Triad (underground societies)
Triad (zh-tspl |t=三合會 |s=三合会 |p=Sānhéhuì |l=Triad Society, also known as zh-tspl |t=黑社會|s=黑社会|p=Hēishèhuì|l=Black Society) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in
Hong Kongand Macauand also operating in Taiwan, mainland China, and countries and cities worldwide with significant Chinese populations such as San Francisco.
Their activities include
drug trafficking, contract murder, money laundering, gambling, prostitution, car theft, extortion, and other forms of racketeering. A major source of triad income today comes from the counterfeiting of intellectual propertysuch as clothing, computer software, music CDsand movie VCDs/ DVDs. They also trade in bootleg tobacco& alcoholproducts.
History of triads
Precursor to triads – Tian Di Hui
The Triads were started as a resistance to the
ManchuEmperor of the Qing Dynasty. In the 1760s, a society called the 天地會 Tian Di Hui("The Society of Heaven and Earth") was formed in China. Its purpose was to overthrow the Manchu-led Qing Dynastyand restore Han Chineserule. As the Tian Di Hui spread through different parts of China, it branched off into many groups and became known by many names, one of which was "Sanhehui" (zh-cp|c=三合會 |p=sānhéhuì; Yale Cantonese: saam1 hap6 wui2), literally "Three Harmonies Society", referring to the unity between Heaven, Earth and Man.
These societies accordingly made use of the triangle in their imagery usually accompanied with swords or Kwan Kung, the Chinese God of Loyalty.The name "triad" was coined by British authorities in Hong Kong, referring to that use of triangular imagery.
Over several centuries, what are known as triads today developed from a patriotic society to a
criminal organization. Following the overthrowing of Qing Dynasty Chinain 1911, the Hung society(洪門) suddenly found themselves lost without purpose. Worse still, they managed to miss out on the opportunity to participate in the actual uprising, and many of them were left angry and depressed. Unable to revert to normal civilian lives after spending years living lives of grave danger and extreme violence as outlaws, many ex- rebels reunited to form a cult which later came to be known as the Triad. Having lost the usual donations and support from the public after the collapse of the Qing empire, members of the newly formed cult resorted to money extortionfrom the unwilling public through all possible means.
Migration to Hong Kong
Communist Party of Chinatook power in 1949, mainland Chinawas put under strict law enforcement and organized crimediminished. Triad members then migrated south to the then-British crown colonyof Hong Kong for the continuance of their business. By 1931, there were eight main triad groups and they had divided Hong Kong up into geographic areas and ethnic groups that each group was responsible for controlling. The nine main ones at that time were the Wo, Rung, Tung, Chuen, Shing, Fuk Yee Hing, Yee On, 14K, and Luen. Each had its own headquarters, its own sub-societies, and its own public covers. After the Riot in Hong Kong in 1956, the government actively enforced the laws that eventually diminished the Triad activities in Hong Kong.
The triad problems in
Hong Kongwere worse in the 1960s and 1970s. In the past, rumor had it that the police controlled the triads and the triads took charge of the social order. If there was a kidnapping incident, the police would get the regional gang leader to resolve it. On the other hand, the police would associate with the regional gang leader in seizing the control of places where they would be in command of the businesses. Hence there was spatial stability of social powers. Then, in 1974, police corruption was curtailed with the establishment of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). Now the triads had diminishing areas to control and the boundaries of triad power also blurred out. With less benefit from usual businesses, they turned to underground dealings.
As the triads developed, certain ones began to monopolize some sectors of the economy in the 1980s and 1990s. For instance, the Sun Yee On had almost entire control over the cinema sector.
Currently, there are approximately 58 triad societies in Hong Kong, including between 15 and 20 triads actively involved in local crimes.Fact|date=January 2007 Increasing in power, the triads remain low key, yet ruthless in the criminal activities. The scale of triad membership is difficult even for its leaders to ascertain. Although some triads have only 50 members, larger ones have over 30,000 members. Well known triads in Hong Kong now include the
Sun Yee On, Wo Shing Woand 14K.
The triads have been engaged in counterfeiting since the 1880s. Between the 1960s and 1970s, the triads were involved in the counterfeiting of Chinese currency, often of the Hong Kong 50-cent piece. In that same decade, the gangs were also guilty of copying books, generally very expensive ones and selling them on the black market. Inevitably, as new technology was developed, and the average person grew wealthier, the triads had to move onto copying newer effects such as watches. This meant that they had a much wider market. More recently, triad counterfeit has involved designer apparel such as handbags and clothing. [M. Booth, 'The Dragon Syndicates; The Global Phenomenon of the Triads', Doubleday-Great Britain 1999, pp 386-400.]
The real money for the triads of late however has come due to computers. Not only are the triads effective pornography smugglers, but they have cornered the market when it comes to computer software piracy. Obviously, since computers and the internet became a staple of the modern household, the gangs have made more and more money from pornography and piracy by employing the most ingenious computer technicians. The triad gangs have also been known to make counterfeit films and, not content with that, have exerted their influence on the Chinese film industry itself.Fact|date=January 2008
Triad organizational structure
Hong Kong's triads are more powerful than most people might expect. Like some of the biggest international drug dealers who have their own
armed forcesand can perhaps take charge of their local governments, Hong Kong triads pursue and maintain significant resources such as their own stockpiles of ammunition. Like Western Mafia, they usually limit violence to among themselves rather than inflict it on the public at large.
There is no father-figure in the Hong Kong triads to control all other members in illegal activities via a hierarchy. On the contrary, Hong Kong triads are generally composed of several independent groups. Although they form and organize themselves with similar ceremonies and hierarchical systems, they do not function under an absolute and strict dominion-and-compliance plan. For example, the "
King Yee" is a subsidiary branch of the "Sun Yee On", but members of the King Yee do not take orders from the "supremacy".
The actual power of triads lies at the ground level of the hierarchy. Usually, a triad "official" ("Red Pole") leads a group of 15 active members (soldiers), and wields aggression on a turf, a leader with apparent hegemony may not be able to command other leaders; and leaders may sometimes wage war against one another for more benefits.
Triads also use numeric codes to differentiate the ranks and positions inside a gang. For example, 426 would mean "fighter" (打仔). Another code 49 (四九仔) would denote a rank-and-file member. 489 is the code for "the mountain master", 438 for the "deputy mountain master", 415 for "the white paper fan", and 432 for the "straw sandal". The code 25 (二五仔), an undercover/spy of the gang, has entered common usage in Hong Kong to mean a "traitor".
As the Hong Kong economy progresses, triads barely provide "satisfying" social and pecuniary conditions to foster absolute loyalty among their members. One consequence is that the current triad structure has become more flexible: the customary eight-ranking system has changed into one that consists of four ranks (refer to the diagram below). Also, the sophisticated ceremonial rituals for new members have simplified: the most commonly practiced is "hanging the Blue Lantern" (i.e. following the leader), which is an oral agreement with little formality. The degree of
autocracywithin the organization has fallen; members have higher tendency to prioritize their personal interests. Should a member discover that there is little advantage in remaining in the group, he might transfer himself to another one which is more socially robust and potent: the traditional principles of triad moral beliefs have been disregarded under such personal benefits first stance.
Triad members are subject to initiation ceremonies, much like the
Mafiaor the Yakuza. A typical ceremony would take place at an altar dedicated to Guan Yu, the Taoist god of brotherhoods, with incense smoke and a sacrifice of an animal, such as a chicken, pig, or a goat. After drinking a potion composed of wine and the blood of the animal or of the candidate, he would pass beneath an arch of swords while reciting the Triad oaths. The paper on which the oaths are written would then be burned on the altar, to confirm the duty of the member to perform his duty to the gods. Three fingers on the left hand would then be raised as a binding gesture. [http://www.americanmafia.com/Feature_Articles_378.html]
Below is a heavily abridged version of the thirty-six traditional Triad oaths. For an accurate, if lengthy, English translation, see Appendix C of Fei-Ling Davis' "Primitive Revolutionaries of China".
# After having entered the Han gates I must treat the parents and relatives of my sworn brothers as my own kin. I shall suffer death by five thunderbolts if I do not keep this oath.
# I shall assist my sworn brothers to bury their parents and brothers by offering financial or physical assistance. I shall suffer death by five thunderbolts if I do not keep this oath.
# When Han brothers visit my house, I shall provide them with board and lodging. I shall be killed by myriads of knives if I treat them as strangers.
# I will always acknowledge my Han brothers when they identify themselves. If I ignore them I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I shall not disclose the secrets of the Han family, not even to my parents, brothers, or wife. I shall never disclose the secrets for money. I will be killed by myriads of swords if I do so.
# I shall never betray my sworn brothers. If, through a misunderstanding, I have caused the arrest of one of my brothers I must release him immediately. If I break this oath I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# I will offer financial assistance to sworn brothers who are in trouble in order that they may pay their passage fee, etc. If I break this oath I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# I must never cause harm or bring trouble to my sworn brothers or Incense Master. If I do so I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I must never commit any indecent assaults on the wives, sisters, or daughters, of my sworn brothers. I shall be killed by five thunderbolts if I break this oath.
# I shall never embezzle cash or property from my sworn brothers. If I break this oath I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I will take good care of the wives or children of sworn brothers entrusted to my keeping. If I do not I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If I have supplied false particulars about myself for the purpose of joining the Han family I shall be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If I should change my mind and deny my membership of the Han family I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# If I rob a sworn brother or assist an outsider to do so I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If I should take advantage of a sworn brother or force unfair business deals upon him I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# If I knowingly convert my sworn brother's cash or property to my own use I shall be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If I have wrongly taken a sworn brother's cash or property during a robbery I must return them to him. If I do not I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If I am arrested after committing an offence I must accept my punishment and not try to place blame on my sworn brothers. If I do so I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If any of my sworn brothers are killed, or arrested, or have departed to some other place, I will assist their wives and children who may be in need. If I pretend to have no knowledge of their difficulties I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# When any of my sworn brothers have been assaulted or blamed by others, I must come forward and help him if he is in the right or advise him to desist if he is wrong. If he has been repeatedly insulted by others I shall inform our other brothers and arrange to help him physically or financially. If I do not keep this oath I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# If it comes to my knowledge that the Government is seeking any of my sworn brothers who has come from other provinces or from overseas, I shall immediately inform him in order that he may make his escape. If I break this oath I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# I must not conspire with outsiders to cheat my sworn brothers at gambling. If I do so I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I shall not cause discord amongst my sworn brothers by spreading false reports about any of them. If I do so I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I shall not appoint myself as Incense Master without authority. After entering the Han gates for three years the loyal and faithful ones may be promoted by the Incense Master with the support of his sworn brothers. I shall be killed by five thunderbolts if I make any unauthorized promotions myself.
# If my natural brothers are involved in a dispute or law suit with my sworn brothers I must not help either party against the other but must attempt to have the matter settled amicably. If I break this oath I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# After entering the Han gates I must forget any previous grudges I may have borne against my sworn brothers. If I do not do so I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# I must not trespass upon the territory occupied by my sworn brothers. I shall be killed by five thunderbolts if I pretend to have no knowledge of my brothers' rights in such matters.
# I must not covet or seek to share any property or cash obtained by my sworn brothers. If I have such ideas I will be killed.
# I must not disclose any address where my sworn brothers keep their wealth nor must I conspire to make wrong use of such knowledge. If I do so I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I must not give support to outsiders if so doing is against the interests of any of my sworn brothers. If I do not keep this oath I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I must not take advantage of the Han brotherhood in order to oppress or take violent or unreasonable advantage of others. I must be content and honest. If I break this oath I will be killed by five thunderbolts.
# I shall be killed by five thunderbolts if I behave indecently towards small children of my sworn brothers' families.
# If any of my sworn brothers has committed a big offense I must not inform upon them to the Government for the purposes of obtaining a reward. I shall be killed by five thunderbolts if I break this oath.
# I must not take to myself the wives and concubines of my sworn brothers nor commit adultery with them. If I do so I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# I must never reveal Han secrets or signs when speaking to outsiders. If I do so I will be killed by myriads of swords.
# After entering the Han gates I shall be loyal and faithful and shall endeavour to overthrow Ch'ing and restore Ming by coordinating my efforts with those of my sworn brethren even though my brethren and I may not be in the same professions. Our common aim is to avenge our Five Ancestors (Kok Max, Mong Long, Gee Seng, Gee Heng and Bong Lai).
Currently, Triads are active overseas in cities with sizeable
overseas Chinesepopulations, such as San Francisco, New York City, Philadelphia, Seattle, Chicago, Sacramento, Boston, Miami, Ft. Lauderdale, Tampa Bay, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland, New Orleans, Houston, Dallas, Denver, Beaumont, Texas, Miami, Atlanta, Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto, Cape Town, Buenos Aires, Rosarioand São Paulo. It is also believed that London, Plymouth, Birmingham, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin, Manchester, and Amsterdamare new centers of triad activity. They are often involved in smuggling illegal immigrantsfrom East Asiainto the USA, Canadaand Britain. Triads also have associations with local Chinese street gangs such as Wah Ching(San Francisco) , which operate in areas with large Chinese populations. Fact|date=May 2007
Tongs are similar to triads, but they originated among early immigrant
Chinatowncommunities independently rather than as extensions of modern triads. The first tongs formed in the second half of the 19th century among the more marginalized members of early immigrant Chinese Americancommunities for mutual support and protection from nativists. These first tongs modeled themselves upon triads. However, unlike the triads, the tongs formed without clear political motives and soon found themselves involved in criminal activities, including extortion, gambling, human trafficking, murder, and prostitution. [http://www.mafianj.com/asian/tongs.shtml] In recent years, some tongs have reformed themselves to remove their criminal elements and have become civic-minded organizations.
Many traditional tongs in American Chinatowns have now been repopulated by recent immigrants from China, especially from
FuqingCity, Fujian Province.Fact|date=November 2007
Triads in the United Kingdom
Comparing the cultural differences of criminal organizations can be difficult; generally, they all solve their disagreements in the same way -- violence. Unsuccessful financial deals are resolved in street battles. For example, the 14K Triad faction in
Macauused car bombs, drive-by shootings, etc. to war with another Triad spawned from a workers' union.
Modern day triads have become more business-like organizations. The interactions and integrations of power among triad gangs from
mainland China, Taiwan, Macau and Hong Kong are often not to evade counter-operations from local authorities, but rather to attain business benefits. At the present, the largest and most business oriented market is the mainland. Triads head for any profitable opportunity, and some Hong Kong triads have taken to making legitimate investments in the Mainland, either for legitimate reasons or just to exploit the legitimacy of these businesses for other illegal purposes.
Triad countermeasures in Hong Kong
The "Organized Crime and Triad Bureau" (OCTB) is the division of the police chiefly responsible for triad countermeasures. The OCTB and "Criminal Intelligence Bureau" work hand in hand with the "Narcotics Bureau and Commercial Crime Bureau" to process data and information collected by their operation units, to fight the triad heads. Other departments such as the Customs and Excise Department,
Immigration Departmentand ICAC have also joined forces with the local police to impede expansion of triads and other organized gangs.
Ironically the law has given "protection" to the criminals. Due to inadequate authority to investigate the criminal leaders' sources of wealth and the lack of laws to impose heavier punishments such as confiscation of proceeds from crimes and extended imprisonments, the efforts of police have been hampered. Therefore, to resolve this issue, the local law system is also frequently revised to endow the police with sufficient authority to fight against triads. An example is that the police authority proposed the Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance, fully in force since 1995.
According to the Security Bureau, there is no current evidence to indicate any worsening of the triad problem in Hong Kong. For ten years (1993-2002) the proportion of crimes with triad involvement remained fairly steady at about 3.8%; and the figure for the first nine months in 2003 was 2.7%. Nonetheless, the bureau has added more than 240 anti-triad specialist posts since 1995/96 to strengthen the anti-triad power of the police force.
There is also a comprehensive publicity programme to forge triad awareness of the public. For instance, the
Junior Police Callis an organization with complete networks to publicise anti-triad messages. At the same time, the Crime Prevention Bureau is keeping contact with local businesses and encouraging them to report triad activities.
Furthermore, the Hong Kong Police cooperate with law enforcement agency overseas specialised at organised crimes, especially of places with a sizeable Chinese population, to combat triads at an international level such as with the Doan Family Protection Agency that is spread out through out the world.
The primary Hong Kong laws addressing triads are the Societies Ordinance and the Organized & Serious Crimes Ordinance. The Societies Ordinance, enacted in 1949, makes all triad societies unlawful societies in Hong Kong. It stipulates that any person convicted of professing or claiming to be an office bearer or managing or assisting in the management of a triad society can be fined up to HK$1 million and imprisoned for up to 15 years. Membership of a triad society is itself an offence punishable with fines from HK$100,000 to HK$250,000 and 3 to 7 years' imprisonment.
The Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance was enacted in Hong Kong in 1994. The Ordinance aims to provide the Police with special investigative powers, to provide heavier sentences for organized crime activities, and to provide the Courts with the power to confiscate the proceeds of organized crime. The same investigative powers exist also for drug trafficking crimes and terrorism (since 7 January 2005).
Even though most gangs and triads act independently of one another, their attempt to pretend that they are "the invisible yet invincible" has made the police's work much harder by forcing their victims into silence. In order to encourage the public to report the criminal activities of triads, the Security Bureau has established the
Witness Protection Unitin 1995 to augment witness security. Later in 2000 the Witness Protection Ordinance was enacted and came into operation on 9 November to provide a legal basis for the Witness Protection Programme.
Portrayal of triad societies in popular culture
Films that depict triads include "
A Better Tomorrow", "As Tears Go By", "The Killer", " Hard Boiled"(and sequel game Stranglehold), " Young and Dangerous", " Infernal Affairs", " Rush Hour 2" , " Rush Hour 3", "Election", " Election 2" (aka "Triad Election" ), " Lethal Weapon 4", and "War".
Gangster movies are generally well favoured among Hong Kong audiences, especially in the young male crowd. The main characters in these movies are always male and almost always highly "", with "Mark Gor" (played by
Chow Yun-Fatin " A Better Tomorrow" (1986)) and "Chan Ho-Nam" (played by Ekin Chengin the "Young and Dangerous" series (1990s)) both representing this idea. All the films portray the triads as having a sense of brotherhood and loyalty and perhaps even love that almost always surpasses their alliances with their obligatory girlfriends. In addition, no matter how many illegal activities are depicted in the films, somehow the main characters always retain their sense of honour and chivalry. Due to all these elements, the lives of these characters seem impossibly glamorous to the ordinary lives of the audience members, which may explain the popularity of these types of movies. However, many films of late have shown a truer side to the triad, with Fruit Chan's "Made in Hong Kong" breaking through the barrier with its portrayal of a low-level hopeless thug.
anime/ manga Black Lagoon, the protagonists work with a Triad in Thailandwhich is led by the character Mr. Chan, who is being hunted by an Islamic militarist group.
Triads have also been portrayed in the "Grand Theft Auto" video game series. There are number of triads including the Portland Triad, the Blood Feather Triad and the Mountain Cloud Boys Triad, as well as London's
14k Triadin The Getaway video game.
Triads have also been portrayed in many songs by the Cantonese
video game Deus Ex, Triads plays an important part during the Hong Konglevels. The triads are portrayed as a politically significant secret organization in China. During the Hong Kong levels, the player gets to read some accurate information and history concerning the Triads.
The Triads have also been featured in the computer
video game, in which the protagonist, Agent 47, a hitman, must kill members of two different triad groups so as to spark a war between them.
To counter the popularity of Triad-related media in Hong Kong, the government commissioned a widely-disseminated anti-triad awareness campaign targeted at young people. The campaign slogan was "Life doesn't have take two" meaning that all those glorification of Triad crimes are just movies and that if young people commit crimes as a Triad they won't have a second chance to redeem themselves or come back to life.
In the Alex Rider novel Skeleton Key, Alex is almost killed by triads while at a Wimbledon Match.
In the first
James Bondfilm, Dr. Nois a former member of a Chinese criminal society who absconded with some of the gangs funds and joined SPECTRE. It is intimated that he was either a Triad or a Tong, and that it was unusual for him to be a member of either because he was not a full blooded Chinese.
The history of the Triads in Hong-Kong is heavily featured in James Clavell's novel
List of Triads
* In 1993, Chinese Minister of Public Safety Tao Siju personally welcomed leaders of the
Sun Yee Ontriad to Beijing, stating "The members of triads are not always gangsters. As long as they are patriots, concerned with maintaining the prosperity of Hong Kong, we should respect them." [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1997/05/28/MN25477.DTL]
* A triad traditional
weaponis the modified Chinese kitchen utensil meat cleaveralso nicknamed "chopping knife". Another widely used weapon is the machete, sometimes referred to as a "watermelon knife".
* Triad fights do not always involve weapons. When rivals just want to settle a small matter they usually fight it out with bare fist on a busy street until the
* An occasional ritual execution in triad to a disgraced member is slashing with a bladed weapon a hundred times on the body, but no instantly lethal cuts are inflicted. This is analogous to "lingchi" (death by a thousand cuts), a form of capital punishment administered in imperial times. The reason is to let that person bleed to death for the executioner to bury him while he is still breathing.
* Burying the offender alive is a less honourable method of ritual execution. This is often done if the executioner has a grudge against the executed.
* Like most legitimate organisations, recently more women are joining leadership in triads.
* Like many other classes of people, Hollywood portrayal of triads is accused of being unrealistic (such as the black or white
Mao suitas featured in the film " Rush Hour" and " Rush Hour 2" or the video game ""), probably because it is viewed from the lens from which a gang in the Westis viewed. In real life neither a dress code nor a gang colour makes a particular strain of triads recognisable.
* Apart from pop culture, Triads rarely fight other ethnic gangs; they mainly fight among themselves, or other Triad gangs. However there has been some clashes with the Italian
Mafiaand Japanese Yakuzain New Yorkin the past. In the U.Kthe Triad had run some clashes with the Irish, Filipino and Albanian mafiagangs. In AustraliaTriad gangs often fight Arab & other ethnic gangs over drug dealing territory.
* The triad gangs mainly come from Cantonese and Chiu Chow (Teochew) speaking areas. However in Europe and New York City gangs from
mainland Chinacalled Fujianese gangs(Fukienese gangs or "Fukienese Dragons") try to move into triad-controlled areas in places with a sizeable Chinese population. It is said that the Fujianese gangs use a lot of "dishonourable" methods to win their turf fights like using guns and explosives.
* Many triad members do not commit crimes for a living. Many are under the façade of legitimate occupations ranging from unskilled workers to businessmen to professionals like lawyers. They are often indistinguishable from ordinary people save perhaps by tattoos with a triad insignia.
*The Hong Kong media do not mention any triad clan names when reporting on a triad related crime as a matter of good
journalismto avoid misattribution.
Hong Kong cinema, most triad members are portrayed as honourable and not betraying or abandoning "brothers". However there has been documentary programs with interviews of ex-members critical about these "oath" and call it "empty promises" as their supposed "brother" will run at the first sign of problem.
* Hong Kong actor and screenplay advisor
Lee Siu Kei, being a triad apostate, works as a screenwriter and act in films without glamorisation or pretence. He is critical about other films' unrealistic portrayal and glorification.
Triads in the United Kingdom
Broken Tooth Koi
List of criminal organizations
List of Chinese criminal organizations
* "" (ISBN 0-7867-0869-7) by British author
Martin Booth(who was born and raised in Hong Kong). This book mainly looks at the history and rise of triads living in the United Kingdom and Los Angeles. The book is well researched and accurately describes triad society.
* "" by
Bertil Lintner. Pub: Allen & Unwin. Criminals exist outside the law, but not outside society. Nowhere is this more true than in Asia, where the tentacles of organized crime reach far into the worlds of business, politics and even law enforcement. In his latest book, Blood Brothers: Crime, Business and Politics in Asia, REVIEW Senior Writer Bertil Lintner examines the nature of these entanglements both in the region and outside it.
* [http://gohongkong.about.com/od/travelplanner/f/triads.htm Tourists and Triads in Hong Kong]
* [http://www.sfweekly.com/2007-08-01/news/enter-the-dragon-head/full SF Weekly Feature Article Profiling Member of Hop Sing Tong -- Raymond "Shrimp Boy" Chow (2007)]
* [http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Chinese_Criminal_Enterprises.html Chinese Criminal Enterprises] - from the
United States State Department
* http://www.cityu.edu.hk/prj/YSNet/gangwork/01/01update.ppt - In Traditional Chinese
* http://ited.yingwa.edu.hk/~ywc-031142/right9.html - Information on Wo Group. (In Traditional Chinese)
* http://www.search-international.com/WhatsNew/WNasiangangs.htm - Information on On Leong and Hip Sing in Chicago.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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