3 Baking


Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. [Oxford English Dictionary] It is primarily used for the preparation of bread, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts, quiches, and cookies. Such items are sometimes referred to as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. It is also used for the preparation of baked potatoes; baked apples; baked beans; some pasta dishes, such as lasagne; and various other foods, such as the pretzel.

Many domestic ovens are provided with two heating elements: one for baking, using convection and conduction to heat the food; and one for broiling or grilling, heating mainly by radiation. Meat may be baked, but is more often roasted, a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times.

The baking process does not add any fat to the product, and producers of snack products such as potato chips are also beginning to replace the process of deep-frying with baking in order to reduce the fat content of their products.


The dry heat of baking changes the structures of starches in the food and causes its outer surfaces to brown, giving it an attractive appearance and taste, while partially sealing in the food's moisture. The browning is caused by caramelization of sugars and the Maillard reaction. Moisture is never really entirely "sealed in", however; over time, an item being baked will become dry. This is often an advantage, especially in situations where drying is the desired outcome, for example in drying herbs or in roasting certain types of vegetables. The most common baked item is bread. Variations in the ovens, ingredients and recipes used in the baking of bread result in the wide variety of breads produced around the world.

Some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid (such as water or broth) in the bottom of a closed pan, and letting it steam up around the food, a method commonly known as braising.

Over time breads become hard in a process known as going stale. This is not primarily due to moisture being lost from the baked products, but more a reorganization of the way in which the water and starch are associated over time. This process is similar to recrystallization, and is promoted by storage at cool temperatures, such as those of a domestic refrigerator.


Roscheider Hof, Open Air Museum] Archaeological evidence suggests that the early Egyptians first made bread in 2600-2100 B.C. It is believed that the Egyptians learned the skill from the Babylonians. The royal bakery of Ramses featured bread and cakes, some of which were shaped in the form of animals and used for sacrifices.

Ingredients often used in baking

*Butter, margarine or other shortening
* Salt
*Leavening agents:
**Baking powder

ee also

*Baker percentage
*High altitude cooking



[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_Br17PIUhQ&feature=related Short video of kneading machine in a bakery.]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Baking — Bak ing, n. 1. The act or process of cooking in an oven, or of drying and hardening by heat or cold. [1913 Webster] 2. The quantity baked at once; a batch; as, a baking of bread. [1913 Webster] {Baking powder}, a substitute for yeast, usually… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • baking — baking; baking·ly; …   English syllables

  • Baking — Baking. См. Прокаливание. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • baking — Process of cooking by dry heat, especially in an oven. Baked products include bread, cookies, pies, and pastries. Ingredients used in baking include flour, water, leavening agents (baker s yeast, baking soda, baking powder), shortening (fats,… …   Universalium

  • baking — [[t]be͟ɪkɪŋ[/t]] ADJ: usu ADJ n You can use baking to describe weather or a place that is very hot indeed. → See also bake ...a baking July day... The coffins stood in the baking heat surrounded by mourners. ...the baking Jordanian desert. Syn:… …   English dictionary

  • baking — 1. adjective a) Intended for use in baking. Here is a baking tray for the cookies. b) Of a person, the weather, or an object, very hot. Im baking could you open the window? 2 …   Wiktionary

  • Baking — Bake Bake (b[=a]k), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Baked} (b[=a]kt); p. pr. & vb. n. {Baking}.] [AS. bacan; akin to D. bakken, OHG. bacchan, G. backen, Icel. & Sw. baka, Dan. bage, Gr. fw gein to roast.] 1. To prepare, as food, by cooking in a dry heat,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • baking — {{Roman}}I.{{/Roman}} noun Baking is used before these nouns: ↑dish, ↑flour, ↑pan, ↑potato, ↑powder, ↑sheet, ↑soda, ↑tin {{Roman}}II.{{/Roman}} adj. Baking is used with these nouns: ↑heat, ↑ …   Collocations dictionary

  • baking — bak|ing1 [ˈbeıkıŋ] n [U] the activity of making cakes, bread etc baking 2 baking2 adj spoken used to say that a person or place is very hot ▪ I m baking! ▪ a baking hot day …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • baking — bak·ing || beɪkɪŋ n. cooking with dry heat in an oven beɪk n. dish comprising of a few ingredients that are mixed together and baked; social event or party at which food is baked and served; act of baking; cooking bread or pastries or cakes… …   English contemporary dictionary

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