- Seventeenth of Tammuz
holiday_name = Seventeenth of Tammuz
official_name = Hebrew: שבעה עשר בתמוז
Jews in Judaism
date = 17th day of Tammuz
type = Jewish
significance = Date when the walls of
relatedto = The fasts of the
Tenth of Tevetand Tisha B'Av, the Three Weeks& the Nine Days
date2006 = dawn,
July 13– sunset, July 13
date2007 = dawn,
July 3– sunset, July 3
date2008 = dawn,
July 20– sunset, July 20
The Seventeenth of Tammuz (Hebrew: שבעה עשר בתמוז, "Shiv'ah Asar b'Tammuz") is a minor Jewish fast day commemorating the breach of the walls of
Jerusalembefore the destruction of the Second Temple. [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/holidaye.html Minor Fasts ] ] It falls on the seventeenth day of the Hebrew month of Tammuz and marks the beginning of the three-week mourning period leading up to Tisha B'Av. [ [http://www.torah.org/learning/yomtov/3weeks/ The Three Weeks: 17 Tammuz - 9 Av Mourning the Destruction - Torah.org ] ]
The 17th of Tammuz is mentioned in the Zechariah as "the fast of the fourth month" [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2308.htm 8:19] . According to the
Mishnah(" Taanit" 4:6) five calamities befell the Jewish people on this day:
Mosesbroke the two tablets of stoneon Mount Sinai;
# The daily "tamid" offering ceased to be brought;
# The walls of
Jerusalemwere breached (proceeding to the destruction of the Temple);
# Prior to
Bar Kokhba's revolt, Roman military leader Apostomusburned a Torahscroll;
# An idol was erected in the Temple. The Babylonian Talmud ("
Taanit" 28b) places the second and fifth tragedies in the First Temple, while dating the third tragedy (breach of Jerusalem) to the Second Templeperiod. Jerusalem of the First Temple, on the other hand, was breached on the 9th of Tammuz (cf. Jeremiah 52.6-7).
As a minor fast day, fasting lasts from dawn to dusk. Although it is customary among
Ashkenazim to refrain from listening to music, public entertainment, and haircuts on this day, this is only because it part of the Three Weeks(see below, "Bein haMetzarim"); other deprivations applicable to the major fasts (i.e. Yom Kippurand Tisha B'Av) do not apply.
Torahreading, a haftarah, a special prayer in the Amidah(the Aneinu), and Avinu Malkenuare added at the morning Shacharitand afternoon Minchaservices. Many congregations read the haftarah only at Mincha. Some congregations also recite during Shacharita series of Selichot(special penitential prayers) reflecting the themes of the day.
Cycle of Fasts
The 17th of Tammuz is the second of the four fasts commemorating the destruction of the Temple and the Jewish exile. It is preceded seven months by the fast of the
Tenth of Tevetand arrives three weeks prior to the full-day fast of the Ninth of Av. The last of the four fasts is the Fast of Gedalia, which is observed on the third or fourth day of Tishri.
The three weeks beginning with the 17th of Tammuz and ending with the 9th of Av are known as "Bein haMetzarim" ("between the straits," i.e. between the days of distress) or
the Three Weeks. Some customs of mourning, which commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem, are observed from the start of the Three Weeks. [ [http://www.aish.com/tishabav/tishabavdefault/17th_of_Tammuz.asp 17th of Tammuz - Tisha B'Av & the Three Weeks ] ]
The oldest extant reference to these days as "Bein haMetzarim" - which is also the first source for a special status of the Three Weeks - is found in Eikhah Rabbati 1.29 (Lamentations Rabbah, fourth century CE?). This
midrashglosses Lamentations 1.3, "All [Zion's] pursuers overtook her between the straits."
Jewish and Israeli holidays
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Tammuz (month) — For the deity, see Tammuz (deity).Tammuz (Arabic: تموز , Assyrian: ܬܡܘܙ , Hebrew: תמוז, Standard Tammuz Tiberian Unicode|Tammûz ) is the Arabic and Assyrian name for the month of July used in the Levant and Turkey, and tenth month of the civil… … Wikipedia
Jewish holiday — Candles lit on the eve of Shabbat and Jewish holidays For the Gregorian dates of Jewish Holidays, see Jewish holidays 2000 2050. Jewish holidays are days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. In … Wikipedia
Hebrew calendar — The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha luach ha ivri), or Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah… … Wikipedia
Tisha B'Av — Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, by Francesco Hayez Official name Hebrew: תשעה באב English: Ninth of Av Observed by … Wikipedia
The Three Weeks — or Bein ha Metzarim (Hebrew: בין המצרים, Between the cf In Dire Straits ) is a period of mourning commemorating the destruction of the first and second Jewish Temples. The Three Weeks start on the seventeenth day of the Jewish month of Tammuz the … Wikipedia
Sabbatai Zevi — Sabbatai Zevi, (Hebrew Name 1|שַׁבְּתַי צְבִי|Shabbetay Ẓevi) (other spellings include Sabetay in Turkish, Shabbethai, Sabbetai, Shabbsai; Zvi; Sabbetai Tzvi; he was also known by the acronym ש״ץ Shatz) (August 1 1626 – possibly September 17 1676 … Wikipedia
Fasting — is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. An absolute fast is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually a single day (24 hours), or… … Wikipedia
5768 (Hebrew year) — Calendar Rosh ChodeshRosh Chodesh, the celebration of the New Moon, occurs on the first (and sometimes the second) day of each month.September 13 14, 2007 Tishrei October 12 13, 2007 Cheshvan November 11, 2007 Kislev December 10, 2007 Tevet… … Wikipedia
Apostomus — [Postemus, Apostemus, Apostomos.] is a name occurring in Talmudic tradition. The Talmudic accountAmong five catastrophes said to have overtaken the Jews on the Seventeenth of Tammuz, the Mishnah [Ta anit iv. 6.] includes the burning of the Torah… … Wikipedia
Pro-Wailing Wall Committee — Early image (c. 1910) of Dr. Joseph Klausner, founder of the Pro–Wailing Wall Committee. The Pro–Wailing Wall Committee was established in Palestine on 24 July 1929, by Joseph Klausner, Professor of Modern Hebrew Literature at the Hebrew… … Wikipedia