Twilight of the Idols
name =Twilight of the Idols: Or, How to Philosophise with a Hammer
image_caption =Cover of the 1990 Penguin Classics edition.
pages =208 (1990 Penguin Classics ed.)
isbn =ISBN 978-0140445145 (1990 Penguin Classics ed.)
On the Genealogy of Morals(1887)
followed_by =The Anti-christ (1888)
Twilight of the Idols (Götzen-Dämmerung) is a book by
Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1888, and published in 1889.
"Twilight of the Idols" was written in just over a week, between 26 August and 3 September 1888, while Nietzsche was on holiday in
Sils-Maria.Large, Duncan (trans). "Twilight of the Idols" (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ix] As Nietzsche's fame and popularity was spreading both inside and outside Germany, Nietzsche felt that he needed a text that was a short introduction to his work; "Twilight of the Idols" is his attempt at this.Originally titled "A Psychologist's Idleness", it was renamed "Twilight of the Idols; How One Philosophizes With a Hammer". The latter title, "Götzen-Dämmerung" in German, is a pun on the title of Richard Wagner's opera, " Götterdämmerung", or 'Twilight of the Gods'.
Nietzsche criticizes German culture of the day as unsophisticated, and shoots some disapproving arrows at key French, British, and Italian cultural figures. In contrast to all these alleged representatives of cultural "decadence", Nietzsche applauds Caesar,
Napoleon, Goethe, Dostoevsky, Thucydidesand the Sophists as healthier and stronger types. The book states the transvaluation of all values as Nietzsche's final and most important project, and gives a view of antiquity wherein the Romans for once take precedence over the ancient Greeks.
He establishes early on in the section "The Problem of Socrates", that the value of life cannot be estimated and any judgment concerning it only reveals the person's life-denying or life-affirming tendencies. He tries to show how philosophers from Socrates onwards were "decadents," employing
dialecticsas a tool for self-preservation as the authority of tradition breaks down. In the chapter "The Four Great Errors", he suggests that people, especially Christians, confuse the effect for the cause, and that they project their ego, their subjectivity to other things, thereby creating the illusionary concept of being, and therefore also of God. He critiques the concept of accountability and will and suggests everything is necessary in a unity that can be neither judged nor condemned.
In suggesting that the concept of "
free will" is an illusion, Nietzsche concludes that what people typically deem " vice" is in fact merely "the inability "not" to react to a stimulus". In this light, the concept of moralitybecomes purely a means of control: "the doctrine of will has been invented essentially for the purpose of punishment, that is of "finding guilty".
Men were thought of as "free" so that they could become "guilty": consequently, every action "had" to be thought of as willed, the origin of every action as lying in the consciousness... ...Today, when we have started to move in the "reverse" direction, when we immoralists especially are trying with all our might to remove the concept of guilt and the concept of punishment from the world and to purge psychology, history, nature, the social institutions and sanctions of them, there is in our eyes no more radical opposition than that of the theologians, who continue to infect the innocence of becoming with 'punishment' and 'guilt' by means of the concept of the 'moral world-order'. Christianity is a hangman's metaphysics. "The Four Great Errors"
*"Maxims and Arrows"
*"The Problem of Socrates"
*"Reason in Philosophy"
*"How the Real World at Last Became a Myth"
*"Morality as Anti-Nature"
*"The Four Great Errors"
*"The Improvers of Mankind"
*"What the Germans Lack"
*"Expeditions of an Untimely Man"
*"What I Owe to the Ancients"
*"The Hammer Speaks"
* [http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/GotDamer.html English translation by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale]
* [http://librivox.org/the-twilight-of-the-idols-by-friedrich-nietzsche/ Twilight of the Idols audio book at librivox.org]
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