- Origins of hip hop
The roots of hip hop can be found in 1970s block parties in
New York City, specifically The BronxDavid Toop (1984/1991). "Rap Attack II: African Rap To Global Hip Hop". New York. New York: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2.] . Hip hop cultureincludes rapping, scratching, graffiti, and breakdancing. In the 1930s more than a sixth of Harlem residents were from the West Indies, and the block parties of the '80s were closely similar to sound systems in Jamaica. These were large parties, originally outdoors, thrown by owners of loud and expensive stereo equipment, which they could share with the community or use to compete among themselves, who began speaking lyrics or toasting.
Rap music emerged from block parties after ultra-competitive DJs isolated percussion breaks, those being the favorites among dancers, and MCs began speaking over the beats; in Jamaica, a similar musical style called dub developed from the same isolated and elongated percussion breaks. However, "most rappers will tell you that they either disliked reggae or were only vaguely aware of it in the early and middle '70s."
Lil Rodney Cee, of Funky Four Plus One Moreand Double Trouble, cites Cowboy, of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, as, "the first MC that I know of...He was the first MC to talk about the DJ."
Along with the low expense and the demise of other forms of popular music, social and political events further accelerated the rise of hip hop. In 1959, the
Cross-Bronx Expresswaywas built through the heart of the Bronx, displacing many of the middle-class white communities and causing widespread unemployment among the remaining blacks as stores and factories fled the area. By the 1970s, poverty was rampant. When a 15,000+ apartment Co-op City was built at the northern edge of the Bronx in 1968, the last of the middle-class fled the area and the area's black and Latino gangs began to grow in power
Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five
Funky Four Plus One
Fab 5 Freddy
Earlier styles that contributed to hip-hop music
West African griots, wandering poets and "praise-singers"
spiritualsand other forms of Christian music, as well as certain Protestant preachers' sermons
*Voice instrumental, long-standing tradition in world music of many varieties and across peoples
scat singing, using the voice to imitate a musical instrument.
toasting, traditional African-Americanand Afro-Caribbeanentertainment, long, rhymed tales of great heroes, Stagger Leeand Jack Johnson among others (see dub)
Dirty Dozens, stylized exchange of insults.
Signifying Monkey", long series of rhymed tales in which the weaker monkey triumphs through tricks over the more powerful beasts of the jungle, a ruder version of the " Brer Rabbit" stories.
talking blues, popularized by Woody Guthrie, John Lee Hooker, and others, featuring rhyming talking with ironic asides to the audience.
* Late 1960s and early '70s at "least" proto-rap poets such as
Gil Scott-Heron, the Watts Prophetsand the Last Poets
Jazz vocaleseand pop/R&B Doo wop, using voices to imitate an entire band (dating back at least to the Mills Brothers).
*"Here Come The Judge", a song recorded by
Pigmeat Markhamin 1967, can be considered a prototype of rap.
Memphis Jug Band, had a style and flow which could be the very first prototype of rap.
Funkdance tracks made within the 70s and 80s time periods have widely been used as sample loops for early hip hop.
:: "see also [http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/eticket/story?page=alirap1 Did Ali invent rap?] (
* [http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_rap-timeline1.html Rap/Hip-Hop Timeline]
* [http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_rap-artists.html 100 Greatest Rap/Hip-Hop Artists]
* [http://www.rwhiphop.com All Latin Rap / Hip-Hop Artists]
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