Dock landing ship
A Dock landing ship or Landing ship (Dock) (hull classification LSD) is a form of amphibious warship designed to support amphibious operations. These amphibious assault ships transport and launch amphibious craft and vehicles with their crews and embarked personnel. In the United States Navy, two related groups of vessels are in service, the Whidbey Island and Harpers Ferry classes, mainly used to carry Landing Craft Air Cushions (LCACs), operate helicopters, and carry Marines. The Royal Navy also operates three ships of the Bay class.
The LSD came as a result of a British requirement during the Second World War for a vessel that could carry large landing craft across the seas at speed.
The first LSD came from a design by Sir Rowland Baker who had designed the British Landing Craft, Tank. It was an answer to the problem of launching small craft rapidly. The "Landing Ship Stern Chute" which was a converted train ferry was an early attempt. Thirteen Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) could be launched from these ships down the chute. The Landing Ship Gantry was a converted tanker with a crane to transfer its cargo of landing craft from deck to sea - 15 LCM in a little over half an hour.
The design was developed and built in the US for the USN and the Royal Navy. The LSD could carry 36 LCM at 16 knots. It took one and a half hours for the dock to be flooded down and two and half to pump it out. When flooded they could also be used as docks for repairs to small craft.
Vessels of this classification
Currently there are two classes of LSDs in the United States Navy:
- USS Whidbey Island (LSD-41); Little Creek, Virginia
- USS Germantown (LSD-42); San Diego, California
- USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43); Little Creek, Va.
- USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44); Little Creek, Va.
- USS Comstock (LSD-45); San Diego, Calif.
- USS Tortuga (LSD-46); Sasebo, Japan
- USS Rushmore (LSD-47); San Diego, Calif.
- USS Ashland (LSD-48); Little Creek, Va.
- USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49); Sasebo, Japan.
- USS Carter Hall (LSD-50); Little Creek, Va.
- USS Oak Hill (LSD-51); Little Creek, Va.
- USS Pearl Harbor (LSD-52); San Diego, Calif.
- Ashland class: (LSD-1) through (LSD-8)
LSD-9 through LSD-12 are Casa Grande class ships built for the British
- Casa Grande class: (LSD-13) through (LSD-27)
- Thomaston class: (LSD-28) through (LSD-35)
- Anchorage class: (LSD-36) through (LSD-40)
Royal Fleet Auxiliary
- Largs Bay (L3006) - Sold to the Royal Australian Navy
- Lyme Bay (L3007)
- Mounts Bay (L3008)
- Cardigan Bay (L3009)
Notes and references
- ^ Brown, D K, Nelson to Vanguard p 145
Modern naval ships Aircraft carriers Battleships Cruisers Escort Transport Patrol craft
- Patrol boat
- Submarine chaser
- Armed boarding steamer
- Ocean boarding vessel
- Armed yacht
- Naval trawler
- Naval drifter
- Torpedo boat
- Missile boat
- Fast attack craft
- Motor Torpedo Boat
- Motor Gun Boat
- Steam Gun Boat
- Patrol Torpedo Boat
- Harbour Defence Motor Launch
- Examination vessel
- Coastal Motor Boat
- Motor Launch
Naval mine craft Command and support
- Command ship
- Auxiliary command ship
- Fast combat support ship
- Combat stores ship
- General stores issue ship
- Ammunition ship
- Hospital ship
- Auxiliary repair dock
- Crane vessel
- Auxiliary crane ship
- Auxiliary ship
- Fleet tender
- Destroyer tender
- Submarine tender
- Depot ship
- Evacuation ship
- Dispatch boat
- Floating fuel station
- Net laying ship
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