- Milwaukee, Wisconsin
official_name = Milwaukee
nickname = Cream City", "Brew City", "Mil Town", "The Mil", "The City of Festivals", "The Ill Mil," Deutsch-Athen (German Athens) "
image_caption = Milwaukee seen from
Lake Michigan. The US Bank Center is on the left, and the Milwaukee Art Museumis on the lower right.
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Milwaukee in
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = Counties
subdivision_name2 = Milwaukee, Washington, Waukesha
leader_name = Tom Barrett (D)
area_magnitude = 1 E9
unit_pref = Imperial
area_total_km2 = 251.0
area_total_sq_mi = 97
area_land_km2 = 248.8
area_land_sq_mi = 96
area_water_km2 = 2.2
area_water_sq_mi = 1
population_as_of = 2006
population_metro = 1,964,744
population_total = 602782
population_density_km2 = 2399.5
population_density_sq_mi = 6214.7
timezone = CST
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = CDT
utc_offset_DST = -5
area_code = 414
latd = 43 |latm = 03 |lats = 8 |latNS = N
longd = 87 |longm = 57 |longs = 21 |longEW = W
elevation_m = 188
elevation_ft = 617
website = [http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/ www.city.milwaukee.gov]
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 55-53000GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 1577901GR|3
Milwaukee is the largest city in
Wisconsinand 22nd largest (by population) in the United States. [ [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=683335 Bill Glauber, "Census boosts count: Estimate for city's population up 30,000," " Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel", Nov. 6, 2007] ] It is the county seatof Milwaukee County and is located on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. As of a revised 2006 U.S. Census estimate, Milwaukee had a population of 602,782. [The original July 1, 2006 U.S. Census Bureau data estimated Milwaukee to be the 25th largest city in America with a population of 573,358. cite web| url=http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2007/cb07-91table1.pdf| title=Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006|format=PDF The revised estimate indicates a growing city rather than one in decline as originally published by the U.S. Census Bureau.] [ [http://www.census.gov/popest/archives/2000s/vintage_2006/06s_challenges.html 2006 Estimates Challenges] U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-03-22] Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Metropolitan Areawith a population of 1,964,744
The first Europeans to pass through the area were French missionaries and
fur traders. In 1818, the French-Canadian explorer Solomon Juneausettled in the area, and in 1846 Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee. [cite web |url=http://126.96.36.199/SOS/pdf/THEOSOS_025/images/00014104.pdf |title=CITY OF MILWAUKEE INCORPORATED, PAGE 164, 1846; PAGE 314, 1851 |accessdate=2007-04-08 |author=City of Milwaukee |publisher=Office of the Secretary of State of Wisconsin|format=PDF] Large numbers of German and other immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades.
Once known almost exclusively as a
brewingand manufacturingpowerhouse, Milwaukee has taken steps in recent years to reshape its image. In the past decade, major new additions to the city have included the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Midwest Airlines Center, Miller Park, an internationally renowned addition to the Milwaukee Art Museum, and Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the Milwaukee Auditorium. In addition, many new skyscrapers, condos, lofts, and apartments have been constructed in neighborhoods on and near the lakefront and riverbanks.
The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox,
Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Native American tribes. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 17th and 18th centuries. The word "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word "Millioke" which means "Good/Beautiful/Pleasant Land", Potawatomi language"minwaking", or Ojibwe language"ominowakiing", "Gathering place [by the water] ".cite book| last=Bruce| first=William George| year=1936| title=A Short History of Milwaukee| location=Milwaukee, Wisconsin| publisher=The Bruce Publishing Company| id=LLCN 36010193| pages=15] [cite web |url=http://www.freelang.net/dictionary/ojibwe.html |title=Ojibwe Dictionary |publisher=Freelang |accessdate=2007-03-25] Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Milwacky, Mahn-a-waukie, Milwarck, and Milwaucki. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says,:" [O] ne day during the thirties of the last century [1800s] a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, and Milwaukee it has remained until this day."cite book| last=Bruce| first=William George| year=1936| title=A Short History of Milwaukee| location=Milwaukee, Wisconsin| publisher=The Bruce Publishing Company| id=LLCN 36010193| pages=15–16] The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, Oregon, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted.
Milwaukee has three "
founding fathers," of whom French Canadian Solomon Juneau was first to come to the area, in 1818. The Juneaus founded the town called Juneau's Side, or Juneautown, that began attracting more settlers. However, Byron Kilbournwas Juneau's equivalent on the west side of the Milwaukee River. In competition with Juneau, he established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, and made sure the streets running toward the river did not join with those on the east side. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges that still exist in Milwaukee today. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or that the east side of the river was uninhabited and thus undesirable. The third prominent builder was George H. Walker. He claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area grew and became known as Walker's Point.
By the 1840s, the three towns had grown quite a bit, along with their rivalries. There were some intense battles between the towns, mainly Juneautown and Kilbourntown, which culminated with the
Milwaukee Bridge Warof 1845. Following the Bridge War, it was decided the best course of action was to officially unite the towns. So on January 31, 1846they combined to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee and elected L. Solomon Juneau as Milwaukee's first mayor. A great number of German immigrants had helped increase the city's population during the 1840s, who continued to migrate to the area during the following decades. Milwaukee has even been called "Deutsches Athen" (German Athens), and into the twentieth century, there were more German speakers and German-language newspapers than there were English speakers and English-language newspapers in the city. (To this day, the Greater Milwaukeephonebook includes more than 40 pages of Schmitts or Schmidts, far more than the pages of Smiths.)
During the middle and late 19th century, Wisconsin and the Milwaukee area became the final destination of many German immigrants fleeing the Revolution of 1848 in the various small German states and
Austria. In Wisconsin, they found the inexpensive land and the freedoms they sought. The German heritage and influence in the Milwaukee area is widespread. In addition to Germans, Milwaukee received large influxes of immigrants from Poland, Italy and Ireland, as well as many Jews from Central and Eastern Europe. By 1910, Milwaukee (along with New York City) shared the distinction of having the largest percentage of foreign-born residents in the United States. [cite web| url=http://www.uwm.edu/Library/digilib/Milwaukee/records/picture.html| title=Picturing Milwaukee's Neighborhoods| publisher=University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee| year=2004]
Early in the 20th century, Milwaukee was home to several pioneer
brass era automobilemakers, including Ogren (from 1919 to 1922) [Clymer, Floyd. "Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925" (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.153.] and LaFayette (from 1922 to about 1924).
In March 1889, the independent village of Bay View had four days of protest and one day of rioting against its Chinese laundrymen. Sparking this city-wide disturbance were allegations of sexual misconduct between two Chinese and several underaged white females. The unease and tension in the wake of the riot was assuaged by the direct disciplining of the city's Chinese. In 1892, Whitefish Bay, South Milwaukee, and Wauwatosa each were incorporated. They were followed by Cudahy (1895), North Milwaukee (1897) and East Milwaukee, later known as Shorewood, in 1900. In the early 20th century West Allis (1902) and West Milwaukee (1906) were added, which completed the first generation of "inner-ring" suburbs.
During the first half of the twentieth century, Milwaukee was the hub of the socialist movement in the United States. Milwaukee elected three socialist mayors during this time:
Emil Seidel(1910-1912), Daniel Hoan(1916-1940), and Frank Zeidler(1948-1960). It remains the only major city in the country to have done so. Often referred to as "Sewer Socialists," the Milwaukee socialists were characterized by their practical approach to government and labor. Also during this time, a small but burgeoning community of African Americans who emigrated from the south formed a community that would come to be known as Bronzeville. Industry was booming, and the African American influence grew in Milwaukee. In the 1920s Chicagogangster activity came north to Milwaukee during the prohibition era. Al Capone, noted Chicago mobster, owned a home in the Milwaukee suburb Brookfield, where moonshinewas made. The house still stands on a street named after Capone.
Milwaukee continued to grow tremendously until the late 1950s. With the large influx of immigrants, Milwaukee became one of the 15 largest cities in the nation, and by the mid-1960s, its population reached nearly 750,000. Starting in the late 1960s, however, Milwaukee, like many cities in the "
rust belt," saw its population start to decline through various factors, including the loss of blue collarjobs and the phenomenon of " white flight." Nevertheless, in recent years the city has begun to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Historic Third Ward, the East Side, and more recently Walker's Point, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area. The city continues to make plans for increasing its future revitalization through various projects. Largely through its efforts to preserve its history, in 2006 Milwaukee was named one of the "Dozen Distinctive Destinations" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.cite web| url=http://www.nationaltrust.org/dozen_distinctive_destinations/milwaukee.html| title=Dozen Distinctive Destinations - Milwaukee| publisher=National Trust for Historic Preservation| year=2006] . In 2007, the Census Bureau released revised population numbers for Milwaukee that showed the city gained population between 2000 and 2006. This marked the first period of positive population growth since the 1960s.
Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of
Lake Michiganat the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic, and the Milwaukee. Smaller rivers, such as the Root River and Lincoln Creek also flow through the city.
Milwaukee's terrain is sculpted by the glacier path and includes steep bluffs along the lakeshore that begin about one half mile north and four miles south of downtown. In addition, 30 miles west of Milwaukee is the Kettle Morraine and Lake Country that provides a hilly landscape combined with inland lakes.
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 square miles). 248.8 km² (96.1 square miles) of it is land, and 0.9 square miles (2.2 km²) of it is water. The total area is 0.88% water. Fact|date=September 2008
location= Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Jan_Hi_°F = 27 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F = 57
Feb_Hi_°F = 32 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F = 67
Mar_Hi_°F = 42 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F = 82
Apr_Hi_°F = 54 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F = 92
May_Hi_°F = 67 |May_REC_Hi_°F = 95
Jun_Hi_°F = 77 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F = 102
Jul_Hi_°F = 82 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F = 102
Aug_Hi_°F = 80 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F = 101
Sep_Hi_°F = 73 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F = 99
Oct_Hi_°F = 61 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F = 91
Nov_Hi_°F = 46 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F = 75
Dec_Hi_°F = 33 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F = 70
Year_Hi_°F = 56 |Year_REC_Hi_°F = 102
Jan_Lo_°F = 13 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F = -26
Feb_Lo_°F = 18 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F = -14
Mar_Lo_°F = 27 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F = -12
Apr_Lo_°F = 38 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F = 13
May_Lo_°F = 50 |May_REC_Lo_°F = 26
Jun_Lo_°F = 59 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F = 36
Jul_Lo_°F = 66 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F = 38
Aug_Lo_°F = 64 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F = 44
Sep_Lo_°F = 55 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F = 33
Oct_Lo_°F = 44 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F = 20
Nov_Lo_°F = 31 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F = -6
Dec_Lo_°F = 19 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F = -21
Year_Lo_°F = 40|Year_REC_Lo_°F = -26
Jan_Precip_inch = 1.3
Feb_Precip_inch = 1.35
Mar_Precip_inch = 2.22
Apr_Precip_inch = 3.86
May_Precip_inch = 3.08
Jun_Precip_inch = 3.61
Jul_Precip_inch = 3.58
Aug_Precip_inch = 3.93
Sep_Precip_inch = 3.52
Oct_Precip_inch = 2.61
Nov_Precip_inch = 2.78
Dec_Precip_inch = 2.02
Year_Precip_inch = 33.86
source = The Weather Channel [cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USWI0455?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared |title=Monthly Averages for Milwaukee, WI |accessdate=2008-09-17 |date=2008 |publisher=
The Weather Channel]
Milwaukee's location in the Great Lakes Region means that it often has rapidly changing weather. The warmest month of the year is July, when the average high temperature is 82°F (28°C), with overnight low temperatures averaging 66°F (19°C); January is the coldest month, with high temperatures averaging 27°F (-3°C), with the overnight low temperatures around 13°F (-11°C). [cite web| url=http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/allergies/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USWI0455| title=Average Weather for Milwaukee, WI| publisher=Weather.com| accessdate=2006-11-07] Of the 50 largest cities in the United States, [cite web| url=http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0763098.html| title=Top 50 Cities in the U.S. by Population and Rank| publisher=Infoplease| accessdate=2006-10-02] Milwaukee has the second-coldest average annual temperature, next to that of
Minneapolis. [cite web| url=http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=004627| title=Historical Weather for Milwaukee, Wisconsin| publisher=Weatherbase| accessdate=2006-10-02]
Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form around mid-afternoon in light wind regimes, resulting in the so-called "lake breeze", a smaller scale version of the more common
sea breeze. The lake breeze is most common between the months of March and June. This onshore flow causes temperatures to remain milder near the lake compared to inland locations. Fact|date=September 2008 As the sun sets, the convection current reverses and an offshore flow ensues causing a land breeze. After a land breeze develops, warmer temperatures flow east toward the lakeshore, sometimes causing high temperatures to be reached during the late evening. The lake breeze is not a daily occurrence and will not form if southwest to northwest winds generally exceed 15 mph. The lake also acts to moderate cold air outbreaks along the lakeshore during winter months. Despite Lake Michigan, overnight lows in downtown Milwaukee are often much warmer than suburban locations because of the urban heat island effect. Also, more snow falls in Milwaukee than surrounding areas, because of periodic episodes of lake effect snow. Fact|date=September 2008 Onshore winds cause higher daytime relative humiditylevels in Milwaukee as compared to other cities at the same latitude. Fact|date=September 2008
Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105°F (41°C) set on
July 17 1995. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26°F (-32°C) on both January 17 1982and February 4 1996. Fact|date=September 2008 The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee.
The wettest month is August, because of frequent
thunderstorms.Fact|date=October 2008 These can at times be dangerous and damaging, bringing hailand high winds. In rare instances, it can bring a tornadoto the more inland parts of the city. However, almost all summer rainfall in the city is brought by these storms. In spring and fall, longer events of prolonged, lighter rain bring most of the precipitation. Snowcommonly falls in the city from early November until the middle of March, although it has been recorded as early as September 23, and as late as May 31. The city receives an average of 47.0 inches (119 cm) of snow in winter, but this number is highly variable. Fact|date=October 2008
In 2000, 49.5 inches (126 cm) of snow fell solely in the month of December. Fact|date=October 2008
The city runs largely on the grid system, although in the far northwest and southwest corners of the city, the grid pattern gives way to a more suburban-style streetscape. North-south streets are numbered, and east-west streets are named. However north-south streets east of 1st street are named, like east-west streets. The north-south numbering line is along the Menomonee River (east of Hawley Road) and Fairview Avenue/Golfview Parkway (west of Hawley Road), with the east-west numbering line defined along 1st Street (north of Oklahoma Avenue) and Chase/Howell Avenue (south of Oklahoma Avenue). This numbering system is also used to the north by Mequon in Ozaukee County, and by some Waukesha County communities.
Milwaukee is crossed by
Interstate 43and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange. Interstate 894bypass runs through portions of the city's southwest side, and Interstate 794comes out of the Marquette interchange eastbound, bends south along the lakefront and crosses the harbor over the Hoan Bridge, then ends near the Bay View neighborhood and becomes the "Lake Parkway" (WIS-794).
United States Census Bureau. [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=683335] ]
footnote=Source: U.S. Census [cite web| url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027.html| last=Gibson| first=Campbell| title=Population of the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States: 1790 to 1990| publisher=U.S. Census Bureau| month=June| year=1998]
As of the census estimate of 2006, there are 602,782 people residing in Milwaukee [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=683335] . As of 2000, there were 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. The
population densityis 2,399.5/km² (6,214.3 per square mile). There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km² (2,594.4 per square mile). Fact|date=September 2008
There are 232,188 households, of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25.
According to the 2000 Census, there were at least 1,408 same-sex households in Milwaukee which accounts for 0.6% of all households in the city.cite news| url=http://www2.jsonline.com/news/metro/aug01/samesex22082101a.asp| title=Census finds more same-sex households| first=Nahal| last=Toosi| date=
2001-08-22| work= Milwaukee Journal Sentinel| accessdate=2006-11-24] Although this number is slightly lower than other cities in the region such as Chicago and Minneapolis, Milwaukee continues to be noted for its generally accepting attitudes towards the LGBTcommunity. As a result, many gay-friendly communities have developed in neighborhoods such as Walker's Point, Bay View, Historic Third Ward and Riverwest. Milwaukee and later Wisconsin became the first in the nation to not discriminate against sexual orientation. In 2001, Milwaukee was named the #1 city for lesbiansby "Girlfriends" magazine.cite news| url=http://www.milwaukeemagazine.com/062002/milwaukee_health.asp| title=Vital Statistics| first=Erin| last=Killian| date=June 2002| work= Milwaukee Magazine| accessdate=2006-11-24]
In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city is $16,181. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. At 43% in 2007, Milwaukee has the second highest black male unemployment rate in the country behind Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. [Milwaukee Community Journal, Inc. [http://www.communityjournal.net/uwmreportfocusesonconnectionbetweenracejoblessness3_21_07.html UWM report focuses on connection between race and joblessness in city] . March 21 2007.]
Race and ethnicity
According to the 2000 census, 39.5% of Milwaukeeans reported having African-American ancestry and 38% reported German ancestry. Other significant population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), with Hispanic origin totaling 14.9%.
The metropolitan area was cited as being the most segregated in the U.S. in a Jet Magazine article in 2002. cite web| url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_26_102/ai_95632042| publisher="Jet" magazine| title=Milwaukee is most segregated city: U.S. Census analysis| date=
December 16, 2002] The source of this information was a segregation index developed in the mid 1950s and used since 1964. In 2003, a more detailed study was conducted by researchers at University of Wisconsin Milwaukee which proved that while segregation does run deep in Milwaukee, as in most northern and midwest cities, it is not "hypersegregated" and actually ranks as the 43rd most integrated city in America. [ [http:http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=109872 //] Through continued dialogue between Milwaukee's citizens, the city is making an effort to reduce racial tensions and reduce the rate of segregation.cite web| url=http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CED/pdf/fairhousing.pdf| publisher=The Metropolitan Milwaukee Fair Housing Council| format=PDF| last=Levine| first=Marc V.| title=Citizens and MMFHC Respond to Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Article: Getting the Facts Right on Segregation in Milwaukee| work=Fair Housing Keys| date=Spring 2004] With demographic changes in the wake of white flight, segregation in metropolitan Milwaukee is primarily in the suburbs rather than the city as in the era of Father Groppi.cite web| url=http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/ETI/integration/integration.htm| publisher=University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Employment and Training Institute| format=htm| last=Quinn| first=Lois M.| last=Pawasarat| first=John| title=Racial Integration in Urban America: A Block Level Analysis of African American and White Housing Patterns|month=January | year=2003] cite web| url=http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/ETI/integration/QuinnCensus.pdf| publisher=University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Employment and Training Institute| format=PDF| last=Quinn| first=Lois M.| title=Assumptions and Limitations of the Census Bureau Methodology RankingRacial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in Cities and Metro Areas|month=October | year=2004]
The Association of Religion Data Archives reported on the religious composition of the Milwaukee-Racine area as of 2000. [cite web| url=http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/metro/5082_2000.asp| title=Metro Area Membership Report: Milwaukee-Racine, WI CMSA| accessdate=2006-11-24| year=2002| publisher= [http://www.thearda.com/ Association of Religion Data Archives] ] Approximately 55% of residents were adherents to one of the 188 groups included in the data.
Of them, 58% were Catholic, 23% Lutheran, 3% Methodist, and 2.5% Jewish. Others included adherents to other Protestant denominations, Orthodox churches, and Eastern religions. Historically African-American denominations were not included in the data.
Milwaukee is home to the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milwaukee, and the Episcopal Diocese of Milwaukee. The School Sisters of the Third Order of St Francishave their mother house in Milwaukee, and several other religious orders have a significant presence in the area, including the Jesuits and Franciscans. St. Joan of Arc Chapelis the oldest church in Milwaukee and is located on the Marquette University campus. Holy Hill National Shrine of Mary is located northwest of Milwaukee, in Hubertus, Wisconsin.
Milwaukee is also home to the Greater Milwaukee Synod of the
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Americaand the headquarters of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.
In addition, numerous
mosquesand synagoguesserve Milwaukee's Muslim and Jewish communities.
Masons have various meeting locations in Milwaukee. The
Tripoli Shrine Templeand Mosque, located on Wisconsin Avenue is an architectural replica of India's Taj Mahal, home to the headquarters of all Shriner activities in Milwaukee. Completed in 1928, it is on the National Register of Historic Places and one of Milwaukee's most unique landmarks. Shriners, or Shrine Masons, belong to the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America (A.A.O.N.M.S.).
While not typically thought of as a "
college town" Milwaukee has one of the highest per capita student populations in North America. A January 2000 study from McGill Universityranked Milwaukee 6th in a list of U.S. and Canadian cities with the highest number of college students per 100 residents. [cite web| url=http://www.metromilwaukee.org/quickfacts.html| title=Quick Facts| publisher=MetroMilwaukee.org| accessdate=2006-11-21] The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukeeis the city's largest higher education institution and the only public university. It is the second largest university of Wisconsin and one of the two public doctoral research institutions of the state. The largest private university of the city is Marquette University, which is also one of the largest Jesuit universities in the United States and was ranked #77 by U.S. News & World Report in 2008. [ [http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/college/national-search/page+4] ] Milwaukee is home to Alverno College, Cardinal Stritch University, Milwaukee Area Technical College, Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, and Mount Mary CollegeThe campus of two other colleges, Medical College of Wisconsinand Wisconsin Lutheran Collegepartially lie within the city's borders. Several other small national clerical and career colleges, such as Bryant and Strattonand ITT Technical Institutealso maintain campuses in the area.
Primary and secondary schooling
Milwaukee Public Schools(MPS), the largest school district in Wisconsin and one of the largest in the nation. As of 2007 it has an enrollment of 87,360 students [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=674879] and as of 2006 employs 6,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 223 schools. Fact|date=July 2008 Milwaukee Public Schools operate as magnet schools, with individualized specialty areas for interests in academics, or the arts. Washington High School, Riverside University High School, Rufus King High School, Golda Meir School, Milwaukee High School of the Artsand Lynde & Harry Bradley Technology and Trade Schoolare just some examples of the magnet schools in Milwaukee. In addition to its public schools, Milwaukee is home to over two dozen private high schools (e.g., Marquette University High School, University School of Milwaukee, Milwaukee Lutheran High School, Dominican High School, Divine Savior Holy Angels High School, and Pius XI High Schoolamong others) and many private and parochial middle and elementary schools.
Of persons in Milwaukee aged 25 and above, 84.5% have a high school diploma, and 27% have a Bachelor's degree or higher. (2000)cite web| url=http://www.mmac.org/display/router.asp?docid=237| publisher=Metropolitan Milwaukee Association of Commerce| title=Metro Milwaukee Demographics| accessdate=2006-03-21]
Government and politics
Milwaukee has a
mayor-councilform of government with a weak-mayor plan. The mayor oversees a Common Council of elected members, each representing one of 15 districts in the city. Milwaukee County residents also elect a county executivewho oversees the County Board of Supervisors, representatives from 19 districts of which nine are entirely within the city's borders. Milwaukee has a history of giving long tenures to its mayors; from Frank Zeidlerto Tom Barrett, the city has had only four mayors in the last 60 years. When 28-year incumbent Henry Maierretired in 1988, he held the record for longest term of service for a city of Milwaukee's size.
Milwaukee has been a Democratic stronghold for more than a century, with Democrats dominating every level of government, except for its Socialist mayors and (for briefer periods) other city and county offices. The city is split between three state Senate districts, each of which is composed of three Assembly districts. All 12 of the officials representing the city in the State Legislature are Democrats.
Milwaukee makes up the overwhelming majority of
Wisconsin's 4th congressional district. The district is so heavily Democratic that the Democratic primary for the seat is widely considered more important than the general election. [ [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=256664 Editorial, "4th Congressional District: Moore, Hoze in primaries," "Milwaukee Journal Sentinel"; Sept. 4, 2004] ] The district is currently represented by Democrat Gwen Moore. Small portions of the city located in Washington and Waukesha counties are in the 5th district, represented by Republican Jim Sensenbrenner, although these areas have no people living in them. A Republican has not represented a significant portion of the city since 1949.
Service and managerial jobs are the fastest-growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and
health carealone makes up 27% the jobs in the city. [ [http://www.uwm.edu/Course/448-440/employers.html Milwaukee's 10 largest employers ] ] Twenty-two percent of Milwaukee's workforce is involved in manufacturing, second only to San Jose, California, and far higher than the national average of 16.5%. Fact|date=April 2008
Milwaukee was once the home to four of the world's largest breweries (Schlitz, Blatz, Pabst, and Miller), and was the number one beer producing city in the world for many years. Despite the decline in its position as the world's leading beer producer after the loss of two of those breweries, its two remaining major breweries, Miller Brewing Company and Pabst Brewing company, remain key employers by employing over 2,200 of the city's workers. [cite web|url=http://www.millerbrewing.com/images/inthecommunity/pdf/millerWIimpact.pdf| format=PDF|title=Connected to Wisconsin — its people and its economy| publisher=Miller Brewing Company| month=February| year=2005] Because of Miller's solid position as the second-largest beer-maker in the U.S., the city remains known as a beer town despite now only representing a fraction of its economy.
The historic Milwaukee Brewery, located in "Miller Valley" at 4000 West State Street, is the oldest still-functioning major brewery in the United States. In July 2008, it was announced that Coors beer would be added to the list of beers brewed in Miller Valley. This created additional brewery jobs in Milwaukee, as its world headquarters moved 100 miles south from Milwaukee to Chicago.
Besides Miller and the heavily-automated Leinenkugel's brewery in the old Blatz 10th Street plant, the only other currently operating stand-alone brewery in Milwaukee is Lakefront Brewery, a
microbrewery located in Riverwest. The suburb of Glendale is home to Sprecher Brewery, another locally popular microbrew. Various brewpubs can also be found throughout the Milwaukee area.
Because of its easy access to Lake Michigan and other waterways, Milwaukee's
Menomonee River Valleyhas historically been home to manufacturing, stockyards, rendering plants, shipping, and other heavy industry.
Reshaping of the valley began with the railroads built by city co-founder Byron Kilbourn to bring product from Wisconsin's farm interior to the port. By 1862 Milwaukee was the largest shipper of wheat on the planet, and related industry developed. Grain elevators were built and, due to Milwaukee's dominant German immigrant population, breweries sprang up around the processing of barley and hops. A number of tanneries were constructed, of which the Pfister & Vogel tannery grew to become the largest in America.
In 1843 George Burnham and his brother Jonathan opened a brickyard near 16th Street. When a durable and distinct cream-colored brick come out of the clay beds, other brickyards sprang up to take advantage of this resource. Because many of the city's buildings were built using this material it earned the nickname "Cream City," and conversely the brick was called Cream City brick. By 1881 the Burnham brickyard, which employed 200 men and peaked at 15 million bricks a year, was the largest in the world.
Flour mills, packing plants, breweries, railways and tanneries further industrialized the valley. With the marshlands drained and the Kinnickinnic and Milwaukee Rivers dredged, attention turned to the valley. In 1869 an initiative was undertaken to channelize the Menomonee River and build a series of ship canals, among which Holtons Canal, the South Menomonee Canal and Burnham Canal are still in use today.
Along with the processing industries, bulk commodity storage and machining & manufacturing entered the scene. The valley was home to the Milwaukee Road, Falk Corporation, Cutler-Hammer, Harnischfeger, Chain Belt Company, Nordberg and other industry giants.
Milwaukee's Healthcare industry includes multiple health systems. The Milwaukee Area Medical District located between 8700 and 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue is located on the Milwaukee County grounds. This area includes the
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Froedtert Hospital, the Blood Center of Southeastern Wisconsin, the Ronald McDonald House, Curative Rehabilitation and the Medical College of Wisconsin. Children's Hospital of Wisconsinis recognized as one of the top pediatric hospitals in the country and ranked in the top 3 Children's Hospitals in the United States in 2006. Aurora Healthcareincludes St. Luke's Medical Center, West Allis Memorial,and St. Luke's SouthShore. Wheaten FransiscanHealthcare includes St. Joseph's Hospital, Elmbrook Memorial(Brookfield) and others located in the Milwaukee area. Columbia St. Mary's Hospitalis located in Milwaukee's lakeshore and has established affiliations with Froedtert Hospital and the Medical College of Wisconsin. The Medical College of Wisconsin is the only medical school in Milwaukee and one of two in Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Madison is the second medical school in Wisconsin.
Violent crime in Milwaukee has declined substantially since the late 1990s: For several years, Milwaukee ranked among the ten most dangerous large cities in the United States, [see e.g, [http://www.morganquitno.com/cit01pop.htm Violent crime rankings, 2001] Milwaukee is ranked 7th among large cities] however in recent years, Milwaukee no longer appears even among the top 25 most dangerous cities. [ [http://www.morganquitno.com/cit07pop.htm#25 Top 25 most dangerous cities, 2007] ] However, despite its improvement, Milwaukee still fares worse than average when comparing specific crime types to the national average (e.g., homicide, rape, robbery); only aggravated assaults occur less frequently in Milwaukee than the national average. [ [http://www.cityrating.com/citycrime.asp?city=Milwaukee&state=WI Milwaukee Crime Ratings] Comparison of Milwaukee crime reports to the national averages]
Milwaukee is home to a wide variety of museums:
Milwaukee Art Museumis perhaps Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction; especially its $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatravain his first American commission.Fact|date=November 2007 The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that unfolds like the wing of a bird.
Milwaukee Public Museumhas been Milwaukee's primary natural historyand human history museum for 125 years, with over 150,000 square feet of permanent exhibits. [ [http://www.mpm.edu/exhibitions/permanent/index.php Permanent Exhibitions] . Milwaukee Public Museum]
America's Black Holocaust Museum, founded by lynching survivor James Cameron, features exhibits which chronicle the injustices suffered throughout history by African Americans in the United States.
Discovery World, a hands-on children's science museum.
Villa Terrace Decorative Arts Museum
Charles Allis Art Museum
William F. Eisner Museum of Advertising & Design
Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory, known as "The Domes," are glass egg-shaped horticultural structures showing diverse enviroments including desert and tropical climates.
Milwaukee County Zoois a serene home to more than 1,800 mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles with more than 350 species represented. Recognized as one of the country’s finest zoological attractions, the Milwaukee County Zoo serves as a resource to educate, entertain and inspire.
Haggerty Museum of Art, located on the Marquette University campus houses several classical masterpieces and is open to the public.
Harley-Davidson Museum, opened in 2008, pays tribute to Harley-Davidson motorcycles and is the only museum of its type in the world.
* S/V Dennis Sullivan Schooner Ship located at
Discovery Worldis the first schooner to be built in Milwaukee in over 100 years, and teaches visitors about freshwater, the Great Lakes and Wiscosin's maritime history.
Milwaukee is home to the
Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Festival City Symphony, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Milwaukee Shakespeare, Skylight Opera Theatre, First Stage Children's Theater, Milwaukee Youth Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations including the Pioneer Drum and Bugle Corps. Additionally, Milwaukee is home to artistic performance venues such as the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Pabst Theater, The Rave/Eagles Ballroom, Riverside Theater, and Milwaukee Theatre. The Milwaukee Youth Arts Center, a first-of-its-kind Arts-in-education facility, is a national model. Famous actors that have called Milwaukee home include: Alfred Lunt, Spencer Tracy, Gene Wilder, Oprah Winfrey, and Deidre Hall. Famous Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra(MSO) conductors include: Principal Pops Conductor Marvin Hamlish( The Way We Were, and A Chorus Line) and Doc Severinsenband leader on The Tonight Showwith Johnny Carson. Doc Severinsenretired from active conducting with MSO in 2007, and was named Pops Conductor Emeritus in Milwaukee.
Milwaukee, "A Great Place on a Great Lake" has also advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," The Milwaukee metropolitan area hosts the
Wisconsin State Fair, as well as an annual lakefront fair called Summerfest. Listed in the "Guinness Book of World Records" as the largest music festivalin the world, Summerfest attracts around 1,000,000 visitors each year to its twelve stages.
Milwaukee is also home to a variety of primarily ethnically themed festivals throughout the summer. Held generally on the lakefront Summerfest grounds, these festivals span several days (typically Friday plus the weekend) and celebrate Milwaukee's history and diversity. In 2008 Riversplash, which markets itself as 'the official opening of summer', kicks off festival season on the last weekend of May. Festivals for the
LGBT( PrideFest) and Polish communities follow in June. Summerfest spans 11 days at the end of June and beginning of July. There are French ( Bastille Day), Greek, Italian and German festivals in July. The African, Arab, Irish, Mexican, and American Indian events wrap it up from August through September. [ [http://www.milwaukee.org/docs/2008_Major_Events.pdf|title=2008 Major Events Calendar] ]
Milwaukee has a long history of musical activity. The first organized musical society, called "Milwaukee Beethoven Society" formed in 1843, three years before the city was incorporated.Fact|date=November 2007 This was later replaced with the Milwaukee Musical Society.Fact|date=November 2007
The large concentrations of German immigrants contributed to the musical character of the city. Saengerbund festivals were held regularly.Fact|date=November 2007 Also notable is the founding of the Wisconsin Conservatory of Music in 1899.Fact|date=November 2007
More recently, Milwaukee has enjoyed a vibrant history of rock,
hip hop, jazz, soul, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, electronica, world music, and pop musicbands. Venues such as Pabst Theater, Marcus Center for Performing Arts, Marcus Amphitheater (Summerfest Grounds), Riverside Theater, The Northern Lights Theater, and The Rave frequently bring internationally-known and critically acclaimed acts to Milwaukee. 'Jazz in the Park', a weekly jazz show held at downtown Cathedral Square Park, has become a summer tradition. They are free, public performances with a kind of picnic environment for the audience. [cite web|url=http://www.easttown.com/info/Jazz%20in%20the%20Park/jipindex|title=Easttown: Jazz in the Park] The Milwaukee area is known for producing national talents such as Steve Miller(rock), Wladziu Valentino Liberace(piano), Al Jarreau(jazz), Daryl Stuermer(rock), BoDeans(rock), the Violent Femmes(punk), Decibully(indie), and Absinthe.
Through its Milwaukee Wireless Initiative, the city has contracted with Midwest Fiber Networks to invest US$20 million in setting up a
municipal wireless networkcity-wide. Under the plan, the city will designate numerous government and public service websites for free access, and city residents will be able to access unlimited content for a monthly fee. Full wireless coverage was expected by March 2008, [cite web|url=http://www.govtech.net/digitalcommunities/story.php?id=102178|title=Milwaukee Wireless Initiative Needs More To Be Digitally Inclusive|accessdate=2006-11-21] but delays have been reported. [cite web|url=http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/aug2007/tc20070814_929868.htm?chan=technology_technology+index+page_telecom|title=Why Wi-Fi Networks Are Floundering|accessdate=2007-08-19]
The city had previously established free wireless networks in two downtown city parks:
Cathedral Square; and Pere Marquette Park.Fact|date=September 2008
Park system and recreation
Milwaukee County is known for its well-developed park system. The Grand Necklace of Parks, designed by
Frederick Law Olmstedincludes Lake Park, River Park (now Riverside Park) and West Park (now Washington Park). The [http://www.countyparks.com/ Milwaukee County Parks] offer facilities for sunbathing, picnics, grilling, disc golf, and ice skating. It has over 140 parks with over convert|15000|acre|ha|abbr=off of parks and parkways that enhance the quality of life for residents in southeastern Wisconsin. Early Commissioners conceived of a park system that would form a "green belt" or series of scenic drives and parks encircling the county. Parks were located in outlying areas to allow for population expansion. Commissioners selected land not only for its natural beauty and interest, but also for its fitness for various forms of active and passive recreation.Fact|date=September 2008
Milwaukee Community Sailing Center, The Milwaukee Yacht Club, The Southshore Yacht Club, Kenosha Yacht Club, Racine Yacht Club, and inland Pewaukee Yacht Club also offer social, educational, and recreational sailing opportunities. The Queens CupSailing race departs from Milwaukee to Michigan each summer.Fact|date=September 2008
U.S. Bank Championship in Milwaukee(formerly the Greater Milwaukee Open) is a PGA Tourevent held at Brown Deer Park Golf Coursein the bordering suburb of Brown Deer.
Additional recreational resources include the Milwaukee County Zoo, the
Boerner Botanical Gardens, and Mitchell Park Domes.
Milwaukee County Groundsfeature the famous Monarch Trail, where every fall the annual migration of the Monarch butterflies can be witnessed along its 1.25 mile (2 km) length. [Johnson, Annysa (2008-09-13). Activists hope engineering school won't disturb Monarch Trail. Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, 13 September 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-14 from http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=794450.] [http://www.thebutterflystore.net/county%20grounds.html]
Various opportunities for sports fishing are provided by
Milwaukee has a rich history of involvement in professional and nonprofessional sports, going back to the 19th century. Currently, its major sports teams include:
Milwaukee is also the host city of
The Point Premium Root Beer International Cycling Classic, presented by Time Warner Cable, which includes the men's and women's " Superweek" Pro Tour races, featuring top professional and elite amateur cyclists and teams from across the U.S. and more than 20 foreign countries.
Two of Wisconsin's main
Interstate highways intersect in Milwaukee. Interstate 94comes north from Chicago to enter Milwaukee and continues west to Madison. Interstate 43enters Milwaukee from the southwest and continues north to Green Bay. Milwaukee has two branch interstate highways, Interstate 894and Interstate 794. I-894 extends from the western suburbs to the southern suburbs, bypassing downtown. I-794 extends east from the Marquette Interchangeto Lake Michigan before turning south over the Hoan Bridgetoward the airport, turning into Highway 794 along the way.
Milwaukee is also served by three US highways.
U.S. Route 18provides a link from downtown to points west. U.S. Route 41and U.S. Route 45both provide north-south freeway transportation on the western side of the city. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, serves Milwaukee, operating its Empire Builderdaily in both directions between Chicago Union Stationand the Pacific Northwest from the Milwaukee Intermodal Station, which was remodeled in 2007 and now also houses the city's Greyhound operations and the traffic management headquarters for the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. The city is also served by the Hiawatha Amtrak express service six times daily between Milwaukee and Chicago, and also has a stop at a new rail station located just west of Mitchell Field which opened in 2005.
Milwaukee County Transit Systemprovides a bus transit system. In addition, Milwaukee is home to two airports, General Mitchell International Airporton the southern edge of the city, and the smaller Timmerman Fieldon the north side.
A tram system known as the
Milwaukee Connectorwas proposed and passed by the common council, but mayor Tom Barrett vetoed the bill over problems of cost and availability. Currently, a 0.5% sales tax is being proposed for the counties of Milwaukee, Racine, and Kenosha by the Southeast Wisconsin Regional Transit Authority to fund an extension of the Chicago Metra commuter rail from Kenosha to downtown Milwaukee. The tax would also be used to fund the bus systems in those counties which currently rely on property taxes. [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=544511]
In recent years, Milwaukee has become one of the more bicycle-friendly cities in the United States.Fact|date=September 2008 [http://www.bfw.org The Bicycle Federation of Wisconsin] holds an annual Bike to Work Week. The event, held in May each year, has frequently featured a commuter race between a car, a bus, and a bike; and also a morning ride into work with the mayor. In 2006, it obtained bronze-level status from the League of American Bicyclists [http://www.bicyclefriendlycommunity.org/AllBicycleFriendlyCommunities.htm] , a rarity for a city its size. [http://www.silentsports.net/madison_makes_sense.html] The city currently has over convert|65|mi|km of bicycle lanes and trails, most of which run alongside or near its rivers and
Lake Michigan. Still pending are the creation of bicycle lanes along major commuting routes, such as the Hoan Bridge connector between downtown and the suburbs to the south. The city also has identified over convert|250|mi|km of streets on which bike lanes will fit. It has created a plan labeling convert|145|mi|km of those as high priority to receive bike lanes. [cite web |url=http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/BikeLanesandBikeRout14143.htm |title=Bike Lanes and Bike Routes |accessdate=2008-03-22 |author=City of Milwaukee] As part of the city's Bicycle and Pedestrian Task Force's mission to "make Milwaukee more bicycle and pedestrian friendly", over 700 bike racks have been installed throughout the city. [cite web |url=http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/BicycleTaskForce3727.htm |title=Bicycle and Pedestrian Task Force |accessdate=2008-03-22 |author=City of Milwaukee] Unlike many other cities, however, bicycle racks have not yet been installed on any city buses.
High speed ferry service is available from the Port of Milwaukee to
Muskegon, Michigan via the Lake Expresshigh speed car ferry.Fact|date=September 2008
Milwaukee's only surviving daily
newspaperis the " Milwaukee Journal Sentinel" which was formed when the morning paper the "Milwaukee Sentinel" merged with the afternoon paper "Milwaukee Journal". The most prominent alternative weekly is " Shepherd Express", a free publication. Other local newspapers, city guides and magazines with large distributions include " M Magazine", " Milwaukee Magazine", "Vital Source," and "Riverwest Currents". OnMilwaukee.comis an online magazine providing news and events. The UWM Postis the independent, student-run weekly at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. " The Onion", a weekly satirical publication, is distributed free in Milwaukee in addition to nine other U.S. cities.cite web |url=http://mediakit.theonion.com/print_main.html |title=Onion Media Kit 2006 |accessdate=2008-03-22]
network televisionaffiliates are WTMJ 4 ( NBC), WITI 6 (Fox), WISN 12 (ABC), WVTV18 (CW), WCGV24 ( MyNetworkTV), and WDJT 58 ( CBS). Spanish language programming is on WBWT 38 ( Azteca America) and WYTU-LP63 ( Telemundo). Milwaukee's public broadcasting stations are WMVS 10 and WMVT 36.
According to the Milwaukee HDTV forums, It has been reported that one of the Big 4 (NBC, CBS, ABC, & FOX) local news operations may be transitioning their newscasts to high-definition (HD) in August 2008.
There are numerous
radiostations throughout Milwaukee and the surrounding area. Journal Communications(a NYSE-traded corporation), in addition to owning the "Journal Sentinel", also owns: WTMJ-TV; WTMJ and WKTI radio stations; and well over a dozen local weekly newspapers in the metropolitan area. "See also:"
*List of Milwaukee area television stations
*List of Milwaukee area radio stations
The city of Milwaukee has four sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc (SCI) and Milwaukee's Sister Cities: [cite web| url=http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/WI| title=Sister Cities International| accessdate=2006-04-20] [cite web| url=http://www.milwaukee.gov/sistercities| title=Milwaukee's Sister Cities| accessdate=2007-09-04]
Galway, Republic of Ireland
Nuevitas, Camagüey, Cuba
Omsk, Russian Federation
*flagicon|People's Republic of China
Ningbo, People's Republic of ChinaAlthough this relationship is not recognized by SCI, officials from Milwaukee and Ningbo have signed an agreement to promote business and cultural ties between the two cities and their respective nations. [ [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=774242 JS Online: New statues are today's mane event ] ]
In popular culture
*Milwaukee appears as a setting under the name Millhaven, Illinois in the later works of Milwaukeean
*Milwaukee was depicted in popular American television shows in the 1970s and 1980s, including "
Happy Days" and " Laverne and Shirley". Milwaukee unveiled a life-sized, bronze statue of Fonziefrom "Happy Days" along the downtown Riverwalk on 19 August 2008. [cite web |url=http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=711484 |title=Happy day for 'The Fonz' |accessdate=2008-03-22 |author=Tom Daykin
January 25, 2008|publisher=Milwaukee Journal Sentinel] Milwaukee also had several references in the modern television show " That '70s Show".
*Milwaukee has appeared in scenes from various films including:
The Blues Brothers" (1980)
**"Major League" (1989)
**"Wayne's World" (1992)
Mr. 3000" (2004)
**"Dawn of the Dead" (2004)
List of Milwaukee neighborhoods
List of mayors of Milwaukee
List of Milwaukeeans
Flag of Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Seal of Milwaukee, Wisconsin
* [http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/ City of Milwaukee website]
* [http://www.mpw.net/ City of Milwaukee, Department of Public Works website]
* [http://www.visitmilwaukee.org/ VISIT Milwaukee website] , from the Greater Milwaukee Convention & Visitors Bureau
* [http://www.mmac.org/ Metro Milwaukee Association of Commerce]
* [http://www.onmilwaukee.com OnMilwaukee.Com] Milwaukee's online daily magazine
* [http://www.linkstothepast.com/milwaukee/index.php Milwaukee Genealogy and History]
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