- Cloacal exstrophy
Cloacal exstrophy is a severe birth defect wherein much of the abdominal organs (the bladder and intestines) are exposed. It often causes the splitting of both male and female genitalia (specifically, the penis and clitoris respectively), and the anus is occasionally sealed.
Cloacal exstrophy is an extremely rare birth defect, present in only one in 200,000 pregnancies - one in 400,000 live births.
It is caused by a defect of the ventral body wall - mesodermal migration is inhibited and folding fails.
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