- Antisemitism around the world
This is a list of countries where
antisemiticsentiment has been experienced. This list is organized by country.
Almost all Jews in
Algerialeft upon independence in 1962. Algeria's 140,000 Jews had French citizenship since 1870 (briefly revoked by Vichy France in 1940), and they mainly went to France, with some going to Israel.
Since 2000, there has been a large, consistent flow of Algerian origin Jews moving from France to Israel.
Professor Peter Schafer of the Freie University of Berlin has argued that antisemitism was first spread by "the Greek retelling of ancient Egyptian prejudices". In view of the anti-Jewish writings of the Egyptian priest
Manetho, Schafer suggests that antisemitism may have emerged "in Egypt alone".Schafer, Peter. "Judeophobia", Harvard University Press, 1997, p 208.] According to the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus[ [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/josephus/works/files/apion-1.htm "Against Apion"] Bk 1.14, 1.26] , Manetho, a HellenisticEgyptian chronicler and priest, in his books on Egyptian history, alleges that in the 3rd century BCE, Moseswas not a Jew, but an Egyptian renegade priest called Osarseph, and portrays the Exodusas the expulsion of a lepercolony. Josephus argues that Manetho's claims are inconsistent.
In 629 the Roman emperor Heraclius I. had driven the Jews from Jerusalem this was followed by a massacre of Jews throughout the empire—in Egypt, aided by the Copts, who had old scores to settle with the Jews , dating from the Persian conquest of Alexandria at the time of Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I (502) and of the Persian general Shahin (617), when the Jews assisted the conquerors in fighting against the Christians.
caliphAl-Ḥakim (996-1020) vigorously applied the Pact of Omar, and compelled the Jews to wear bells and to carry in public the wooden image of a calf. A street in the city, Al-Jaudariyyah, was inhabited by Jews. Al-Ḥakim, hearing that they were accustomed to mock him in verses, had the whole quarter burned down.
Bahri dynasty(1250-1390), one of the mamluk (slave soldier) dynasties, the Jews led a comparatively quiet existence; though they had at times to contribute heavily toward the maintenance of the vast military equipment, and were harassed by the cadis and ulemas of these strict Moslems. Al-Maqrizirelates that the first great Mameluke, Sultan Baibars(Al-Malik al-Thahir, 1260-77), doubled the tribute paid by the "ahl al-dhimmah." At one time he had resolved to burn all the Jews, a ditch having been dug for that purpose; but at the last moment he repented, and instead exacted a heavy tribute, during the collection of which many perished.
In 1324 the Jews were accused of
arsonat Fostatand Cairo; they had to exculpate themselves by a payment of 50,000 gold pieces.Under the Burji Mamelukes the Franksagain attacked Alexandria (1416), and the laws against the Jews were once more strictly enforced by Sheik al-Mu'ayyid (1412-21); by Ashraf Bars Bey (1422-38), because of a plague which decimated the population in 1438; by Al-Ẓahir Jaḳmaḳ (1438-53); and by Ḳa'iṭ-Bey (1468-95). The lastnamed is referred to by Obadiah of Bertinoro [Obadiah of Bertinoro p. 53] . The Jews of Cairo were compelled to pay 75,000 gold pieces.
In 1948, approximately 75,000 Jews lived in
Egypt. About 100 remain today, mostly in Cairo. In 1948, Jewish neighborhoods in Cairo suffered bomb attacks that killed at least 70 Jews. Hundreds of Jews were arrested and had their property confiscated. The 1954 Lavon Affair, in which Israelis and Egyptian Jews were arrested for bombing Egyptian and American targets served as a pretext for further persecution of the remaining Jewish community in Egypt. After the 1956 Suez Crisis, Egypt expelled over 25,000 Jews, confiscated their property, and about 3,000 were imprisoned. About 1,000 more were imprisoned or detained. In 1967, Jews were detained and tortured, and Jewish homes were confiscated as emigration continued.Egypt was once home of one of the most dynamic Jewish communities in their diaspora. Caliphs in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries CE exercised various repressive policies, culminating in the destruction and mass murder of the Jewish quarter in Cairo in 1012. Conditions varied between then and the advent of the Ottoman Empirein 1517, when they deteriorated again. There were at least six blood libel persecutions in cities between 1870 and 1892.
In more recent times, the fraudulent "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" have been published and promoted as though they were authentic historical records, fueling anti-Semitic sentiments in Egyptian public opinion.
Also recently published in Egypt, has been
Henry Ford's anti-semitic treatise, The International Jew, with distinctly anti-semitic imagery on the cover. [ [http://www.intelligence.org.il/eng/sib/4_04/as_egypt.htm Examples of anti-Semitism in the Arab and Muslim world] on intelligence.org.il, site of the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Centerat the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S), Israel. Accessed 24 September 2006.]
The area now known as Libya was the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BCE. In 1948, about 38,000 Jews lived there.
A series of pogroms started in November 1945, when more than 140 Jews were killed in
Tripoliand most synagogues in the city looted. The pogroms continued in June 1948, when 15 Jews were killed and 280 Jewish homes destroyed.Harris, 2001, pp. 149-150.]
Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated from Libya. After the
Suez Crisisin 1956, another series of pogroms forced all but about 100 Jews to flee. When Muammar al-Gaddaficame to power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was confiscated and all debts to Jews cancelled.
Although the main synagogue in Tripoli was renovated in 1999, it has not reopened for services. The last Jew in Libya,
Esmeralda Meghnagidied in February 2002. Israel is home to about 40,000 Jews of Libyan descent, who maintain unique traditions. [ [http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/JewsofLibya/LibyanJews/thejews.html] ] [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/libyajews.html Jews of Libya ] ]
Jewish communities, in Islamic times often living in ghettos known as " mellah", have existed in Moroccofor at least 2,000 years. Intermittent large scale massacres (such as that of 6,000 Jews in Fez in 1033, over 100,000 Jews in Fez and Marrakeshin 1146 and again in Marrakesh in 1232)Morris, Benny. "Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001". Vintage Books, 2001, pp. 10-11.] For the events of Fez see Cohen, 1995, pp 180-182. On Marrekesh, see the " Jewish Encyclopedia" of 1906.] were accompanied by systematic discrimination through the years. During the 13th through the 15th centuries Jews were appointed to a few prominent positions within the government, typically to implement decisions. A number of Jews, fleeing the expulsion from Spainand Portugal, settled in Morocco in the 15th century and afterwards, many moving on to the Ottoman Empire.
In 1875, 20 Jews were killed by a mob in
Demnat, Morocco; elsewhere in Morocco, Jews were attacked and killed in the streets in broad daylight.Gilbert, Martin. "Dearest Auntie Fori. The Story of the Jewish People". HarperCollins, 2002, pp. 179-182.]
The imposition of a French protectorate in 1912 alleviated much of the discrimination. While the Vichy regime during
World War IIpassed discriminatory laws against Jews, King Muhammad prevented deportation of Jews to death camps (although Jews with French, as opposed to Moroccan, citizenship, being directly subject to Vichy law, were still deported.)
In 1948, approximately 265,000 Jews lived in Morocco. Between 5,000 and 8,000 live there now, mostly in
Casablanca, but also in Fez and other cities.
In June 1948, soon after
Israelwas established and in the midst of the first Arab-Israeli war, riots against Jews broke out in Oujdaand Djerada, killing 44 Jews. In 1948-9, 18,000 Jews left the country for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued (to Israel and elsewhere), but slowed to a few thousand a year. Through the early fifties, Zionist organizations encouraged emigration, particularly in the poorer south of the country, seeing Moroccan Jews as valuable contributors to the Jewish State:
: "...These Jews constitute the best and most suitable human element for settlement in Israel's absorption centers. There were many positive aspects which I found among them: first and foremost, they all know (their agricultural) tasks, and their transfer to agricultural work in Israel will not involve physical and mental difficulties. They are satisfied with few (material needs), which will enable them to confront their early economic problems." (Yehuda Grinker (an organizer of Jewish emigration from the Atlas), The Emigration of Atlas Jews to Israel, Tel Aviv, The Association of Moroccan Immigrants in Israel, 1973. [http://rickgold.home.mindspring.com/Emigration/emigration12.htm] )
In 1955, Morocco attained independence. Jews occupied several political positions, including three Members of Parliament and a Minister of Posts and Telegraphs. However, emigration to Israel jumped from 8,171 in 1954 to 24,994 in 1955, increasing further in 1956. Beginning in 1956, emigration to
Israelwas prohibited until 1963, when it resumed. [http://rickgold.home.mindspring.com/Emigration/emigration13.htm] In 1961, the government informally relaxed the laws on emigration to Israel; over the three following years, more than 80,000 Moroccan Jews emigrated there. By 1967, only 60,000 Jews remained in Morocco.
Six-Day Warin 1967 led to increased Arab-Jewish tensions worldwide, including Morocco. By 1971, the Jewish population was down to 35,000; however, most of this wave of emigration went to Europeand North Americarather than Israel.
Despite their current small numbers, Jews continue to play a notable role in Morocco; the king retains a Jewish senior adviser,
André Azoulay, and Jewish schools and synagogues receive government subsidies. However, Jewish targets have sometimes been attacked (notably in Al-Qaeda's bombing of a Jewish community center in Casablanca, see Casablanca Attacks), and there is sporadic anti-Semitic rhetoric from radical Islamist groups. Late King Hassan II's invitations for Jews to return have not been taken up by the people who emigrated.
South Africais better known for the apartheidsystem of racial discriminationagainst blacks, antisemitism has been a feature of that country's history since Europeans first set foot ashore on the Cape Peninsula. In the years 1652-1795 - a period twice as long as the 20th century reign of the National Party - Jews were not allowed to settle at the Cape. Subsequent Cape administrations - Batavian and British - were more progressive. An 1868 Act would sanction religious discrimination. [cite book | last =Milton | first =Shain | title =The roots of antisemitism in South Africa | publisher =Wiwatersrand University Press | date =1994 | location =Johannesburg | pages =9-18] Although antisemitism did not disappear in the 19th century, it would reach its apotheosis in the years leading up to World War II. Inspired by the rise of national socialismin Germanythe Ossewabrandwag(OB) - whose membership accounted for almost 25% of the 1940 Afrikanerpopulation - and the National Party faction "New Order" would champion a more programmatic solution to the 'Jewish problem'. [ [http://countrystudies.us/south-africa/23.htm South Africa - The Impact of World War II ] ] The Simon Wiesenthal Centerreports that these two groups advocated three mechanisms: Jews who had entered the country after 1933 were to be repatriated; Jews who had arrived prior to 1933 would be regarded as foreign nationals; lastly, a system regulating Jewish numbers in business and the professions would be instituted. [ [http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=700897 Annual 4 Chapter 8 Part 2 - Simon Wiesenthal Center Multimedia Learning Center ] ] The same report lists some of the reasons South African gentiles gave for disliking Jews: too many of them in commerce and professions; profiteering; black market offences; loud and ostentatious; are apart and different; buy up the land; and most communists are Jews.
Jews have lived in Tunisia for at least 2300 years. In the 13th century, Jews were expelled from their homes in
Kairouanand were ultimately restricted to ghettos, known as "hara". Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews. From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Beyrelaxed dhimmi laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at least until 1869.
Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under direct Nazi control during World War II, was also the site of anti-Semitic activities such as prison camps, deportations, and other persecution.
In 1948, approximately 105,000 Jews lived in
Tunisia. About 1,500 remain today, mostly in Djerba, Tunis, and Zarzis. Following Tunisia's independence from France in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish policies led to emigration, of which half went to Israel and the other half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration both to Israel and Franceaccelerated. There were also attacks in 1982, 1985, and most recently in 2002 when a bomb in Djerbatook 21 lives (most of them German tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack claimed by Al-Qaeda.
The Tunisian government makes an active effort to protect its Jewish minority now and visibly supports its institutions.
Bahrain's tiny Jewish community, mostly the descendants of immigrants who entered the country in the early 1900s from Iraq, numbered 600 in 1948. Over the next few decades, most left for other countries, especially England; some 36 remain (as of 2006.)Larry Luxner, [http://www.jta.org/page_view_story.asp?intarticleid=17183&intcategoryid=1 Life’s good for Jews of Bahrain — as long as they don’t visit Israel] , JTA News, October 18, 2006. Accessed 25 October 2006.]
Relations between Jews and Muslims are generally considered good, with Bahrain being the only state on the Arabian Peninsula where there is a specific Jewish community and the only Gulf state with a synagogue. One member of the community, Rouben Rouben, who sells electronics and appliances from his downtown showroom, said “95 percent of my customers are Bahrainis, and the government is our No. 1 corporate customer. I’ve never felt any kind of discrimination.”
Members play a prominent role in civil society: Ebrahim Nono was appointed in 2002 a member of Bahrain's upper house of parliament, the
Consultative Council, while a Jewish woman heads a human rights group, the Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society. According to the JTA news agency, the active Jewish community is "a source of pride for Bahraini officials".
In Bahrain's 2006 parliamentary election, some candidates have specifically sought out the Jewish vote; writer
Munira Fakhro, Vice President of the Leftist National Democratic Action, standing in Isa Towntold the local press: "There are 20- 30 Jews in my area and I would be working for their benefit and raise their standard of living." [Sandeep Singh Grewal, [http://www.womengateway.com/enwg/News/Political+News/2006/October/Women+Empowerment.htm Dr Munira Fakhro hopes for better future] , WomenGateway, October 2006. Accessed 25 October 2006.]
India is home to several communities of Jews. There have been no antisemitic incidents from the Hindu majority in India in the nearly 3-millennium history of Indian Jewry. Over the course of the twentieth century, several important Hindu leaders, scholars and politicians, such as
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Sita Ram Goel, Arun Shourieand others have vocally condemned anti-semitism and have expressed support for Israel and the Jewish right to self-determination [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20060423090103/http://www.nhsf.org.uk/images/stories/HinduDharma/Interfaith/hinduzion.pdf Hindu Pro-Zionism] ] .
Anti-semitism first came to India with the Portuguese Christian Missionaries in the 16th century. Christian anti-semitism in India manifested itself through the
Goa Inquisitionthat resulted in the depopulation of the Jews in Goa, and the persecution of South Indian Jews by the Portuguese in Kerala. Contemporary anti-semitism in India comes largely from Muslims through Pakistan-based Islamic terror outfits like Lashkar-e-Toiba, operating illegally in India, who have declared Jews to be the "enemies of Islam."Fact|date=June 2008
In 2004, Syed Barkati, the Islamic head priest of
Calcutta's Tipu Sultan mosque, accused Bangladeshi feminist and Islam critic Taslima Nasreenof being a "Jewish spy". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/5121548.stm BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | Cleric quizzed over author threat ] ]
In 2006, a restaurant opened in the Indian city of
Mumbainamed " Hitlers' Cross" which raised the ire of the small community of Jews in Mumbai. The owner, Puneet Sablok, has since changed the name, apologizing to the Mumbai Jewish community and clarifying that he did not intend to offend Indian Jewry.Fact|date=June 2008
Shiraz blood libelin the early 20th century was a pogrom that occurred after a Jewish family was accused of ritually killing a Muslim girl. A couple of decades later, Reza Shahsympathized with Nazi Germany and the Iranian press began to publish antisemitic articles, making the Jewish community fearful of possible persecutions; no major hate crimes against Jews actually occurred during his reign, though.Sanasarian (2000), p. 46]
Sassanidrule over Babylon(225 to 634) both Christians and Jews suffered occasional persecution, especially under Sassanian high-priest KartirThe first legal expression of Islamtoward the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastriansafter the conquests of the 630s were the poll-tax (" jizyah"), the tax upon real estate ("kharaj") was instituted.
Umayyad Caliph, Umar II. (717-720), persecuted the Jews. He issued orders to his governors: "Tear down no church, synagogue, or fire-temple; but permit no new ones to be built". it is said that the law requiring Jews to wear a yellow badge upon their clothing originated with Harun.
In 1948, there were approximately 150,000
Jews in Iraq. In 2003, there were 100 left, though there are reports that small numbers of Jews are returning in the wake of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
In 1941, following
Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, riots known as the " Farhud" broke out in Baghdadin which approximately 200 Jews were murdered (some sources put the number higher), and up to 2,000 injured.
Arab Leaguestates, Iraq forbade the emigration of its Jews for a few years after the 1948 war on the grounds that allowing them to go to Israel would strengthen that state. However, intense diplomatic pressure brought about a change of mind. At the same time, increasing government oppression of the Jews fueled by anti-Israeli sentiment, together with public expressions of anti-semitism, created an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty.
In March 1950, Iraq passed a law of one year duration allowing Jews to emigrate on condition of relinquishing their Iraqi citizenship. Iraq apparently believed it would rid itself of those Jews it regarded as the most troublesome, especially the Zionists, but retain the wealthy minority who played an important part in the Iraqi economy. Israel mounted an operation called "Ezra and Nehemiah" to bring as many of the Iraqi Jews as possible to Israel, and sent agents to Iraq to urge the Jews to register for immigration as soon as possible.
The initial rate of registration accelerated after a bomb injured three Jews at a café. Two months before the expiry of the law, by which time about 85,000 Jews had registered, a bomb at the Masuda Shemtov
Synagoguekilled 3 or 5 Jews and injured many. The law expired in March 1951, but was later extended after the Iraqi government froze the assets of departing Jews (including those already left). During the next few months, all but a few thousand of the remaining Jews registered for emigration, spurred on by a sequence of bombings that caused few casualties but had great psychological impact. In total, about 120,000 Jews left Iraq.
In May and June 1951, the arms caches of the Zionist underground in Iraq, which had been supplied from Palestine/Israel since the
Farhudof 1942, were discovered. Many Jews were arrested and two Zionist activists, Yusuf Basri and Ibrahim Salih, were tried and hanged for three of the bombings. A secret Israeli inquiry in 1960 reported that most of the witnesses believed that Jews had been responsible for the bombings, but found no evidence that they were ordered by Israel. The issue remains unresolved: Iraqi activists in Israel still regularly charge that Israel used violence to engineer the exodus, while Israeli officials of the time vehemently deny it. According to historian Moshe Gatt, few historians believe that Israel was actually behind the bombing campaign -- based on factors such as records indicating that Israel did not want such a rapid registration rate and that bomb throwing at Jewish targets was common before 1950, making the Istiqlal Party a more likely culprit than the Zionist underground. In any case, the remainder of Iraq's Jews left over the next few decades, and had mostly gone by 1970.
Japan, with no Jewish population, had no anti-Semitism, however, Nazi ideology and propaganda left its influence on Japan during World War II, and the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" were subsequently translated into Japanese. Today, anti-Semitism and belief in Jewish manipulation of Japan and the world remains despite the small size of the Jewish community in Japan. Books about Jewish conspiracies are best sellers. According to a 1988 survey, 8% of Japanese had read one of these books. [ [http://sicsa.huji.ac.il/11kowner.htm Japanese Attitudes Towards Jews] Accessed October 8, 2006]
There is a general stereotype against Jews in Pakistan. Jews and Hindus are regarded as "miserly" [ [http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=20051021story_21-10-2005_pg3_2 Why are the Jews ‘kanjoos’? —Khaled Ahmed’s Review of the Urdu press] ,"Daily times (Pakistan)] .The founding of the Islamic state of Pakistan immediately prior to the creation of Israel in the Levant created insecurity among Pakistan's Jews. After Israel's independence in 1948, violent incidents occurred against Pakistan's small Jewish community of about 2,000
Bene IsraelJews. The synagogue in Karachi wasattacked, as were individual Jews. The persecution of Jews resulted in their exodus to India, Israel, and the UK. The PeshawarJewish community ceased to exist. [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Pakistan.html Jewish Virtual Library: Pakistan] Accessed October 8, 2006]
Pakistani cricket icon Imran Khan's marriage to Jemima Goldsmith in 1996 caused furor in Pakistan and Khan was accused of acting as an agent of the "Jewish Lobby". Egyptian newspapers in Pakistan made other antisemitic accusations against Khan. After Khan complained, the stories were retracted.
India's establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992 have given rise to antisemitism in Pakistani media, usually combined with anti-Zionist rhetoric. India has been referred to as a "Zionist Threat". [ [http://www.axt.org.uk/antisem/archive/archive1/pakistan/pakistan.htm Pakistan] Accessed October 8, 2006]
Pakistan-based Islamic terrorist group
Lashkar-e-Toibahave also expressed antisemitic views. Their propaganda arm has declared the Jews to be "Enemies of Islam", Israel to be the "Enemy of Pakistan". [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/businessline/2001/01/05/stories/040555ra.htm Lashkar-e-Toiba: Spreading the jehad] Accessed October 8, 2006]
Military leaflets have been dropped over
Waziristanto urge the tribesmen to beware of foreigners and their local supporters who had allied themselves with the "Yahood Aur Hanood".Tribesmen who read the leaflets were wondering over the use of the word "Yahood Aur Hanood" to describe the enemy in the leaflets. Most thought it meant the Jews worldwide and the dominant Hindus of India. [ [http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/mar2006-daily/24-03-2006/main/main5.htm Military drops leaflets in Waziristan] Accessed October 8, 2006] Dead link|date=May 2008
The U.S. State Department's first Report on Global Anti-Semitism finds an increase in antisemitism in Pakistan. [ [http://www.ncsj.org/AuxPages/010505State_A-S.shtml Global Antisemitism Report - 01.05.2005] Accessed October 8, 2006] In Pakistan, a country without Jewish communities, antisemitic sentiment fanned by antisemitic articles in the press is widespread. [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/40258.htm Report on Global Anti-Semitism] Accessed October 8, 2006] Pakistan refuses to recognize Israel as a legitimate state [ [http://english.people.com.cn/200509/02/eng20050902_206013.html Musharraf says Pakistan not to recognize Israel] Accessed October 8, 2006] on account of their sympathies with the Arabs in the
A substantial number of people in Pakistan believe that the
September 11, 2001attacks on the World Trade Center in New York were a "secret Jewish conspiracy" organized by Israel's MOSSAD, as were the 7 July 2005 London bombings, allegedly perpetrated by Jews in order to "discredit Muslims". Such allegations echo traditional antisemitic conspiracy theories [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4205750.stm Pakistan and Israel - new friends?] ,"BBC"] [ [http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/blog/2005/08/pakistan_in_the.html Pakistan: In the Land of Conspiracy Theories] ,PBS.org] .
In 1948, there were approximately 5,000 Jews in Lebanon, with communities in
Beirut, and in villages near Mount Lebanon, Deir al Qamar, Barouk, and Hasbaya. While the French mandate saw a general improvement in conditions for Jews, the Vichy regimeplaced restrictions on them. The Jewish community actively supported Lebanese independence after World War II and had mixed attitudes toward Zionism.
Negative attitudes toward Jews increased after 1948, and, by 1967, most Lebanese Jews had emigrated - to the United States, Canada, France, and Israel. The remaining Jewish community was particularly hard hit by the civil wars in Lebanon, and, by 1967, most Jews had emigrated. In the 1980s,
Hizballahkidnapped several Lebanese Jewish businessmen, and in the 2004 elections, only one Jew voted in the municipal elections. By all accounts, there are fewer than 100 Jews left in Lebanon.
In Roman times about 10,000 Jews lived at
Damascus, governed by an ethnarch. [ [http://bible.cc/acts/9-2.htm Acts 9-2] ; [http://bible.cc/2_corinthians/9-32 II Cor. 9-32] ] During the conflicts between the Byzantinesand the Persiansthe city frequently suffered heavily. When Syria was conquered by the Persians (614), the Jews of Damascus, profiting by the presence of the invaders, joined with their coreligionists of Palestine to take vengeance on the Christians, especially those of Tyre. During the Crusades, a large number of Palestinian Jews sought refuge at Damascus from the enormous taxes imposed upon them by the Crusaders, thus increasing the community.
During the nineteenth century the Jews of Damascus were several times made the victims of calumnies, the gravest being those of 1840 and 1860, in the reign of the sultan
Abdülmecit. That of 1840, commonly known as the Damascus affair, was an accusation of ritual murder brought against the Jews in connection with the death of Father Thomas. [ [http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/106-144e.htm The Origins and the Development of German-Jewish Press in Germany till 1850] by Johannes Valentin Schwarz. (66th International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Council and General Conference. Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000. Code Number: 106-144-E] A Jewish barber was tortured until he "confessed"; two other Jews who were arrested died under torture, while a third converted to Islam to save his life. The second accusation brought against the Jews, in 1860, was that of having taken part in the massacre of the Christians by the Druzeand the Muslims. Five hundred Muslims, who had been involved in the affair, were hanged by the grand vizier Fuad Pasha. Two hundred Jews were awaiting the same fate, in spite of their innocence, and the whole Jewish community had been fined 4,000,000 piastres. [ [http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA9902 The Damascus Blood Libel (1840) as Told by Syria's Minister of Defense, Mustafa Tlass] (MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis Series - No. 99) June 27, 2002] The condemned Jews were saved only by the official intervention of Fuad Pasha himself; that of the Prussian consul, Dr. Wetzstein; of Sir Moses Montefioreof London, and of the bankers Abraham Salomon Camondoof Constantinople and Shemaya Angel of Damascus. From that time to the end of the nineteenth century, several further blood accusations were brought against the Jews; these, however, never provoked any great excitement.
There is a tiny Syrian
Jewishcommunity that is confined mainly to Damascus; remnants of a formerly 40,000 strong community. After the 1947 UN Partition planin Palestine, there were heavy pogromsagainst Jews in Damascus and Aleppo. The Jewish property was confiscated or burned and after the establishment of the State of Israel, many fled to Israel and only 5000 Jews were left in Syria. Of these, 4000 more left after agreement with the United States in the 1990s. As of 2006, there are only 100-200 Jews left in Syria.
Rioters in Aleppo in 1947 burned the city's Jewish quarter and killed 75 people. Daniel Pipes, Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990) p. 57, records 75 victims of the Aleppo massacre.] In 1948, there were approximately 30,000 Jews in
Syria. The Syrian government placed severe restrictions on the Jewish community, including on emigration. Over the next decades, many Jews managed to escape, and the work of supporters, particularly Judy Feld CarrLevin, 2001, pp. 200-201.] , in smuggling Jews out of Syria, and bringing their plight to the attention of the world, raised awareness of their situation. Following the Madrid Conference of 1991the United Statesput pressure on the Syrian government to ease its restrictions on Jews, and, in 1992, the government of Syria began granting exit visas to Jews on condition that they not emigrate to Israel. At that time, the country had several thousand Jews; today, under a hundred remain. The rest of the Jewish community have emigrated, mostly to the United Statesand Israel. There is a large and vibrant Syrian Jewish community in South Brooklyn, New York. In 2004, the Syrian government attempted to establish better relations with the emigrants, and 12 Syrian-Jews visited Syria. [ [http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/syriablog/2005/10/jews-of-syria-by-robert-tuttle.htm SyriaComment.com: "The Jews of Syria," By Robert Tuttle ] ]
Despite close economic and military ties to Israel, Turkey has experienced a recent surge in anti-Semitic literature, most notably the sale of
Mein Kampf, the autobiography of Adolf Hitler, which has become a bestseller through the country. Sales of the similarly-themed books The Protocols of the Elders of Zionand Henry Ford's The International Jewhave also increased. In the same vein, the 2005 bestselling book Metal fırtına, which depicts a fictional war between Turkey and the United States, is described by the author, in an interview with " Vatan", as helping people understand the realities behind Israel and the Jews, and would see how the Jews betrayed Turkey. [http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2005/turkey.htm Antisemitism And Racism ] ]
While the exact reason for the book's popularity is uncertain, it may reflect anger over the treatment of fellow Muslim in Palestine by Israelis, anti-western sentiments caused by the war in Iraq, or simply backlash caused by Turkey's bid to join the
Anti-Semitic sentiments have also been observed in the Turkish media, such as in the nationalist "Ortadogu", where Selcuk Duzgun, in an article titled "Here is the Real Jew" stated: "We are surrounded. Wherever we look we see traitors. Wherever we turn we see impure, false converts. Whichever stone you turn over, there is a Jew under it. And we keep thinking to ourselves: Hitler did not do enough to these Jews."
In the "Milli Gazette", Turkish author Hakan Albayrak wrote an article accusing the Israeli Government of Genocide and stating Zionism itself constituted genocide. On 8 January the Islamist daily
Yeni Şafak, the unofficial mouthpiece of the Justice and Development Party, published an article which alleged that the Israeli Government was attempting to set up farms in southeastern Turkey, and populate them with Russian and Ethiopian Jews whose integration into Israel they found difficult. In 2005, it was reported by journalists such as Ayhan Bilgin in "Vakit", that the Mossad and Israel were responsible for planting mines which killed Turkish soldiers in southeast Turkey. Such claims have created a very negative atmosphere against Israelis and Turkish Jews. Anti-Semitism has also recently been observed in the publications "Anadoluda, Vakit," and "Yeniçağ".
conspiracy theoriesfrom Islamists and ultra-nationalists in Turkey have attempted to demonize Jews and Israel. These theories have been fed in part by Turkish Israeli arms modernization projects, agricultural projects in southeast Turkey connected to the South-East Anatolia Agricultural Irrigation Project, which employ Israeli experts; mutual visits of Turkish and Israeli officials; and the alleged role of the Mossadin northern Iraq (the Iraq waris highly unpopular in Turkey) making statements such as "The Mossad is the boss in Northern Iraq" have all nourished these theories. The common conspiracy theory that Jews, the supposed chosen people who consider themselves superior, are trying to take over the world by creating internal problems has also been cited by Turkish newspapers.
The well-known Turkish novelist
Orhan Pamuk, often criticized by the Turkish media and accused of being a traitor due to his interpretation of certain events in Turkish history, has been criticized as being "the servant of Jews," and "a Jew-lover" by several nationalistic publications.
Aden, there were about 63,000 Jews in Yemenin 1948. Today, there are about 200 left. In 1947, riots killed at least 80 Jews in Aden. Increasingly hostile conditions led to the Israeli government's Operation Magic Carpet, the evacuation of 50,000 Jews from Yemen to Israel in 1949 and 1950. Emigration continued until 1962, when the civil war in Yemen broke out. A small community remained unknown until 1976, but it appears that all infrastructure is lost now.
Jews in Yemen were long subject to a number of restrictions, ranging from attire, hairstyle, home ownership, marriage, etc. Under the "Orphan's Decree", many Jewish orphans below puberty were raised as Muslims. This practice began in the late 18th century, was suspended under Ottoman rule, then was revived in 1918. Most cases occurred in the 1920s, but sporadic cases occurred until the 1940s. In later years, the Yemenite government has taken some steps to protect the Jewish community in their country.
The summary of a 2004 poll by the "
Pew Global Attitudes Project" noted, "Despite concerns about rising antisemitism in Europe, there are no indications that anti-Jewish sentiment has increased over the past decade. Favorable ratings of Jews are actually higher now in France, Germany and Russia than they were in 1991. Nonetheless, Jews are better liked in the U.S. than in Germany and Russia." [http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=206 "A Year After Iraq War: Mistrust of America in Europe Even Higher, Muslim Anger Persists"] , Pew Global Attitudes Project, accessed March 12, 2006.] However, according to 2005 survey results by the ADL, [http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ASInt_13/4726_13.htm "ADL Survey in 12 European Countries Finds Antisemitic Attitudes Still Strongly Held"] , Anti-Defamation League, 2005, accessed March 12, 2006.] antisemitic attitudes remain common in Europe. Over 30% of those surveyed indicated that Jews have too much power in business, with responses ranging from lows of 11% in Denmark and 14% in England to highs of 66% in Hungary, and over 40% in Poland and Spain. The results of religious antisemitism also linger and over 20% of European respondents agreed that Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus, with France having the lowest percentage at 13% and Poland having the highest number of those agreeing, at 39%. [http://www.philosophistry.com/specials/europe/question_1.html Flash Map of Attitudes Toward Jews in 12 European Countries (2005)] , Philo. Sophistry, accessed March 12, 2006.]
European Union Monitoring Centre(EUMC), for 2002 and 2003, identified France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and the Netherlands as EU member countries with notable increases in incidents. Many of these incidents can be linked to immigrant communities in these countries and result from heightened tensions in the Middle East. As these nations keep reliable and comprehensive statistics on antisemitic acts, and are engaged in combating antisemitism, their data was readily available to the EUMC.
In western Europe, traditional far-right groups still account for a significant proportion of the attacks against Jews and Jewish properties; disadvantaged and disaffected Muslim youths increasingly were responsible for most of the other incidents. In Eastern Europe, (despite having a larger native Muslim population), neo-Nazis, fascists and others members of the radical political fringe were responsible for most antisemitic incidents. Antisemitism remained a serious problem in Russia and Belarus, and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union, with most incidents carried out by ultra-nationalist and other far-right elements. The stereotype of Jews as manipulators of the global economy continues to provide fertile ground for antisemitic aggression.
In the mid 1600s,
Peter Stuyvesant, the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Amsterdam, sought to bolster the position of the Dutch Reformed Churchby trying to reduce religious competition from denominations such as Jews, Lutherans, Catholics and Quakers. He stated that the Jews were "deceitful", "very repugnant", and "hateful enemies and blasphemers of the name of Christ". He warned in a subsequent letter that in "giving them liberty we cannot (then) refuse the Lutherans and Papists". However, religious plurality was already a legal-cultural tradition in New Amsterdam and in the Netherlands. His superiors at the Dutch West India Companyin Amsterdamoverruled him in all matters of intolerance.
Jews were often condemned by
populistpoliticians alternately for their left-wingpolitics, or their perceived wealth, at the turn of the century. Fact|date=February 2007 Anti-semitism grew in the years leading up to America's entry into World War II, Father Charles Coughlin, a radio preacher, as well as many other prominent public figures, condemned "the Jews," and Henry Fordreprinted The Protocols of the Elders of Zionin his newspaper. Fact|date=February 2007
In 1939 a
Roperpoll found that only thirty-nine percent of Americans felt that Jews should be treated like other people. Fifty-three percent believed that "Jews are different and should be restricted" and ten percent believed that Jews should be deported.Smitha, Frank E. [http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch22.htm "Roosevelt and Approaching War: The Economy, Politics and Questions of War, 1937-38"] , accessed March 12 2006.] Several surveys taken from 1940 to 1946 found that Jews were seen as a greater threat to the welfare of the United States than any other national, religious, or racial group. [http://etd-submit.etsu.edu/etd/theses/available/etd-0322102-113418/unrestricted/Greear040102.pdf#search='charles%20coughlin%20Jews'] It has been estimated that 190,000 - 200,000 Jews could have been saved during the Second World Warhad it not been for bureaucratic obstacles to immigration deliberately created by Breckinridge Longand others. [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/holocaust/peopleevents/pandeAMEX90.html "Breckinridge Long (1881-1958)"] , Public Broadcasting System(PBS), accessed March 12 2006.]
In a speech at an America First rally on
September 11 1941in Des Moines, Iowaentitled "Who Are the War Agitators?", Charles Lindberghclaimed that three groups had been "pressing this country toward war": the Roosevelt Administration, the British, and the Jews - and complained about what he insisted was the Jews' "large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio and our government." [ [http://www.pbs.org/perilousfight/social/antisemitism/ PBC: The Perilous Fight. Antisemitism] Accessed October 8, 2006] The antisemitism of Lindberghis one of the subjects of the novel " The Plot Against America" (2004) by Philip Roth.
Unofficial antisemitism was also widespread in the first half of the century. For example, to limit the growing number of Jewish students between 1919-1950s a number of private liberal arts universities and medical and dental schools employed Numerus clausus. These included
Harvard University, Columbia University, Cornell University, and Boston UniversityFact|date=August 2007. In 1925 Yale University, which already had such admissions preferences as "character", "solidity", and "physical characteristics" added a program of legacy preferenceadmission spots for children of Yale alumni, in an explicit attempt to put the brakes on the rising percentage of Jews in the student body. This was soon copied by other Ivy League and other schoolsFact|date=August 2007, and admissions of Jews were kept down to 10% through the 1950s. Such policies were for the most part discarded during the early 1960s.
cultsalso support conspiracy theories regarding Jews as dominating and taking over the world. These cults are often vitriolic and severely anti-semititic. For instance, the Necedah ShrineCult from the 1950s on to the mid 1980s, has Mary Ann Van Hoofreceiving anti-semitic "visions" from the Virgin Marytelling her that the Rothschilds, a prominent Jewish banking family, are "mongrel yids(Jews)" bent on dominating the entire world economy through international banking. Most of the worlds problems, from poverty to world wars, are the cause of International Banking Jews and their "satanic secret society," according to Van Hoof. [http://www.jesusphoto.org/devilfish1.jpg]
American antisemitism underwent a modest revival in the late twentieth century. The
Nation of Islamunder Louis Farrakhanclaimed that Jews were responsible for slavery, economic exploitation of black labor, selling alcohol and drugs in their communities, and unfair domination of the economy. Jesse Jackson issued his infamous "Hymietown" remarks during the 1984 Presidential primary campaign.
According to ADL surveys begun in 1964, African-Americans are "significantly more likely" than white Americans to hold antisemitic beliefs, although there is a strong correlation between education level and the rejection of anti-Semitic stereotypes. [http://www.adl.org/antisemitism_survey/survey_print.asp "Anti-Semitism and Prejudice in America: Highlights from an ADL Survey - November 1998"] ,
Anti-Defamation League, accessed March 12 2006.]
Canada’s Jewishcommunity dates back to the 18th century, and anti-Semitismhas confronted Canadian Jewssince this time. [Manuel Prutschi, [http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-prutschi-f04.htm "Anti-Semitism in Canada"] , Fall 2004. Accessed March 29, 2008.] [Dr. Karen Mock, [http://www1.ca.nizkor.org/hweb/people/m/mock-karen/por-01.html "Hate Propaganda and Anti-Semitism: Canadian Realities"] , April 9, 1996. Accessed March 29, 2008.]
March 14, 1938, Dr. H. U. Granow, the German consul-general in Ottawa, wrote to the Department of External Affairs for laws that would require “race or colour” to become a factor of legal consequence, pertaining to laws that govern issues such as the exercise of civil and political rights, marriage, sexual relations, professions, school and university acceptances, and immigration.
During the 1930s and 1940s, several societal models reflected this
anti-Semitism: In British Columbiaand Saskatchewan, several laws denied voting rightson the ground of race in provincial and federal elections. Those disqualified from the vote were also forced to abstain from jury duty, public officeand volunteering in war.
Between 1930 and 1939, Canada almost completely rejected all Jewish
refugeesfrom Nazi Europe, receiving only 4,000 of the 800,000 total Jews looking for refuge across the globe. For example, the SS St. Louissailed out of Hamburginto the Atlantic Oceanin May 1939, carrying 936 Jewish refugees seeking asylum from Nazipersecution. Because Jewish immigrationwas contrary to public policy in Canada at the time, the passengers were denied entrance to Canada. A 1943 Gallup pollput Jews in third place, below the Japanese and Germans, as the most undesirable immigrants to Canada.Adelman, Howard and John H. Simpson, eds. Multiculturalism, Jews and Identities in Canada. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1996.] The Great Depressionencouraged a search for scapegoats amongst “foreigners,” including Canadian-born Jews, and the rise of Hitlerin Germany, along with international anti-semitic propaganda, justified prejudiced and exclusionary practices against Jews in Canada.
Several outbreaks of violence against Jews and Jewish property culminated in 1933 with the Christie Pits riots; six hours of violent conflict between Jewish and
Christianyouths in Toronto, Ontario. Local synagogueswere set ablaze, and swastikasand Nazi slogansbegan to crop up on Toronto’s eastern beaches, where Jewish bathers were also attacked.
Adrien Arcandstarted the ‘ Parti national social chrétien’ in Montreal, patterned after the Nazi party. His party’s actions brought about anti-Semitic rallies, boycotts, propaganda and literature, which lead to the inception of several other Nazi-like organizations throughout Canada. In 1938, the National FascismConvention was held in Toronto's Massey Hall, showing Canada’s complete passivity about the domestic spread of fascism and propaganda.
The outbreak of
World War IIsaw even more anti-Semitic practices put into place. Units in the Canadian Forcesrejected Jewish volunteers, and the Canadian National Selective Service discriminated against Jews when assigning workers to munitions factories. A post-War Gallup poll placed Jews second, behind the Japanese, on the list of most undesirable immigrants.
Throughout the 1930’s and 1940’s,
employment discriminationagainst Jews in Canada was rampant. During this time, there were racial prohibitions that stopped Jews from becoming lawyers, pharmacists, miners, loggers, or fishermen, and denied them minimum wagerights and welfare benefits. Typical employment applications asked for racial origin and religion, and if a Jew was inadvertently hired by misrepresentation, he or she could be fired. There were few to none Jewish teachers, professors, architects, principals, engineersor accountants. Many institutions maintained quotas on how many Jews they would hire, or hired none at all (such as the City of Toronto, who refused to hire Jewish police officersand transit workers). Often owners and managers tried to deflect them by putting up signs with slogans such as “ GentilesOnly,” or “No Jews or Dogs Allowed.”
A 1948 article on anti-Semitism in Canada, written for "MacLean’s" magazine by
Pierre Berton, illustrates this racism: Berton hired two young women to apply for several of the same jobs, one under the name Greenberg, and the other under the name Grimes. While Grimes received interviews for nearly every application, positions that were available for Grimes were “already filled” when Greenberg applied for them, or Greenberg’s applications were simply never answered. When Berton contacted several of these companies, he was told, “Jews did not have the right temperament,” that “they don’t know their place” or that “we don’t employ Jews.” Universitiesand professional schools also set quotas on Jewish enrolment or refused Jewish students completely. For example, the Toronto General Hospitalaccepted only one Jewish internship per year.
Clubs and resorts in Canada also denied Jews access with their “exclusive clientele” policies. The St. Andrews Golf Club in Toronto sported a sign that said, “This course is restricted to Gentiles only. Please do not question this policy.” A Montreal resort boasted a sign that read “Christians Only,” but also employed someone who “walked along the beach with a megaphone, politely inquiring whether there was a Jew present despite the warning, and asking him to leave as quickly as possible.”
Berton, during his research on Canadian anti-Semitism, sent two letters to each of 29 summer resorts, one under the name of Marshall, and one under the name of Rosenberg. “Marshall” received twice as many reservations as “Rosenberg,” including at some resorts who told “Rosenberg” they were full, or who did not reply to him at all.
Anti-Semitic residential separation was also prevalent during the 1930’s and 1940’s, and was done through racial
restrictive covenants. These either involved agreements among owners of neighbouring properties to not sell or rent their houses to members of certain races, or were clauses placed in deeds by land developers that restricted ownership according to racial origin. Once instituted, both types of covenants were legally registered and could be enforced by the courts.
Jewish exodus from Arab lands
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