nihongo|Yūrei| are figures in
Japanese folklore, analogous to Western legends of ghosts. The name consists of two kanji, ("yuu"), meaning "faint" or "dim" and wikt:霊("rei"), meaning "soul" or "spirit." Alternative names include 亡霊 (Borei) meaning ruined or departed spirit, 死霊 (Shiryo) meaning dead spirit, or the more encompassing 妖怪 (
Yokai) or お化け ( Obake).
Like their Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful
According to traditional Japanese beliefs, all humans have a
spiritor soulcalled a 霊魂 ( reikon). When a person dies, the reikon leaves the body and enters a form of purgatory, where it waits for the proper funeraland post-funeral rites to be performed, so that it may join its ancestors. If this is done correctly, the reikon is believed to be a protector of the living family and to return yearly in August during the Obon Festival to receive thanks.
However, if the person dies in a sudden or violent manner such as
murderor suicide, if the proper rites have not been performed, or if they are influenced by powerful emotions such as a desire for revenge, love, jealousy, hatredor sorrow, the reikon is thought to transform into a yūrei, which can then bridge the gap back to the physical world.
The yūrei then exists on Earth until it can be laid to rest, either by performing the missing
rituals, or resolving the emotional conflict that still ties it to the physical plane. If the rituals are not completed or the conflict left unresolved, the yūrei will persist in its haunting.
In the late 17th century, a game called
Hyakumonogatari Kaidankaibecame popular, and kaidanincreasingly became a subject for theater, literatureand other arts. At this time, they began to gain certain attributes to distinguish themselves from living humans, making it easier to spot yūrei characters. Ukiyo-eartist Maruyama Ōkyocreated the first known example of the now-traditionalyūrei, in his painting " The Ghost of Oyuki".
Today, the appearance of yūrei is somewhat uniform, instantly signalling the ghostly nature of the figure, and assuring that it is culturally authentic.
* White clothing - Yūrei are usually dressed in white, signifying the white burial
kimonoused in Edo periodfuneral rituals. In Shinto, white is a color of ritual purity, traditionally reserved for priests and the dead. This kimono can either be a "katabira" (a plain, white, unlined kimono) or a "kyokatabira" (a white katabira inscribed with Buddhist sutras). They sometimes have a " hitaikakushi" (lit., "forehead cover"), which is a small white triangular piece of cloth tied around the head.
* Black hair - Hair for a yūrei is often long, black and dishevelled, which some believe to be a trademark carried over from Kabuki Theater, where wigs are used for all actors. However, this is a misconception. Japanese women traditionally grew their hair long and wore it pinned up, and it was let down for the funeral and burial.
* Hands and feet - A yūrei's hands dangle lifelessly from the wrists, which are held outstretched with the elbows near the body. They typically lack legs and feet, floating in the air. These features originated in Edo period
ukiyo-eprints, but were quickly copied over to kabuki. In kabuki, this lack of legs and feet is often represented by the use of a very long kimono, or even hoisting the actor into the air by a series of ropes and pullies.
* Hitodama - Yūrei are frequently depicted as being accompanied by a pair of floating flames or
will o' the wisps ( Hitodamain Japanese) in eerie colors such as blue, green, or purple. These ghostly flames are separate parts of the ghost rather than independent spirits.
While all Japanese ghosts are called yūrei, within that category there are several specific types of phantoms, classified mainly by the manner they died or their reason for returning to Earth.
Onryō- Vengeful ghosts who come back from purgatory for a wrong done to them during their lifetime.
Ubume- A mother ghost who died in childbirth, or died leaving young children behind. This yūrei returns to care for her children, often bringing them sweets.
Goryō- Vengeful ghosts of the aristocratic class, especially those who were martyred.
Funayūrei- The ghosts of those who perished at sea.
Zashiki-warashi- The ghosts of children, often mischievous rather than dangerous.
Seductress Ghosts- The ghost of a woman or man who initiates a post-death love affair with a living human.
There are two types of ghosts specific to
Buddhism, both being examples of unfullfilled earthly hungers being carried on after death. They are different from other classifications of yūrei due to their wholly religious nature.
In Japanese folklore, not only the dead are able to manifest their reikon for a haunting. Living creatures possessed by extraordinary jealousy or rage can release their spirit as an
ikiryō生き霊, a living ghost that can enact its will while still alive.
The most famous example of an ikiryo is Rokujo no Miyasundokoro, from the novel "
The Tale of Genji".
Yūrei often fall under the general umbrella term of
obake, derived from the verb bakeru, meaning "to change"; thus obake are preternatural beings who have undergone some sort of change, from the natural realm to the supernatural.
Kunio Yanagita, one of Japan's earliest and foremost folklorists, made a clear distinction between yūrei and obake in his seminal "Yokaidangi (Lectures on Monsters)." He claimed that yūrei haunt a particular person, while obake haunt a particular place.
When looking at typical
kaidan, this does not appear to be true. Yūrei, such as Okiku haunt a particular place, in Okiku's case the well where she died, and continue to do so long after the person who killed them has died.
Yūrei do not wander at random, but generally stay near a specific location, such as where they were killed or where their body lies, or follow a specific person, such as their murderer, or a beloved. They usually appear between 2 and 3 a.m, the
witching hourfor Japan, when the veils between the world of the dead and the world of the living are at their thinnest.
Yūrei will continue to haunt that particular person or place until their purpose is fulfilled, and they can move on to the
afterlife. However, some particularly strong yūrei, specifically onryōwho are consumed by vengeance, continue to haunt long after their killers have been brought to justice.
Some famous locations that are said to be haunted by yūrei are the well of
Himeji Castle, haunted by the ghost of Okiku, and Aokigahara, the forest at the bottom of Mt. Fuji, which is a popular location for suicide. A particularly powerful onryō, Oiwa, is said to be able to bring vengeance on any actress portraying her part in a theater or film adaptation.
The easiest way to exorcise a yūrei is to help it fulfill its purpose. When the reason for the strong emotion binding the spirit to Earth is gone, the yūrei is satisfied and can move on. Traditionally, this is accomplished by family members enacting revenge upon the yūrei's slayer, or when the ghost consummates its passion/love with its intended lover, or when its remains are discovered and given a proper burial with all rites performed.
The emotions of the onryō are particularly strong, and they are the least likely to be pacified by these methods.
On occasion, Buddhist priests and mountain ascetics were hired to perform services on those whose unusual or unfortunate deaths could result in their transition into a vengeful ghost, a practice similar to
exorcism. Sometimes these ghosts would be deified in order to placate their spirits.
Like many monsters of
Japanese folklore, malicious yūrei are repelled by nihongo|" ofuda"|御札, holy Shinto writings containing the name of a kami. The ofuda must generally be placed on the yūrei's forehead to banish the spirit, although they can be attached to a house's entry ways to prevent the yūrei from entering.
Yūrei in media
Yūrei were a popular subject matter for
ukiyo-eartists. Many artists created scenes from ghostly Kabuki plays, or attempted to capture the images of real yūrei in ghost portraits.
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi's series "New Forms of Thirty-Six Ghosts" is typical of Edo period yūrei prints, recreating some of Japan's most famous ghosts.
In 1830, Katsushika Hokusai included yūrei in his "One Hundred Tales" (Hyaku monogatari) series.
Yūrei-ga gallery at Zenshoan Temple
Zenshoan(全生庵) Temple in
Tokyo, Japanis known for its collection of yūrei paintings, known as the Yūrei-ga gallery. The 50 silkpaintings, most of which date back 150 to 200 years, depict a variety of apparitions from the forlorn to the ghastly.
The scrolls were collected by Sanyu-tei Encho(三遊亭円朝), a famous storyteller (rakugo artist) during the Edo era who studied at Zenshoan. Encho is said to have collected the scrolls as a source of inspiration for the ghostly tales he loved to tell in summer.
They are open for viewing only in August, the traditional time in Japan for ghost stories.
Yūrei have always been a major part of Japanese fiction, with almost every writer of note turning his hand to
kaidanat one time or another. During the Edo periodin particular, a game called Hyakumonogatari Kaidankaibecame popular. This game lead to a demand for ghost stories and folktales to be gathered from all parts of Japanand China.
kaidan, such as Botan Doro, were translated from Chinese folktales and given a Japanese setting. Other yūrei originate in Japan, either as local legends or original stories.
* Otogi Boko (1666) -
* Ugetsu Monogatari (1776) -
* (1904) -
* Maya Kakushi no Rei -
Ge Ge Ge no Kitaro- Shigeru Mizuki
* Ring (1991) -
The first yūrei movies were adaptations of existing kaidan
Kabukiplays, such as " Botan Doro" in 1910, and " Yotsuya Kaidan" in 1912. New versions of these popular kaidan have been filmed once a decade ever since.
Yūrei films have changed with the various trends in
Japanese cinemaover the years, never completely leaving the screens. In recent times of the 1990s and beyond, the J-Horrorboom has spread the image of the yūrei beyond Japan and into the popular cultureof Western countries.
In Japanese Animation (Anime)
"Bleach":Wholes/Pluses: Yũrei (male or female) who just have not passed on are not shown in traditional style. They have legs and feet and move like normal humans but are invisible to everyone. They also have a chain coming out of their chests. Disembodied souls of living people have their chains still attached to their bodies, while the dead have broken chains. Only soul reapers and those with high amounts of spirit energy can see these spirits.
Hollows/Minuses: Yũrei (male or female) who have transformed into monstrous spirits because they have unfinished business on Earth. They devour the souls of other humans.
Negima!":Sayo Aisaka is portrayed as a yūrei and often has a pair of hitodamaoccasionally accompanying her around .
YuYu Hakusho": ProtagonistYusuke Urameshi is killed in a car accident in the first episode, and spends the first arc of the story as a yūrei, waiting to be reinstated into his body. Art for manga covers even portray him with hitaikakushi.
The video games "
F.E.A.R." and " F.E.A.R. Extraction Point" depict the character of Alma Wade, a westernized version of a yūrei, who frequently haunts the player character. The video game "" features over a dozen yūrei-like ghosts, many of which are male. The " Fatal Frame" video game series is centered on several yūrei as the main antagonists of the games.
* [http://www.seekjapan.jp/article/jz/1279/Ghoul+Power Ghoul Power - Onryou in the Movies] "Japanzine" By Jon Wilks
* [http://www.seekjapan.jp/article-2/766/Tales+of+Ghostly+Japan Tales of Ghostly Japan] "Japanzine" By Zack Davisson
* [http://www.mangajin.com/mangajin/samplemj/ghosts/ghosts.htm Japanese Ghosts] "Mangajin #40" by Tim Screech
* [http://www.theway.jp/zen/html/gallary/somnailindex.html Yūrei-ga gallery at Zenshoan Temple]
* [http://www.kitsuneensemble.org Information on "The Kaidan Suite," a musical interpretation of Japanese ghost stories by the Kitsune Ensemble.]
*Iwasaka, Michiko and Toelken, Barre. "Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends", Utah State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0874211794
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