Type 1 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun
name=Type 1 37 mm anti-tank gun
caption= Type 1 37 mm anti-tank gun
origin=Flag|Empire of Japan
service=1941 - 1945
World War II
part_length=1.85 m (50 inches)
elevation=-10 to +36 degrees
traverse=The nihongo|Type 1 37 mm anti-tank gun|一式機動三十七粍速射砲|Isshiki Kidō sanjyūnana-miri sokushahō was an
anti-tank gundeveloped by the Imperial Japanese Army, and used in combat during World War II. [Bishop, "The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II"]
History and development
Nomonhan Incident, the shortcomings of the Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gunhad become obvious, and the Imperial Japanese Armystarted the development of a new anti-tank gun to be more effective against the new Soviet tanks. However, as a new design would take time, as an interim measure, the existing Type 94 37 mm AT gun was modified with a longer barrel to provide for greater armor penetration. As the Type 1 37 mm AT Gun, it was introduced to combat units in 1941. [Chant, Artillery of World War II. Pp. 61] . Approximately 2300 units were produced.
The Type 1 37 mm AT Gun was basically a Type 94 37 mm AT gun with a slightly longer gun barrel. [ [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/T1-37AT.htm] Taki's Imperial Japanese Army] As with the Type 94, it had a very low profile and was intended to be operated from a squat or prone position. The gun had a
gun shieldto protect the gunner. It used a semi-automatic breech block with a horizontal sliding wedge. When the gun was fired the spent shell casing was automatically ejected and upon loading a fresh shell the breech block closed automatically. A hydrospringrecoil mechanism was housed under barrel. The weapon had a split trail which opened to an angle of 60 degrees for firing to improve stability. [Chant, Artillery of World War II. Pp. 61] Transport was by towing behind a truck or horse, via two steel disc wheels fitted with sponge rubber filled tires.
The Type 1 37 mm AT Gun was available only in limited quantities, and the additional barrel length provided for only an incremental improvement in performance over the more numerous Type 94 37 mm AT gun. [MacLean. "Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics"] It was marginally effective against the Allied
M3 Stuart light tankin the Pacific War, but not against the M4 Shermanwhich was soon fielded in large numbers by the Allies. It was fielded in a wide variety of areas, but most notably Southeast Asia, and continued to be used with diminishing effectiveness until the end of World War II.
* Bishop, Chris (eds) "The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II". Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0760710228
* Chant, Chris. "Artillery of World War II", Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0760311722
*McLean, Donald B. "Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics". Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3.
* Nakanishi, Ritta "Japanese Infantry Arms in World War II", Dainipponkaiga Company 1991, ISBN 4-499-22690-2
* US Department of War, "TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces", Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0807120138
* [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/T1-37AT.htm Taki's Imperial Japanese Army]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJA/HB/HB-9.html#III US Technical Manual E 30-480]
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