Sindhi language(Sindhi: سنڌي ) is ancientand rich in literature. Its writers have contributed extensively in various forms of literature both in poetry and prose. Sindhi literature is very rich and oldest literature in the world's oldest literatures.
The earliest reference to Sindhi literature is contained in the writings of
Arabhistorians. It is established that Sindhi was the first and the earliest language of East in which the Quranwas translated in the eighth or ninth century A.D.There is evidence of Sindhi poets reciting their verses before the Muslim Caliphsin Baghdad. It is also recorded that treatises were written in Sindhi on astronomy, medicineand historyduring the eighth and ninth centuries. Shortly afterwards, Pir Nooruddin, an IsmailiMissionary, wrote Sufis tic poetryin Sindhi language. His verses, known as "ginans", can be taken as the specimen of early Sindhi poetry. He came to Sindhduring the year 1079 A.D. His poetry is an interesting record of the language which was spoken commonly at that time. He was a Sufi and a preacher of Islam. His verses are, therefore, full of mysticismand religion. After him, Pir Shams Sabzwari Multani, Pir Shahabuddin and Pir Sadruddin are recognized as poets of Sindhi language. We even find some verses composed by Baba Farid Ganj Shakar, in Sindhi language. Pir Sadruddin(1290–1409 A.D.), was a great poet, saint and Sufi of his time. He composed his verses (ginans) in Lariand Katchi dialects of Sindhi. He also composed the "ginans" in the Punjabi, Seraiki, Hindiand Gujarati languages. He modified the old script of Sindhi language, which was commonly used by the luhanacatse of Hindus of Sindh who embraced Islamunder his teaching and were called by him ' Khuwajas' or ' Khojas'.
During the same period (
1010– 1351 A.D.) who took over after Soomroas they were native Sindhi-speaking who ruled Sindh after the Arabs), and afterwards in the days of Arghuns, Tarkhans, Mughal governors ( 1521– 1700 A.D.), Sindh produced may scholars and poets of Sindhi, Arabic and Persian languages. Qazi Qadan, Shah Karim of Bhulri (grand father of Shah Abdul Latif), Shah lutufullah Qadri, Shah Inyat Sufi Nasarpoori, Mir Masoom Shah, Makhdoom Noohof Hala, lakho lutufullah, Mahamati Pirannathand many others are the renowned literary personalities of this period. Bhagu Bhan, Sumang Charan, Shah Abdul Karim, Shah Inayatand many other poets of this period have enriched the language with mystic, romantic and epic poetry.
Many centers of learning (
Madrasahs) (in Thatta) flourished during tenth to fifteenth centuries where celebrated scholars of Sindh used to teach religion, philosophyand rhetoric. The great scholars among them who earned high reputation even in the Muslimcentres of Meccaand Madinawere Makhdoom Abdul Hasan, Makhdoom Ziauddin, Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattaviand Makhdoom Muhammad Muin Thattavi(that from Thatta). Their works are mostly in Arabic, Persian (Governing language of at that time) and Sindhi languages (language spoken by local peoples). Shah Abdul Latifof Bhit(1690–1573 A.D.) is the greatest thinker, Sufi, musician and poet of all time, produced by Sindh. Dr. Sorely, who compared the poetry of the great poets of all major languages of the world, including Greek, Latinand Arabic, in his book 'Musa Pravaganus', gives first place to Shah Latif on his language and thought. He inviated Tanburaa musical instrument still used when his versice are sung by his lovers. Shah Latifgave new life, thought and content to the language and literature of Sindh. He traveled far and wide to the remotest corners of Sindh and saw for himself the simple and rustic people of his soil in love with life and its mysteries. He understood the ethos of the people and their deep attachment to the land, the culture, the music, the fine arts and crafts. He described Sindh and its people in the finest language, human mind can conceive of. Through simple folktales, Lateefhas expressed profound ideas about universal brotherhood of mankind, patriotism, war against all kind of injustice and tyrannies, and above all the romance of human existence. He is in fact a pace maker and a catalyst for every generation and genre of Sindhi literature. He was a great musicianalso and he evolved fifteen new melodies ( swaras). The great beauty of his poetry is that his every line or verse is sung till this day with a specific note or melody. His shadow is ever-lasting and all pervading he is sung not by the literature alone but even by the common people in the villages and towns of Sindh. Sachal Sarmast, Saami and Khalifo Nabi Bux Laghariare celebrated poets of the Talpurperiod in Sindh (1783–1843 A.D.). Sachal Sarmastcomes a galaxyof great names in literature. Khalifo Nabi Buxis by far the greatest epic poet of Sindh. His description of patriotic pathos and the art of war defies words. Rohal, Sami, Bedil, Bekas, Misri Shah, Hammal Faqir, Dalpat Sufi, Sabit Ali Shah, Khair Shah, Fateh Faqirand Manthar Faqir Rajarare some of the more noteworthy poets of the pre and early British era.
Like all language of the
South Asia, modern literature began with the conquest of Sindh by the British in 1843 A.D.With them came the modern world to these shores. The printing press was introduced. Magazines and newspapers brought about a revolution in Sindhi literature. Books were translated from various European languages and specially from English. People were hungry for knowledge and new forms of writing. The pace of literature can be judged from one single instance of Mirza Qaleech Begwho in the last two decades of the last century and the first two decades of the twentieth century, wrote more than 400 books—poetry, novels, short stories and essays. He also wrote on science, history, economicsand politics. Thousands of books indeed were turned out at that time on all forms and facets of literature. Hakim Fateh Mohammad Sewhani, Kauromal Khilnani, Dayaram Gidumal, Parmanand Mewaram, Lalchand Amardinomal, Bheruamal Advani, Dr.Gurbuxani, Jhetmal Parsram, Sayaid Miran Mohammad Shah, Shamsuddin 'Bulbul'and Maulana Din Muhammad Wafaiare some of the pioneers of modern literature in Sindhi language.
WWI, the social and economic scene of the world underwent a tremendous change. The aftermath of the war and the socialistrevolution of Russiaaffected the literature of every country. Sindhi literature too was influenced by these trends. Creating new awakening in the minds of the people working in the field of literature, they began to translate the new social consciousness into artistic forms of literature. They were now more objective and less Romanist. Progressive thoughts opened the door for new trends in Sindhi literature.
Soon the struggle for freedom from the British also gathered momentum. This gave further momentum to literature. Consciousness about history and
cultural heritageof Sindhserved as a catalyst for research and intellectual upsurge. Great scholars like Allama I. I. Kazihis wife Elsa Kazi, Dr. Daudpota, Pir Ali Muhammad Shah Rashidi, Pir Husamuddin Shah Rashidi, Maulana Din Mohammad Wafai, Chetan Mariwala, Jairamdas Daulatram, Bherumal, Mehar Chand Advani, Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo, Tirath Wasantand many others were producing learned treatises on various aspects of history, cultureand other socialsubjects. Mir Hasan Aliand Mir Abdul Hussain sangi, Khalifo Gul, Fazil Shah, Kasim, Hafiz Hamid, Mohammad Hashim, Mukhlis, Abojho, Surat Singh, Khaki, Mirza Qalich Baig, Ziaand Azizwere the pioneers of poetryin Persian meter.
But the modern form and content of Sindhi poetry were given a new impetus by '
Bewas', Hyder Bux Jatoiand Dukhayal. There have been innumerable poets who have composed verses in the same vein.
noveland short story became the main forms for prose. Hundreds of novel and short stories were translated from the European and modern [Languages of Pakistan] |languages of Pakistan] . WWIIsaw the emergence of novelists and short storywriters like Narain Das Bhambhani, Gobind Malhi, Sundri Uttamchandani, Popti Hiranandani, Usman Deplai, Jamal Abro, Shaikh Ayaz, Rasheed Bhatti, Hafeez Akhund, Amar Jaleel, Naseem Kharal, Sirajul Haq Memon, Agha Saleem, Tariq Ashraf, Ali Baba, Eshwar Chander, Manak, Kehar Shaukat, Mushtaq Shoro, Shaukat Shoro, Madad Ali Sindhi, Rasool Memon, Reta Shahani, Rehmatullah Manjothi, Badal Jamali, Jan Khaskheli, Hasan Mansoor, Pervez, Shakoor Nizamani, Tariq Qureshi, Munawwar Siraj, Ismail Mangio, Fayaz Chand Kaleri, and many others.
For the last several decades, the
young writers experimented with new forms of prose as well as poetry. Free verses, Sonnets and ballets have been written alongside the classical forms of poetry such as Kafi, Vaee, Bait, Geetand Dohira.
A few famous poets of today's
Sindhare Makhdoom Talibul Mola, Ustaad Bukhari, Shaikh Ayaz, Darya Khan Rind, Makhdoom Amin Faheem, Imdad Hussaniand others.
Noor-ud-din Sarkiand Abdul Ghafoor Ansarirestructured the literary forum of Sindhi languageand called it Sindhi Adabi Sangat. Initially its activities were confined to the city of Karachi. Inspired by the success of its activities in Karachi, interest developed over the rest of Sindh. This led to the launch of other branches in other parts of Sindh as well. Such that it now attracts most of the Sindhi literary figures all over the world; besides branches in Pakistan, there are now chapters overseas as well.
* [http://www.voiceofsindh.net The Largest Sindhi Adbi website in Sindhi language]
* [http://www.sindhiana.com Sindhi literature magazine of Sindh - Sindhiana]
* [http://www.geocities.com/thebhittai Shah Jo Risalo - The Selection, translated into English by: Elsa Kazi]
* [http://www.sindhisangat.com Sindhi Sangat - promoting and preserving the Sindhi heritage, culture and language. ]
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