Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system
depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedationto anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics and as anticonvulsants. They have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. Barbiturates have now largely been replaced by the benzodiazepines mainly due to benzodiazepinesbeing significantly less dangerous in overdose. Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid.
Barbituric acid, was first synthesized on December 4, 1864, by German researcher Adolf von Baeyer. This was done by condensing urea(an animal waste product) with diethyl malonate (an esterderived from the acidof apples). There are several stories about how the substance got its name. The most likely story is that von Baeyer and his colleagues went to celebrate their discovery in a tavernwhere the town's artillery garrisonwere also celebrating the day of Saint Barbara— the patron saint of artillerists. An artillery officer is said to have christened the new substance by amalgamating "Barbara" with "urea".cite web | url = http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/rzepa/mim/drugs/html/barbiturate_text.htm | title = Barbiturates | accessdate = 2007-10-31 ]
While barbituric acid itself does not have any effect on the central nervous system, to date, chemists have derived over 2,500 compounds that do possess pharmacologically active qualities. The broad class of barbiturates is broken down further and classified according to speed of onset and duration of action. Ultrashort-acting barbiturates are commonly used for anesthesia because their extremely short duration of action allows for greater control. These properties allow doctors to rapidly put a patient "under" in emergency surgery situations. Doctors can also bring a patient out of anesthesia just as quickly should complications arise during surgery. The middle two classes of barbiturates are often combined under the title "short/intermediate-acting." These barbiturates are also employed for anesthetic purposes, and are also sometimes prescribed for anxiety or insomnia. This is not a common practice anymore, however, due to the addiction liability associated with barbiturates; they have been replaced by the benzodiazepines for these purposes. The final class of barbiturates are known as long-acting barbiturates (most notably phenobarbital, which has a half-life of roughly 92 hours). This class of barbiturates is used almost exclusively as anticonvulsants, although on rare occasions they are prescribed for daytime sedation. Barbiturates in this class are not used for insomnia, because due to their extremely long half-life, patients would awake with a residual "hang-over" effect and feel groggy. No substance of medical value was discovered, however, until 1903 when two German chemists working at
Bayer, Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, discovered that barbitalwas very effective in putting dogs to sleep. Barbital was then marketed by Bayer under the trade name Veronal. It is said that Von Mering proposed this name because the most peaceful place he knew was the Italian city of Verona.
Barbiturates can in most cases be used as either the free acid or as salts of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, lithium, etc.
Codeine- and Dionine-based salts of barbituric acid have been developed. In 1912, Bayer introduced another barbituric acid derivative, phenobarbital, under the trade name Luminal, as a sedative-hypnotic.cite book| last = Sneader | first = Walter | title = Drug Discovery | accessdate = 2006-09-06 | date= 2005-06-23 | publisher = John Wiley and Sons | id = ISBN 0-471-89979-8 | pages = 369 ]
pentobarbitaland phenobarbitalwere long used as anxiolyticsand hypnotics. Today benzodiazepineshave largely supplanted them for these purposes, because benzodiazepines have less potential for lethal overdoses. [cite journal | author = Whitlock FA | date = 14 | year = 1975 | month = Jun | title = Suicide in Brisbane, 1956 to 1973: the drug-death epidemic | journal = Med J Aust | volume = 1 | issue = 24 | pages = 737–43 | pmid =239307 ] [cite journal | author = Johns MW | year = 1975 | title = Sleep and hypnotic drugs | journal = Drugs | volume = 9 | issue = 6 | pages = 448–78 | pmid = 238826 | doi = 10.2165/00003495-197509060-00004 ] [cite journal | author = Jufe GS | year = 2007 | month = Jul-Aug | title = [New hypnotics: perspectives from sleep physiology] | journal = Vertex | volume = 18 | issue = 74 | pages = 294–9 | pmid = 18265473 ]
Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting, depending on how quickly they act and how long their effects last. [cite web | url = http://azdrugs.org/barbiturates/how-taken | title = Barbiturates: How Is It Taken? | work = azdrugs.org |date=2005–2007 | accessdate = 2007-10-31 ] Barbiturates are still widely used in surgical
anesthesia, especially to induce anesthesia. Ultrashort barbiturates such as thiopental(Pentothal) produce unconsciousness within about a minute of intravenous (IV) injection. These drugs are used to prepare patients for surgery; other general anesthetics like nitrous oxideare then used to keep the patient from waking up before the surgery is complete. Because Pentothal and other ultrashort-acting barbiturates are typically used in hospital settings, they are not very likely to be abused, noted the DEA. [http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/barbiturates.html DEA Brief on Barbiturates] ]
Long-acting barbiturates such as
phenobarbital(Luminal) and mephobarbital(Mebaral) are prescribed for two main reasons. When taken at bedtime, they help treat insomnia. When taken during the day, they have sedative effects that can aid in the treatment of tension and anxiety. These same effects have been found helpful in the treatment of convulsive conditions like epilepsy. Phenobarbital has also been used in the treatment of delirium tremensduring alcohol detoxification, although benzodiazepines have a more favorable safety profile and are more often used.Kosten TR, O'Connor PG. "Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal." "New England Journal of Medicine". 2003 May 1;348(18):1786-95. PMID 12724485] Long-acting barbiturates take effect within one to two hours and last 12 hours or longer.
Other non-therapeutic uses
Barbiturates in high doses are used for
physician-assisted suicide(PAS), and in combination with a muscle relaxantfor euthanasiaand for capital punishmentby lethal injection. [cite web |url = http://www.wweek.com/html/euthanasics.html |title = Administration and Compounding Of Euthanasic Agents |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 ] [cite web |url = http://www.slate.com/id/2141000/ |title = Why do lethal injections have three drugs? |author = Daniel Engber |publisher = Slate Magazine |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 ] Thiopentalis an ultra-short acting barbiturate that is marketed under the name Sodium Pentothal is sometimes used as a "truth serum". When dissolved in water, it can be swallowed or administered by intravenous injection. The drug does not itself force people to tell the truth, but is thought to decrease inhibitions, making subjects more likely to be caught off guard when questioned.cite web|url=http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/barb.html|title=Neuroscience for Kids - Barbiturates|accessdate=6-2-2008]
Mechanism of action
The principal mechanism of action of barbiturates is believed to be their affinity for the GABAA receptor (Acts on GABA : BDZ receptor Cl- channel complex).
GABAis the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian Central Nervous System(CNS). Barbiturates bind to the GABAA receptor at the alpha subunit, which are binding sites distinct from GABAitself and also distinct from the benzodiazepinebinding site. Like benzodiazepines, barbiturates potentiate the effect of GABA at this receptor. In addition to this GABA-ergic effect, barbiturates also block the AMPA receptor, a subtype of glutamate receptor. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Taken together, the findings that barbiturates potentiate inhibitory GABAA receptors and inhibit excitatory AMPA receptors can explain the CNS-depressant effects of these agents. At higher concentration they inhibit the Ca2+ dependent release of neurotransmitters. cite book | author = Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith L.; Goodman, Louis Sanford; Gilman, Alfred Goodman | title = Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics | publisher = McGraw-Hill | id = ISBN 0071422803] Barbiturates produce their pharmacological effects by increasing the length of time the chloride ion channel remains open at the GABAA receptor whereas benzodiazepines increase the opening frequency of the chloride ion channel at the GABAA receptor. The direct gating or opening of the chloride ion channel is the reason for the increased toxicity of barbiturates compared to benzodiazepinesin overdose. [cite web |url= http://www.acnp.org/g4/GN401000173/CH169.html |title= Barbiturates |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 |author= Neil Harrison |coauthors= Wallace B Mendelson and Harriet de Wit |year= 2000 |publisher= Neuropsychopharmacology] [cite book |last=Society for Neurochemistry |first=American |coauthors=George J. Siegel M.D., Bernard W. Agranoff M.D., Stephen K. Fisher Ph.D., R. Wayne Albers Ph.D., Michael D. Uhler Ph.D. |title=Basic Neurochemistry - Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects |origyear=1998 |url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=bnchm |accessyear=2008 |accessmonth=Jul |edition=Sixth Edition |year=1999 |publisher=Lippincott Williams and Wilkins |isbn=0-397-51820-X |chapter=Part 2 Chapter 16 |chapterurl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=bnchm.section.1181]
Tolerance, dependence and overdose
With regular use tolerance to the effects of barbiturates develops. This in turn may lead to a need for increasing doses of the drug to get the original desired pharmacological or therapeutic effect.cite journal |author=Zapantis A, Leung S |title=Tolerance and withdrawal issues with sedation |journal=Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am |volume=17 |issue=3 |pages=211–23 |year=2005 |month=September |pmid=16115529 |doi=10.1016/j.ccell.2005.04.011] Barbiturate use can lead to both psychological and
physical dependenceand the drugs have a high abuse liability.cite journal |author=Takehiko Ito, Toshihito Suzuki, Susan E. Wellman and Ing Kang Ho |title=Pharmacology of barbiturate tolerance/dependence: GABAa receptors and molecular aspects |journal=Life Sciences |volume=59 |issue=3 |pages=169–95 |year=1996 |month=June|doi=10.1016/0024-3205(96)00199-3 ] Psychological addiction to barbiturates can develop quickly. The GABAA receptor, one of barbiturates' main sites of action, is thought to play a pivotal role in the development of tolerance to and dependence on barbiturates, as well as the euphoric "high" that results from their abuse. The mechanism by which barbiturate tolerance develops is believed to be different than that of ethanolor benzodiazepines, even though these drugs have been shown to exhibit cross-tolerance with each other. [cite journal |author=Allan AM, Zhang X, Baier LD |title=Barbiturate tolerance: effects on GABA-operated chloride channel function |journal=Brain Res. |volume=588 |issue=2 |pages=255–60 |year=1992 |month=August |pmid=1382810 |doi= |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0006-8993(92)91583-Z]
An overdose results when a person takes a larger-than-prescribed dose of a drug. Symptoms of an overdose typically include; sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, Staggering and in severe cases coma and death. [cite web |url= http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000951.htm |title= Barbiturate intoxication and overdose |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 | publisher = MedLine Plus ] The lethal dosage of barbiturates varies greatly with tolerance and from one individual to another. Even in inpatient settings, however, the development of tolerance is still a problem, as dangerous and unpleasant withdrawal symptoms can result when the drug is stopped after dependence has developed.
Older adults and pregnant women should consider the risks associated with barbiturate use. When a person ages, the body becomes less able to rid itself of barbiturates. As a result, people over the age of sixty-five are at higher risk of experiencing the harmful effects of barbiturates, including drug dependence and accidental overdose. [cite web |url= http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic207.htm |title= Toxicity, Barbiturate |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 |author= WebMD | publisher = eMedicine ] When barbiturates are taken during pregnancy, the drug passes through the mother's bloodstream to her fetus. After the baby is born, it may experience withdrawal symptoms and have trouble breathing. In addition, nursing mothers who take barbiturates may transmit the drug to their babies through breast milk. [cite journal | author = Nau H | coauthors = Kuhnz W, Egger HJ, Rating D, Helge H | year = 1982 | month = Nov-Dec | title = Anticonvulsants during pregnancy and lactation. Transplacental, maternal and neonatal pharmacokinetics | journal = Clin Pharmacokinet | volume = 7 | issue = 6 | pages = 508–43 | pmid = 6819105 | doi = 10.2165/00003088-198207060-00003 ]
Recreational misuse and abuse
ethanol, barbiturates are intoxicating and produce similar effects during intoxication. The symptoms of barbiturate intoxication include respiratory depression, lowered blood pressure, fatigue, fever, unusual excitement, irritability, dizziness, poor concentration, sedation, confusion, impaired coordination, impaired judgment, addiction, and respiratory arrest which may lead to death. [cite web |url= http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html |title= Commonly Abused Drugs |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 |author= National Institute on Drug Abuse |pages= 1 ]
Recreational users report that a barbiturate high gives them feelings of relaxed contentment and
euphoria. The main risk of acute barbiturate abuse is respiratory depression. Physical and psychic dependence may also develop with repeated use. [cite journal | author = Schlatter J | coauthors = Sitbon N, Saulnier JL | year = 2001 | month = Feb | date = 17 | title = [Drugs and drug abusers] | journal = Presse Med | volume = 30 | issue = 6 | pages = 282–7 | pmid = 11252979 ] Other effects of barbiturate intoxicationinclude drowsiness, lateraland vertical nystagmus, slurred speechand ataxia, decreased anxiety, a loss of inhibitions. Barbiturates are also misused to alleviate the adverse or withdrawal effects of illicit drug misuse. [cite web |url= http://www.emedicinehealth.com/barbiturate_abuse/article_em.htm |title= Barbiturate Abuse |accessdaymonth= 15 Jul |accessyear= 2008 |author= Emedicine Health |pages= 1 ] [cite journal | author = Faulkner TP | coauthors = Hayden JH, Mehta CM, Olson DA, Comstock EG | year = 1979 | month = | date = | title = Dose-response studies on tolerance to multiple doses of secobarbital and methaqualone in a polydrug abuse population | journal = Clin Toxicol | volume = 15 | issue = 1 | pages = 23–37 | pmid = 498734 ]
Drug abusers tend to prefer short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates.Coupey SM. "Barbiturates." "Pediatrics in Review". 1997 Aug;18(8):260-4. PMID 9255991] The most commonly abused are
amobarbital(Amytal), pentobarbital(Nembutal), and secobarbital(Seconal). A combination of amobarbital and secobarbital (called Tuinal) is also highly abused. Short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates are usually prescribed as sedatives and sleeping pills. These pills begin acting fifteen to forty minutes after they are swallowed, and their effects last from five to six hours. Veterinarians use pentobarbital to anesthetise animals before surgery; in large doses, it can be used to euthanise animals.
Slang terms for barbiturates include; barbs, bluebirds, blues, downers, goofballs, tooties and yellow jackets. [cite journal | author = Hamid H | coauthors = El-Mallakh RS, Vandeveir K | year = 2005 | month = Mar | title = Substance Abuse: Medical and Slang Terminology | journal = South Med J | volume = 98 | issue = 3 | pages = 350–362 | publisher = Medscape | url = http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/501975_4 | pmid = 15813163 | doi = 10.1097/01.SMJ.0000153639.23135.6A ]
In the 1950s and 1960s, increasing reports began to be published about barbiturate overdoses and dependence problems which eventually led to the scheduling of barbiturates as controlled drugs.
In 1970 several barbiturates were designated in the
United Statesas controlled substances with the passage of the American Controlled Substances Actof 1970. Pentobarbital, secobarbitaland amobarbitalwere designated schedule II drugs, butabarbitalschedule III, and barbital and phenobarbital schedule IV. In 1971 the Convention on Psychotropic Substanceswas signed in Vienna. Designed to regulate amphetamines, barbiturates, and other synthetics, the treatytoday regulates secobarbital, amobarbital, butalbital, cyclobarbital, and pentobarbitalas schedule III, and allobarbital, methylphenobarbital, phenobarbital, and vinylbitalas schedule IV scheduled substances.
* [http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/depressants.html U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration] Source for some public domain text used on this page.
* [http://www.chemcases.com/pheno/pheno01.htm History of Barbiturates]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Barbiturate — sind Derivate der Barbitursäure, allerdings keine Salze oder Ester, wie der Name suggeriert. Die meist aliphatischen Substituenten sind gewöhnlich am C5 der Barbitursäure zu finden. Barbitursäure wurde erstmals 1864 von Adolf von Baeyer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
barbiturate — index narcotic Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
barbiturate — [baʀbityʀat] n. m. ÉTYM. 1898, Larousse; de barbitur(ique), et ate. ❖ ♦ Chim., pharm. Sel ou ester de l acide barbiturique. || Usage thérapeutique des barbiturates. ⇒ Barbiturique. || Intoxication par les barbiturates … Encyclopédie Universelle
Barbiturate — Barbiturate, Singular Barbiturat das, s, die (therapeutisch verwendeten) Abwandlungsprodukte der Barbitursäure … Universal-Lexikon
barbiturate — 1928, from German, coined 1863 by chemist Adolf von Baeyer (1835 1917) from Barbitursäure barbituric acid, coined by Baeyer, perhaps from woman s name BARBARA (Cf. Barbara), or perhaps from L. barbata, in M.L. usnea barbata, lit. bearded moss.… … Etymology dictionary
barbiturate — ► NOUN ▪ any of a class of sedative drugs related to a synthetic compound (barbituric acid) derived from uric acid. ORIGIN from barbituric acid, from German Barbitursäure, from the name Barbara + Ursäure uric acid … English terms dictionary
barbiturate — [bär bich′ər it, bär bich′ə rāt΄; bär΄bə tyoor′it, bär΄bətoor′it, bär΄bə tyo͞or′āt΄ bär΄bə toor′āt΄; ] often [, bär΄bich′ə wit] n. [ BARBITURIC ACID + ATE2] any depressant drug, as phenobarbital, derived from barbituric acid and used as a… … English World dictionary
barbiturate — /bahr bich euhr it, euh rayt ; bahr bi toor it, ayt, tyoor /, n. Pharm. any of a group of barbituric acid derivatives, used in medicine as sedatives and hypnotics. [1925 30; BARBITUR(IC) + ATE2] * * * Any of a class of heterocyclic compounds… … Universalium
barbiturate — UK [bɑː(r)ˈbɪtʃʊrət] / US [bɑrˈbɪtʃərət] noun [countable] Word forms barbiturate : singular barbiturate plural barbiturates medical a strong drug that doctors give to people to make them calm or help them sleep … English dictionary
barbiturate — A derivative of barbituric acid, including phenobarbital and others, that act as CNS depressants and are used for their tranquilizing, hypnotic, and anti seizure effects; most barbiturates have the potential for abuse. * * * bar·bi·tu·rate bär… … Medical dictionary