some corporations for that one day of the week.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Friday — (dt. Freitag) steht für Personen: Gavin Friday, Sänger, Komponist, Maler (Irland) Linda Friday, US amerikanische Pornodarstellerin Nancy Friday, US amerikanische Autorin Orte: Friday (Texas), Vereinigte Staaten Friday Harbor, Stadt in Washington …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Friday — es la palabra en idioma inglés con que se denomina al día viernes. También puede referirse a: Música Friday (canción de Rebecca Black) Friday (canción de Sunny Day Real Estate) Apellido David Friday (1876 1945) Gavin Friday (n. 1959) Hershel… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Friday — O.E. frigedæg Frigga s day, from Frige, gen. of Frig (see FRIGG (Cf. Frigg)), Germanic goddess of married love, a West Germanic translation of L. dies Veneris day of (the planet) Venus, which itself translated Gk. Aphrodites hemera. Cf. O.N.… …   Etymology dictionary

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  • Friday — ► NOUN ▪ the day of the week before Saturday and following Thursday. ► ADVERB 1) chiefly N. Amer. on Friday. 2) (Fridays) on Fridays; each Friday. ORIGIN Old English, named after the Germanic goddess Frigga …   English terms dictionary

  • Friday — [frī′dā; ] occas. [, frī′dē] n. [ME fridai < OE frigedæg, lit., day of the goddess FRIGG, akin to Ger Freitag, Du Vrijdag, Swed Fredag: transl. of LL Veneris dies (Fr vendredi), Venus day] 1. the sixth day of the week: abbrev. Fri or F 2.… …   English World dictionary

  • Friday — Fri day, n. [AS. friged[ae]g, fr. Frigu, the gooddes of marriage; friqu love + d[ae]g day; cf. Icel. Frigg name of a goddess, the wife of Odin or Wodan, OHG. Fr[=i]atag, Icel. Frj[=a]dagr. AS. frigu is prob. from the root of E. friend, free. See… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Friday — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Friday est un mot anglais signifiant vendredi. Etymologie: La déesse nordique freya (déesse de l amour et de la beauté) passe pour être à l origine de ce… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Friday — Fri|day [ˈfraıdi, deı] n [U and C] written abbreviation Fri. [: Old English; Origin: frigedAg day of Frigg, female god of love ] the day between Thursday and Saturday on Friday ▪ It s Kate s birthday on Friday. ▪ Diane won t be here Friday. AmE… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Friday —    The belief that Friday is an unlucky day goes back to the Middle Ages, and is widely attested. As early as 1390 Chaucer wrote And on a Friday fell all this mischance , and throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries there are ample… …   A Dictionary of English folklore

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