Para rubber tree


Para rubber tree

Taxobox
name = Rubber Tree


image_width = 200px
image_caption = "Hevea brasiliensis"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Malpighiales
familia = Euphorbiaceae
subfamilia = Crotonoideae
tribus = Micrandreae
subtribus = Heveinae
genus = "Hevea"
species = "H. brasiliensis"
binomial = "Hevea brasiliensis"
binomial_authority = Müll.Arg.

The Pará rubber tree ("Hevea brasiliensis"), often simply called rubber tree, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and the most economically important member of the genus "Hevea". It is of major economic importance because its sap-like extract (known as latex) can be collected and is the primary source of natural rubber.

Description

The tree can reach a height of over 30m (98.4 feet). The white or yellow latex occurs in latex vessels in the bark, mostly outside the phloem. These vessels spiral up the tree in a right-handed spiral which forms an angle of about 30 degrees with the horizontal.

Harvest

Once the trees are 5-6 years old, the harvest can begin: incisions are made orthogonal to the latex vessels, just deep enough to tap the vessels without harming the tree's growth, and the sap is collected in small buckets. This process is known as rubber tapping. Older trees yield more latex, but they stop producing after 26-30 years.

History

The Pará rubber tree initially grew only in the Amazon Rainforest. Increasing demand and the discovery of the vulcanization procedure in 1839 led to a boom in that region, enriching the cities of Belém and Manaus. The name of the tree derives from Pará, the second largest Brazilian state, that contains Belém as capital, mainly city and tech-financial centre.

There had been an attempt made, in 1873, to grow rubber outside Brazil. After some effort, twelve seedlings were germinated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. These were sent to India for cultivation, but died. A second attempt was then made, some 70,000 seeds being sent to Kew in 1875. About 4% of these germinated, and in 1876 about 2000 seedlings were sent, in Wardian cases, to Ceylon, and 22 sent to the Botanic Gardens in Singapore. Once established outside its native country, rubber was extensively propagated in the British colonies. Rubber trees were brought to the botanical gardens at Buitenzorg, Java in 1883.cite book | last = Winchester | first = Simon | title = Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded, August 27, 1883 |pages=223-224 | publisher = HarperCollins | year = 2003 | id = ISBN 0-06-621285-5 ] By 1898, a rubber plantation had been established in Malaya, and today most rubber tree plantations are in Southeast Asia and some also in tropical Africa. Efforts to cultivate the tree in its native South America were unsatisfactory.Fact|date=September 2008

Uses

The wood from this tree, referred to as parawood or rubberwood, is used in the manufacture of high-end furniture. It is valued for its dense grain, minimal shrinkage, attractive colour and acceptance of different finishes. It is also prized as an "environmentally friendly" wood, as it makes use of trees that have been cut down at the end of their latex-producing cycle.

ynonyms

The genus "Hevea" is also known as:
*"Caoutchoua" J.F.Gmel.
*"Micrandra" Benn. & R.Br.
*"Siphonanthus" Schreb. ex Baill.
*"Siphonia" D.Richard ex Schreb.

ee also

* "Castilla elastica" - the principal source of latex rubber among the pre-Columbian MesoAmerican peoples
*List of plants of Amazon Rainforest vegetation of Brazil

Gallery

References

* [http://www.greenlivingtips.com/articles/142/1/Sustainable-Rubberwood.html Sustainable Rubberwood]

Further references

Zhang, J., Huss, V.A.R., Sun, X., Chang, K. and Pan, D. 2008. Morphology and phylogenetic position of a trebouxiophycean green algae (Chlorophyta) growing on th rubber tree, "Hevea brasiliensis", with the description of a new genus and species. "Eur. J. Phycol." 43(2): 185 - 193.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Para rubber tree — noun deciduous tree of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers having leathery leaves and fragrant yellow white flowers; it yields a milky juice that is the chief source of commercial rubber • Syn: ↑caoutchouc tree, ↑Hevea brasiliensis • Hypernyms:… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Para rubber tree — noun Date: 1930 a South American rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Pará rubber tree — noun Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber tree …   Wiktionary

  • Para rubber tree — Hevea (E) …   EthnoBotanical Dictionary

  • Para rubber — noun a type of natural rubber obtained from tropical South American trees • Hypernyms: ↑rubber, ↑natural rubber, ↑India rubber, ↑gum elastic, ↑caoutchouc * * * noun Usage: usually capitalized P Etymology …   Useful english dictionary

  • Pará rubber — Pará′ rub′ber n. India rubber obtained from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, of the spurge family, and other species of the same genus of tropical South America • Etymology: 1895–1900; after Pará …   From formal English to slang

  • Pará rubber — India rubber obtained from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, of the spurge family, and other species of the same genus of tropical South America. [1895 1900; named after PARÁ] * * * …   Universalium

  • Pará rubber — /paˌra ˈrʌbə/ (say pah.rah rubuh) noun indiarubber obtained from the tree, Hevea brasiliensis, and other species of the same genus, of tropical South America …   Australian English dictionary

  • Para — may refer to:*Para , in English, is an affix of Greek and Latin origin meaning beside, near, past, beyond or contrary *Para Dog faced Bat, a bat species from South and Central America *Para Loga, one among the seven Logas (seven upper worlds) in… …   Wikipedia

  • Rubber (disambiguation) — Rubber has several meanings, including:*Rubber, a latex material, originally from the Para rubber tree *Latex, frequently used interchangeably with rubber *Elastomer, frequently used interchangeably with rubber to describe elastic polymeric… …   Wikipedia


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