Aztec mythology


Aztec mythology

The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods (over 100) and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs.

History

Aztec culture is generally grouped with the cultural complex known as the "Nahua" because of the common language they shared. According to legend, the various groups who were to become the Aztecs arrived from the north into the Anahuac valley around Lake Texcoco. The location of this valley and lake of destination is clear – it is the heart of modern Mexico City – but little can be known with certainty about the origin of the Aztec.

There are different accounts of their origin. In the myth the ancestors of the Mexica/Aztec came from a place in the north called Aztlán, the last of seven "nahuatlacas" (Nahuatl-speaking tribes, from "tlaca", "man") to make the journey southward, hence their name "Azteca". Other accounts cite their origin in Chicomostoc, "the place of the seven caves", or at Tamoanchan (the legendary origin of all civilizations).

The Mexica/Aztec were said to be guided by their god Huitzilopochtli, meaning "Left-handed Hummingbird" or "Hummingbird from the South". When they arrived at an island in the lake, they saw an eagle which was perched on a nopal cactus full of its fruits ("nochtli"). (Due to a mistranslation of an account by Tesozomoc, it became popular to say the eagle was devouring a snake, but in the original Aztec accounts, the snake is not mentioned. One states that it was eating a bird, another indicates that it was only perched in the cactus, and a third just says it was eating something.) This vision fulfilled a prophecy telling them that they should found their new home on that spot. The Aztecs built their city of Tenochtitlan on that site, building a great artificial island, which today is in the center of Mexico City. This legendary vision is pictured on the Coat of Arms of Mexico.

, which they also identified with the more ancient Teotihuacan.

Because the Aztec adopted and combined several traditions with their own earlier traditions, they had several creation myths; one of these, the Five Suns describes four great ages preceding the present world, each of which ended in a catastrophe. Our age – "Nahui-Ollin", the fifth age, or fifth creation – escaped destruction due to the sacrifice of a god (Nanahuatl, "full of sores", the smallest and humblest of the gods) who was transformed into the Sun. This myth is associated with the ancient city of Teotihuacan, which was already abandoned and destroyed when the Aztec arrived. Another myth describes the earth as a creation of the twin gods Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca lost his foot in the process of creating the world and all representations of these gods show him without a foot and with a bone exposed. Quetzalcoatl is also called "White Tezcatlipoca".

Gods

* Acolnahuacatl, or Acolmiztli - a god of the underworld, Mictlan
* "Acuecucyoticihuati" (see Chalchiuhtlicue)
* Amimitl - god of lakes and fishermen

* Atlacamani - goddess of oceanic storms such as hurricanes
* Atlacoya - goddess of drought
* Atlatonan (also "Atlatonin") - goddess of the coast
* Atlaua - water god
* Ayauhteotl - goddess of mist, fog, vanity and fame

* Camaxtli - god of hunting, war, fate and fire
* "Centeotl" (see Cinteotl)
* Chalchiuhtlatonal - god of water
* Chalchiuhtecolotl - a night owl god
* Chalchiuhtlicue (also "Chalciuhtlicue," or "Chalchihuitlicue") (She of the Jade Skirt). (Sometimes "Acuecucyoticihuati") - the goddess of lakes and streams, and also of birth; consort of Tlaloc.

* Chalchiuhtotoliq (Precious Night Turkey) - god of pestilence and mystery
* Chalmecatecuchtlz - a god of the underworld, Mictlan and sacrifices
* Chalmecatl the underworld, Mictlan and the north
* Chantico - the goddess of hearth fires, personal treasure, and volcanoes
* Chicomecoatl (also "Chalchiuhcihuatl", "Chiccomeccatl", or "Xilonen") - goddess of new maize and produce, wife of Cinteotl.

* Chicomexochtli - a patron of artists
* Chiconahui - a domestic fertility goddess
* Chiconahuiehecatl - associated with creation
* Cihuacoatl (also "Chihucoatl" or "Ciucoatl") (Woman Serpent) - an aspect of Ilamatecuhtli and consort of Quetzalcoatl

* Cinteotl (also "Centeotl" or "Centeocihuatl") - the principal maize god, son of Tlazolteotl

* Cipactonal - god of astrology and the calendar
* "Citlalatonac" (see Ometeotl)
* Citlalicue - a creator of the stars
* Coatlicue (She of the Serpent Skirt) - legendary mother of Coyolxauhqui, the Centzon Huitzahua, and Huitzilopochtli
* Cochimetl (also "Coccochimetl") - god of commerce, bartering, and merchants

* Coyolxauhqui - legendary sister of Huitzilopochtli, associated with the moon, possibly patroness of the milky way
* Cuaxolotl - a goddess of the hearth

* Ehecatl (also "Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl") - the god of the Wind and creator of the earth, heavens, and the present race of men. As god of the west, one of the skybearers

* Huehuecoyotl (also "Ueuecoyotl") - a trickster god of indulgence and pranks. A shapeshifter, associated with drums and the coyote
* Huehueteotl (also "Ueueteotl", "Xiuhtecuhtli", "Xiutechuhtli") - an ancient god of the hearth, the fire of life. Associated with the pole star and the north, and serves as a skybearer
* Huitzilopochtli (also "Mextli", "Mexitl", "Uitzilopochtli") - the supreme god of Tenochtitlan, patron of war, fire and the sun
* Huixtocihuatl (also "Uixtochihuatl") - a goddess of salt and saltwater

* Ilamatecuhtli (also "Cihuacoatl" or "Quilaztli") - aged goddess of the earth, death, and the milky way. Her roar signalled war
* Itztlacoliuhqui-Ixquimilli - god of stone, obsidian, coldness hardness, and castigation. Aspect of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli
* Itzli - god of sacrifice and stone knives.
* Itzpapalotl - Queen of Tomoanchan and one of the Cihuateteo (night demons) and tzitzimime (star demons)
* Ixtlilton - the god of healing, dancing, festivals and games. Brother of Xochipilli.
* Macuilcozcacuauhtli (five vulture) - one of the Ahuiateteo (gods of excess)
* Macuilcuetzpalin (five lizard) - one of the Ahuiateteo (gods of excess)
* Macuilmalinalli (five grass) - one of the Ahuiateteo (gods of excess)
* Macuiltochtli (five rabbit) - one of the Ahuiateteo (gods of excess)
* Macuilxochitl (five flower) - the god of games and gambling, and chief of the Ahuiateteo (gods of excess)

* Malinalxochitl - sorceress and goddess of snakes, scorpions and insects of the desert
* Matlalceuitl (also "Matlalcueje") - goddess of rainfall and singing. Identified with Chalchiuhtlicue.
* Mayahuel (also "Mayahual", or "Mayouel") - the goddess of maguey, and by extension, alcohol
* Metztli (also "Metztli", "Tecuciztecatl", "Tecciztecatl")- lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the sun, and became the moon instead, his face darkened by a rabbit.
* Mextli - a god of war and storms

* Mictecacihuatl (also "Mictlancihuatl") - goddess of death and Lady of Mictlan, the underworld
* Mictlantecuhtli (also "Mictlantecuhtzi", or "Tzontemoc") - the god of death and Lord of Mictlan, also as god of the south, one of the skybearers
* Mixcoatl (cloud serpent) - god of hunting, war, and the milky way. An aspect of Tezcatlpoca and father of Quetzalcoatl

* Nanahuatzin (also "Nana", "Nanautzin", or "Nanauatzin") - lowly god who sacrificed himself to become sun god Tonatiuh

* "Omacatl" (see Tezcatlipoca)
* "Omecihuatl" (see Ometeotl)
* "Ometecuhtli" (see Ometeotl)
* Ometeotl (also "Citlatonac" or "Ometecuhtli" (male) and "Omecihuatl" (female)) - the god(s) of duality, pregenator(s) of souls and lord/lady of heaven

* Ometotchtli (two rabbit) - drunken rabbit god, leader of the Centzon Totochtin
* Opochtli - left-handed god of trapping, hunting and fishing
* Oxomoco - goddess of astrology and the calendar

* Patecatl - the god of medicine, husband of Mayahuel
* Paynal - the messenger to Huitzilopochtli
* Quetzalcoatl (also Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli) (quetzal-feathered serpent) - creator god and patron of rulership, priests and merchants. Associated with Ehecatl as the divine wind
* "Quilaztli" (see Ilamatecuhtli)

* "Tecciztecatl" (see Mextli)
* Temazcalteci (also "Temaxcaltechi") - goddess of bathing and sweatbaths
* Teoyaomicqui (also "Teoyaomiqui")- the god of dead warriors
* Tepeyollotl - (The jaguar form of Tezcatlipoca) god of the heart of the mountain, associated with jaguars, echoes, and earthquakes
* Tepoztecatl (also "Tezcatzontecatl") - god of pulque and rabbits

* Teteoinnan - mother of the gods
* Tezcatlipoca (also "Omacatl", "Titlacauan") - omnipotent god of rulers, sorcerers and warriors; night, death, discord, conflict, temptation and change. A sinister rival to Quetzalcoatl. Can appear as a jaguar.
* Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli - destructive god of the morning star (venus), dawn, and of the east. One of the skybearers

* Tlaloc (also "Nuhualpilli") - the great and ancient provider and god of rain, fertility and lightning
* Tlaltecuhtli - goddess of earth, associated with difficult births

* Tlazolteotl (also "Tlaelquani", "Tlazolteotli")- the goddess of purification from filth, disease or excess
* Tloquenahuaque - a creator god or ruler
* Toci (also "Temazcalteci") - grandmother goddess, heart of the earth and mother of the gods. Associated with midwives and war
* Tonacatecuhtli - the aged creator and provider of food and patron of conceptions
* Tonacacihuatl - consort of Tonacatecuhtli

* Tonantzin - a mother goddess
* Tonatiuh - a sun god and heavenly warrior, associated with eagles and with the Maya
* Tzitzmitl - aged grandmother goddess

* Xilonen - the goddess of young maize
* Xipe Totec - the god of the seasons, seed germination and renewal, considered the patron of goldworkers
* Xiuhcoatl (fire serpent or turquoise serpent) - embodiment of the sun's rays and emblem of Xiuhtecuhtli
* Xiuhtecuhtli -(also called Huehueteotl)

* Xochipilli - the young god of feasting, painting, dancing, games, and writing. Associated with Macuilxochitl and Cinteotl
* Xochiquetzal - goddess of love, beauty, female sexuality, prostitutes, flowers, pleasure, craft, weaving, and young mothers
* Xocotl - star god associated with fire
* Xolotl - canine companion of Quetzalcoatl and god of twins, sickness and deformity. Accompanies the dead to Mictlan

* Yacatecuhtli (also "Yactecuhtli") - the god of merchants and travelers

Serpent gods

* Chicomecoatl
* Cihuacoatl
* Coatlicue
* Mixcoatl
* Quetzalcoatl
* Xiuhcoatl
* Liliana

God groups

* Ahuiateteo (also Macuiltonaleque) - five gods who personify excess
* Cihuateteo (also Civatateo) - souls of women who died in childbirth who lead the setting sun in the western sky. Also night demons who steal children, and cause seizures, insanity and sexual transgression. They also accompany warriors to heaven.
* Centzon huitznahua - southern stars, children of Coatlicue
* Centzon Totochtin (400 rabbits) - gods of pulque
* Skybearers - associated with the four directions, supported the vault of the sky.
* Tzitzimime - star demons of darkness that attack the sun during eclipses and threaten the earth

Supernatural creatures

* Ahuitzotl - a man-eating water-dwelling dog-monkey with a hand on its tail
* Cipactli - the caiman at the foundations of the earth
* Cihuateteo-the spirits of human women who died in childbirth (mociuaquetzque.)
* Nagual - a tutelary animal or vegetable spirit
* Nahual - a shapeshifting sorcerer or witch
* Tlaltecuhtli - a toad goddess

Legendary heroes

* Popocatepetl - Legendary warrior
* Liliana-queen of beauty and love

Places

* Aztlán (land of the herons) - the original home of the Mexica before the peregrination and the establishment of Tenochtitlan
* Iztaccihuatl
* Mictlan - the underworld.
* Popocatepetl
* Tlalocan first paradise.
* Tehuantepec place of the hill of the sacred jaguar
* Tlillan-Tlapallan middle realm of the heaven (middle paradise).
* Tonatiuhichan highest paradise
* Tamoanchan

References

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See also

* Aztec philosophy

External links

*gutenberg|no=14993|name=Rig Veda Americanus, "Daniel Brinton (Ed); late 19th C. compendium of some Aztec mythological texts and poems appearing in one MS. version of Sahagun's 16th C. codices.
* [http://www.history-aztec.com Aztec history, culture and religion] B. Diaz del Castillo, The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico (tr. by A. P. Maudsley, 1928, repr. 1965)


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