- Assistant director
An assistant director (AD) is a person who helps the director in the making of a
movieor televisionshow. The duties of an AD include setting the shooting schedule, tracking daily progress against the filming production schedule, arranging logistics, preparing daily call sheets, checking the arrival of cast and crew, maintaining order on the set, rehearsing cast, and directing extras. In Australia, the first assistant director may carry a legal responsibility for health and safety as the "responsible person" and representative to the producer on set.Fact|date=May 2008
Historically the role of an assistant to the director was a stepping stone to directing work;
Alfred Hitchcockwas an AD, as was James McTeigue. This transition into film directing is no longer common in feature films, but remains an avenue for television work, particularly in Australia and Britain. It is more common now for ADs to transition to production managementand producer roles than to directing. The role of AD has also expanded to become a separate technical profession.
Often, the role of assistant director is broken down into the following sub-roles:
*The First Assistant Director (First or 1st AD) has overall AD responsibilities and supervises the Second AD. The "first" is directly responsible to the producer and "runs" the floor or set. The 1st AD and the
production managerare two of the highest "below the line" technical roles in filmmaking (as opposed to creative or "above the line" roles) and so, in this strict sense, the role of 1AD is non-creative.
*The Second Assistant Director ( Second or 2AD) creates the
daily call sheets from the production schedule,Fact|date=May 2008 in cooperation with the production coordinator. The "second" also serves as the "backstage manager", liaising with actors, putting cast through make-up and wardrobe, which relieves the "first" of these duties. Supervision of the second second assistant director, third assistant director, assistant director trainees, and the setting of background (extras) are parts of the "second's" duties.
*The Second Second Assistant Director (Second Second or 22AD) deals with the increased workload of a large or complicated production. For example, a production with a large number of cast may require the division of the aspects of backstage manager and the call sheet production work to two separate people.
*The Third Assistant Director (Third or 3rd AD) works on set with the "First" and may liaise with the "Second" to move actors from base camp (the area containing the production, cast, and hair and makeup trailers), organize crowd scenes, and supervise one or more production assistants (PA). There is sometimes no clear distinction between a 2AD and a 3AD. Although some industry bodies (American DGA) have defined the roles in an objective way, others believe it to be a subjective distinction.
*The Additional Assistant Director (AAD or Additional) or Fourth Assistant Director (4AD or "Fourth") or "Key Production Assistant" (Key PA) may have a number of duties. Most commonly, the AAD has two broad job functions. One is the contraction of the duties of an AD where the AD acts as both 2nd AD and 3rd AD simultaneously. For example, a production with a large number of cast may pass the 2AD call sheet production work to that of the AAD, especially when the 2AD is already performing the additional work of a 3rd AD. The other main use of an AAD is as an adjunct to the 3AD and 1AD for logistically large scenes where more ADs are needed to control large numbers of extras. The "Additional" may also serve where the complexity of the scene or specialized elements within it (stunts, period work) require or are best served by a dedicated AD in most respects equal to a 1st AD - directing and controlling a number of other ADs to direct action to the satisfaction of the 1AD and the director.
production assistantis the lowest on the crew's hierarchy in terms of salary and authority.Fact|date=May 2008 They perform various duties required of them by ADs.
The sub-roles of assistant directors differ among nations. For example, the distinction between second second AD and third AD is more common in North America. British and Australian productions, rather than having a second second AD, will hire a "second" 2AD to fulfill the same duties. 3ADs in Britain and Australia have different duties from a second second AD, and the terms are not synonymous.Fact|date=May 2008
Many times, in Hollywood film making, especially studio productions, the First A.D. is the first person hired on a film, often as soon as the project has been green lit for production. Experienced First A.D.s will often make key suggestions to optimize resources available. This person will often be very good at estimating how long a scene will take to shoot, based on the content in the screenplay. (Sometimes a scene running a few pages long on the screenplay can be shot relatively quickly, while a half page emotional key moment may take all day.)
When producers visit their production sets or floors, the First A.D. is the one they will want to listen to and get answers from.Fact|date=May 2008 Often, this person will provide the objective view on progress being made, problems that may be foreseen, and solutions that may be found. The director is often insulated from these discussions, except when inevitable.Fact|date=May 2008
Calling the Roll
One of the 1st AD's responsibilities is to "call the roll". Over the years, special procedures have been developed for this task to achieve maximum efficiency during shooting, which is usually some variant of the following:
1) "Waiting on..." Though not technically part of calling the roll, 1st ADs may keep the set focused by frequently calling out which department is responsible for a delay in rolling a take. If the lights need to be adjusted, the 1st AD calls out, "Waiting on gaffers". If the actors are still in their trailer, the 1st AD calls out "Waiting on talent", etc. However, such calls can be regarded as applying excessive pressure to the department in question, and especially in the case of actors, are often avoided.
2) "Final checks, please" (or "Last looks"). Once everyone is in place, and rehearsals and blocking have finished, the 1st AD calls out, "Final checks" or "Checks". This is the signal for any last minute adjustments, especially to hair, makeup, wardrobe and props.
3) "Quiet on the set" (or "Lock it down" or "Picture is up"). The 1st AD calls "Quiet on the set" to alert everyone that the take is ready and imminent. "Lock it down" is also a signal (particularly on location) to ensure nothing interrupts the take, crucial for Third Assistant Directors, as this is their primary responsibility during a take.
4) "Turnover." While some ADs say both "Roll sound" and "Roll camera", "Turnover" signals both the camera and sound departments to start rolling. The sound department will roll first (sound stock is cheaper than film, so this minimises the film footage used for the take). After a second or two, the sound recordist will confirm that the recording equipment is running at the correct speed by calling "Speed". Hearing this, the Clapper-Loader immediately calls out the scene and take numbers so that these details are on the recording. Simultaneously (or within a very few seconds) the Camera Operator or Focus Puller will roll the camera, and immediately the camera is confirmed as running at the correct speed, will call for the Clapper-Loader to "Mark it" (or "Smack it", "Bang it", "Tag it", etc.). This is done by showing the slate ("clapper-board") on camera, and bringing the clapper down to make a synchronisation point for audio (the sound of the clapper) and picture (the two parts of the clapper being seen to come together). With the slate quickly taken out of shot, and the camera refocussed or repointed as necessary for the opening framing, the Camera Operator calls "Set" or "Frame" to indicate that all is ready to capture the action. 5) The 1st AD then calls "Action" (possibly preceded by "Background Action" if extras must be in motion before the main action commences), although the Director might perform this function if he/she prefers it.
6) Only the Director says "Cut".
7) After the Director has called "Cut", the 1st AD will check whether the Director is happy with the take, and conclude the roll with a direction such as "Going again" or "That's a take two" if another take is required. If the Director does not want another take, the AD will call "Check the gate" (a signal for the Focus Puller or Camera Assistant to confirm that the camera has not malfunctioned during a take, and that there is no hair or fluff in the aperture ("gate") where the film is exposed). When the camera has been checked, the call from the Focus Puller or Camera Assistant will be "Clear gate!". Then, if the scene is complete, the AD may call "Moving on" or "Next scene". These announcements cue all departments and the ADs on set as to the next steps they must take. For example, "Going again" may require a reset of elements in the frame (extras, cars - anything that moved) back to where they started, which the 3rd AD will oversee.
The above roll sequence can be varied by, for example, eliminating the sound calls and the clapping of the slate if the shot is mute or "MOS" ("MOS" is a universal abbreviation for "MitOut Sound" - supposedly mimicking German directors in the early days of Hollywood sound films). At other times, for expediency (e.g. if the shot begins with a closeup of a closed door which then opens), the slate may be shown at the end of the take rather than the beginning. In this case, once the sound is rolling, there is an audible announcement of "End board" or "End slate" so that the editing department knows to look for the sync marks at the end of the action. At the conclusion of the action, the Director will still call "Cut", but the 1st AD (and possibly others) will immediately call "End board!" so that the camera and sound recorder are not turned off before the clapper is clapped. Also, as a visual cue to the editors, the clapper-board will be shown upside down on camera.
* [http://www.dga.org Director's Guild of America]
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