Independence Day (film)
name = Independence Day
caption = "Independence Day" movie poster
Will Smith Bill Pullman Jeff Goldblum Mary McDonnell Judd Hirsch Robert Loggia Randy Quaid Margaret Colin Vivica A. Fox
Karl Walter Lindenlaub
editing = David Brenner
20th Century Fox
released = United States:
July 2, 1996
runtime = 145 min. (Theatrical)
153 min. (Special Edition)
country = United States
language = English
US$70–75 million [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=independenceday.htm "Independence Day."] "Box office mojo.com." Retrieved on September 25, 2007.] [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1071806-independence_day/ Independence Day (1996) Synopsis] "Rotten tomatoes." Retrieved on September 25, 2007.
"With a $71 million budget and mind-blowing special effects..."]
gross = Domestic:
US$306,169,268 [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=independenceday.htm "Independence Day."] "Box Office Mojo". Retrieved on December 14, 2007.]
amg_id = 1:136197
imdb_id = 0116629
"Independence Day" (also known by its promotional abbreviation "ID4") is a 1996
science fiction filmabout a hostile alien invasionof Earth, focusing on a disparate group of individuals and families as they coincidentally converge in the Nevada desertand, along with the rest of the human population, participate in a last-chance retaliation effort on July 4. It was directed by Roland Emmerich, who co-wrote the script with producer Dean Devlin.
Emmerich came up with the idea for the film when he was promoting the film "Stargate" in Europe. Devlin decided to incorporate a large-scale attack into the film after questioning why aliens would travel long distances in space to Earth just to keep hidden. The film's script was written during a month-long vacation in Mexico, and principal photography for the film began in July 1995 in
New York City. The film was officially completed on June 20, 1996.
The film was scheduled for release on July 3, 1996, but due to the high level of anticipation for the film, many theaters began showing it on the evening of July 2, 1996, the same day the action in the film begins. The movie's total worldwide gross was $816,969,268, which at one point was the second-highest worldwide gross of all-time. It currently holds the 19th highest worldwide gross for a movie all-time, and was at the forefront of the large-scale
disaster filmand science fiction resurgences of the mid-to-late-1990s.
On July 2, a giant alien mothership enters orbit around Earth and deploys several dozen saucer-shaped "destroyer" spacecraft, each convert|15|mi in width. As the destroyers take positions over some of Earth's major cities, David Levinson (
Jeff Goldblum), an MIT-graduate working for a cable company in New York City, discovers hidden satellite transmissions which he believes to be a timer counting down to a coordinated attack by the aliens. With the help of his ex-wife Constance Spano ( Margaret Colin), a White Houseemployee, he and his father Julius ( Judd Hirsch) gain entrance into the Oval Officeto warn President Thomas J. Whitmore ( Bill Pullman) of the impending attack. The President immediately orders large-scale evacuations of the targeted cities, but the aliens attack with advanced directed energy weaponsbefore these could occur. The President, portions of his staff, and the Levinsons narrowly escape aboard Air Force Oneas a destroyer lays waste to Washington D.C.
On July 3, the United States conducts a coordinated counterattack; the movie follows the Black Knights, a squadron of Marine Corps
F/A-18 Hornets, as they participate in an assault on a destroyer near the destroyed city of Los Angeles. Their weapons fail to penetrate the craft's force field, and it responds by releasing scores of smaller "attacker" ships which are similarly shielded and armed with directed-energy weapons, and a one-sided dogfightensues. Captain Steven Hiller (Will Smith) manages to survive the attack by luring a single attacker to the Grand Canyon. [cite news|title='Independence Day' Explodes with Action, Aliens|work=Mercury News|date=1996-07-02|author=Whitty, Stephen|page=1E] There, he blinds the alien with the braking parachute on his jet and ejects just before running out of fuel, causing both to crash in the desert. Having parachuted to safety, he subdues the injured alien. Hiller is picked up by Russell Casse ( Randy Quaid), who is traveling across the desert with a group of refugees in a convoy of RVs. From there they take the captured alien to nearby Area 51, commanded by Major Mitchell ( Adam Baldwin), where the President and his remaining staff have also landed. Area 51 conceals a top secret facility housing a repaired attacker and three alien bodies recovered from Roswell in 1947.
When lead scientist Dr. Brackish Okun (
Brent Spiner) removes a "bio-mechanical" suit from the alien, the specimen regains consciousness. It attempts escape and takes control of Okun's mind, killing an examination crew in the process. When questioned by President Whitmore, it reveals through a telepathic connection that its species travels from planet to planet, destroying all life and harvesting a planet's natural resources before moving on. The alien attempts a psychicattack against Whitmore but is killed by Major Mitchell. Whitmore orders a nuclear attack on all of the destroyers using B-2 Spiritbombers; the first one to be hit is the alien destroyer hovering over a deserted Houston, but this too fails to penetrate the craft's shield and destroys the city instead; as a result, the remaining bombers were called back.
On July 4, Levinson devises a plan to use the repaired attacker to gain access to the interior of the alien mothership in space in order to introduce a
computer virusand plant a nuclear missile on board. This, it is hoped, will cause the shields of the Earth-based alien craft to fail long enough for the human resistance to eliminate them. Hiller volunteers to be the mission's pilot, with Levinson accompanying him to upload the virus. With satellite communications knocked out, the Americans use Morse codeto coordinate an attack with the remaining forces around the world, timed to occur when the invaders' shields are set to fail. With not enough military pilots to man all available aircraft, the battle requires several volunteers, including President Whitmore and Russell, who both have previous combat flight experience.
With the successful implantation of the virus, President Whitmore leads the American jet fighters against an alien destroyer on approach to Area 51. Although the aliens now lack shields, the fighters' supply of missiles are quickly exhausted against the colossal craft and its large complement of assault ships. The underside of the alien craft opens up as its directed energy weapon prepares to fire on the base. Russell possesses the last remaining missile, but his firing mechanism jams; changing his plan, he pilots his aircraft into the alien weapon in a
kamikazeattack. The ensuing explosion causes a chain reaction which annihilates the ship. Human resistance forces around the world use the same weak point to destroy the remainder of the alien ships, while the nuclear device planted by Hiller and Levinson destroys the alien mothership soon after the duo escape. Hiller and Levinson return unharmed, crash-landing their captured alien fighter in the desert close to Area 51. The film ends as the main characters watch debris from the mothership enter the atmosphere like shooting stars.
Cast and characters
Will Smithas Captain Steven Hiller: An assured US Marine CorpsF/A-18 pilot at the forefront of the human resistance counter-offensive. His ambition before the alien attack is to join NASA's astronauttraining program. Devlin and Emmerich had always envisioned an African-American for the role,cite news | author = Kenneth Turan| title = Independence Day review | publisher = Los Angeles Times| date = 1996-07-02| url =http://www.calendarlive.com/movies/reviews/cl-movie960716-1,2,1312906.story | accessdate = 2008-07-08] and specifically wanted to cast Smith after seeing his performance in "Six Degrees of Separation". [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 36.]
Bill Pullmanas President Thomas J. Whitmore: A former Persian Gulf War fighter pilot and current President of the United Stateswhose approval ratings early in the film indicate the nation's dissatisfaction with his performance. To prepare for the role, Pullman read "The Commanders" by Bob Woodwardand watched the documentary film " The War Room". [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 32.]
Jeff Goldblumas David Levinson: An MIT-educated computer expert who is a chessenthusiast and environmentalist, working as a satellite technician for a cable television company in New York City when he discovers the aliens' invasion plot. He still has strong feelings for his ex-wife and later formulates a plan to defeat the invaders.
Mary McDonnellas First Lady Marilyn Whitmore: The wife of President Whitmore, who is wounded while fleeing the destruction of Los Angelesand later dies of her injuries.
Judd Hirschas Julius Levinson: A cigar-smoking Jewish immigrantand widowed father of David Levinson, whom he loves but also teases by referring to him as a cable repairman.
Robert Loggiaas General William Grey: A US Marine Corps general who is the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and one of President Whitmore's most trusted advisors. Loggia modeled the character after the generals of World War II, particularly George Patton. [ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 42.]
Randy Quaidas Russell Casse: A widowed, alcoholic crop dusterand veteran Vietnam Warpilot who claims to have been an alien abductee ten years prior to the events of the film. He struggles to care for his three children, the eldest of whom shows little respect for him.
Margaret Colinas Constance Spano: The White House Communications Directorand David's ex-wife. Though she still loves David she feels that he is underachieving, and divorced him to pursue her career alongside President Whitmore.
Vivica A. Foxas Jasmine Dubrow: A single mother, Steve's girlfriend and exotic dancer. She searches for fellow survivors in the aftermath of the Los Angeles attacks, finding the First Lady in the process.
James Rebhornas Albert Nimziki: The Secretary of Defenseand former director of the CIA. Rebhorn described the character as being much like Oliver North. [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 44.] The character's eventual firing lampoons Joe Nimziki,cite news | author = Stephen Galloway | title = Affleck's Schedule Busies After 'Harbor' | publisher = "bnet.com" | date = 2001-07-04| url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_23_23/ai_75648237 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060320090432/http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_23_23/ai_75648237 | archivedate=2006-03-20| accessdate = 2008-09-06] who was MGM's head of advertising and reportedly accounted for unpleasant experiences for Devlin and Emmerich when studio executives forced recuts of "Stargate".cite news | author = Rebecca Ascher-Walsh | title = SPACE UNDER FIRE | publisher = Entertainment Weekly| date = 1996-07-12| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293332,00.html | accessdate =2008-07-08 ]
Harvey Fiersteinas Marty Gilbert: David's flamboyant boss who is killed during the alien attack on New York City.
Adam Baldwinas Major Mitchell: A US Air Forceveteran who is the Commanding Officerat Area 51.
Brent Spineras Dr. Brackish Okun: The scientist in charge of research at Area 51. He is later killed by a captured alien. The character's appearance and verbal style are based upon those of visual effects supervisor Jeffrey A. Okun, who Emmerich had worked with on "Stargate". [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 45.]
Harry Connick, Jr.as Captain Jimmy Wilder: The best friend of Steve and fellow pilot, he is killed while fleeing a failed attack on an alien spacecraft. Connick took over the part for Matthew Perry, who was originally cast in the role. [http://www.digitallyobsessed.com/showreview.php3?ID=204 Independence Day (1996)] "digitallyobsessed.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.]
Kiersten Warrenas Tiffany: A friend of Jasmine and fellow stripper. She wants to go up on the First Interstate World Center to greet the aliens. Despite Jasmine's requests to not go, Tiffany goes anyway and is one of the first to be killed in the destruction of Los Angeles.
The idea for the film came when Emmerich and Devlin were in Europe promoting their film "Stargate". A reporter asked Emmerich why he made a movie with content like "Stargate" if he did not believe in aliens. Emmerich stated that he was still fascinated by the idea of an alien arrival, and further explained his response by asking the reporter to imagine what it would be like to wake up one morning and discover that 15-mile-wide spaceships were hovering over the largest cities in the world. Emmerich then turned to Devlin and said "I think I have an idea for our next film."DVD commentary] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 8.] [http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,292721,00.html The 1996 Summer Movie Preview: July] "Entertainment Weekly". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.]
Emmerich and Devlin decided to expand on the idea by incorporating a large-scale attack, with Devlin saying he was bothered by the fact that "for the most part, in alien invasion movies, they come down to Earth and they're hidden in some back field ... [o] r they arrive in little spores and inject themselves into the back of someone's head."Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 93.] Emmerich agreed by asking Devlin that if arriving from across the galaxy, "would you hide on a farm or would you make a big entrance?" The two wrote the script during a month-long vacation in
Mexico, and just one day after sending it out for consideration, Twentieth Century Foxchairman Peter Chernin greenlit the screenplay. Pre-production began just three days later in February 1995. The United States military was originally intended to provide personnel, vehicles, and costumes for the film; however, they backed out when the producers refused to remove the Area 51 references from the script.
A then-record 3,000-plus special effects shots would ultimately be required for the film. The shoot utilized on-set, in-camera special effects more often than computer-generated effects in an effort to save money and get more authentic pyrotechnic results. Many of these shots were accomplished at
Hughes Aircraftin Culver City, California, where the film's art department, motion control photographyteams, pyrotechnicsteam, and model shop were headquartered. The production's model-making department built more than twice as many miniatures for the production than had ever been built for any film before by creating miniatures for buildings, city streets, aircraft, landmarks, and monuments. [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72.] The crew also built miniatures for several of the spaceships featured in the movie, including a 30-foot (9.1 m) destroyer model [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 54.] and a version of the mother ship spanning convert|12|ft. [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 121.] City streets were recreated, then tilted upright beneath a high-speed camera mounted on a scaffolding filming downwards. An explosion would be ignited below the model, and flames would rise towards the camera, engulfing the tilted model and creating the rolling "wall of destruction" look seen in the film. [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 78.] A model of the White Housewas also created, covering convert|10|ft by convert|5|ft, and was used in forced-perspective shots before being destroyed in a similar fashion for its own destruction scene.Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 82.] The detonation took a week to plan and required 40 explosive charges.
The aliens in the film were designed by production designer
Patrick Tatopoulos. The actual aliens of the film are diminutive and based on a design Tatopoulos drew when tasked by Emmerich to create an alien that was "both familiar and completely original". [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 86.] These creatures wear "bio-mechanical" suits that are based on another design Tatopoulos pitched to Emmerich. These suits were convert|8|ft tall, equipped with 25 tentacles, and purposely designed to show that it could not sustain a person inside so that it would not appear to be a "man in a suit".Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 91.] Principal photographybegan in July 1995 in New York City. A second unit gathered plate shots and establishing shots of Manhattan, Washington D.C., an RV community in Flagstaff, Arizona, and the Very Large Arrayon the Plains of San Agustin, New Mexico. The main crew also filmed in nearby Cliffside Park, New Jerseybefore moving to the former Kaiser Steel mill in Fontana, Californiato film the post-attack Los Angeles sequences. [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 62.] The production then moved to Wendover, Utahand West Wendover, Nevada, [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 104.] where the deserts doubled for Imperial Valleyand the Wendover Airportdoubled for the El Toro and Area 51 exteriors. [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 96.] It was here where Pullman filmed his pre-battle speech. Immediately before filming the scene, Devlin and Pullman decided to add "Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!" to the end of the speech. At the time, the production was nicknamed "ID4" because Warner Bros.owned the rights to the title "Independence Day", and Devlin had hoped that if Fox executives noticed the addition in dailies, the impact of the new dialogue would help them win the rights to the title. The right to use the title was eventually won two weeks later.
The production team moved to the
Bonneville Salt Flatsto film three scenes, then returned to California to film in various places around Los Angeles, including Hughes Aircraft where sets for the cable company and Area 51 interiors were constructed at a former aircraft plant. Sets for the latter included corridors containing windows that were covered with blue material. The filmmakers originally intended to use the chroma keytechnique to make it appear as if activity was happening on the other side of the glass; but the composited images were not added to the final print because production designers decided that the blue panels gave the sets a "clinical look". [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 98.] The attacker hangar set contained an attacker mock-up convert|65|ft wide [Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72.] that took four months to build. The White House interior sets used had already been built for " The American President" and had previously been used for "Nixon". Principal photography completed on November 3, 1995.
The movie originally depicted Russell Casse being rejected as a volunteer for the July 4 aerial counteroffensive because of his alcoholism. He then uses a stolen missile tied to his red biplane to carry out his suicide mission. According to Dean Devlin, test audiences responded well to the scene's irony and comedic value. However, the scene was re-shot to include Russell's acceptance as a volunteer, his crash course in modern fighter aircraft, and him flying an F-18 instead of the bi-plane. Devlin preferred the alteration because the viewer now witnesses Russell ultimately making the decision to sacrifice his life, and that seeing the biplane keeping pace and flying amongst F-18s was "just not believable". [ [http://www.amazon.ca/dp/B00003Q43A "Independence Day."] "amazon.ca". Retrieved on March 4, 2008.] The film was officially completed on June 20, 1996.
While the film was still in post-production, 20th Century Fox began a massive marketing campaign to help promote the film, beginning with the airing of a dramatic commercial during
Super Bowl XXX, for which Fox paid $1.3 million. [ [http://www.uwec.edu/newsreleases/highlights/011205superbowl.htm "UW-Eau Claire Marketing Researchers Study Super Bowl Ad Successes."] "University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire". Retrieved on October 1, 2007.] The resulting success of the film at the box office resulted in the trend of using Super Bowl air time to kick off the advertising campaign for potential blockbusters. [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=1703&p=.htm Analysis: Super Bowl Movie Ads Lack Luster] "boxofficemojo.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] cite news | author = Rick Romell | title = Ads the real stars of Super Bowl | publisher = Milwaukee Journal Sentinel| date = 2007-01-27| url = http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=557839 | accessdate = 2008-07-08]
Fox's Licensing and Merchandising division also entered into co-promotional deals with
Apple Inc.The co-marketing project was dubbed "The Power to Save the World" campaign, in which the company used footage of David using his PowerBooklaptop in their print and television advertisements. [http://www.informedusa.com/t/independanceday.html Apple Ties in With 20th Century Fox "Independence Day] "The online Macinstuff Times". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] Trendmastersentered a merchandising deal with the film's producers to create a line of tie-intoys.cite news | author = Kenneth M. Chanko | title = Independence Play | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = 1996-07-12| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293331,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-08] In exchange for product placement, Fox also entered into co-promotional deals with Molson Coors Brewing Companyand Coca-Cola. [ [http://www.movie-moron.com/?p=544 Top Ten: Most Shameless Uses Of Product Placement In Film] "movie-moron.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.]
The movie was marketed with several taglines, including: "We've always believed we weren't alone. On July 4, we'll wish we were", "Earth. Take a good look. It could be your last", and "Don't make plans for August". The weekend before the film's release, the Fox Network aired a half-hour special on the movie, the first third of which was a spoof news report on the events that happen in the film.
Roger Ebertattributed most of the film's early success to its teaser trailers and marketing campaigns, acknowledging them as "truly brilliant". [http://bventertainment.go.com/tv/buenavista/ebertandroeper/index2.html?sec=6&subsec=independence+day "Ebert & Roeper".] "atthemovies.tv". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] The film had its official premiere held at the now-defunct Mann Plaza Theater in Los Angeles on June 25, 1996.cite news | author = Todd McCarthy | title = Independence Day Review | publisher = Variety | date = 1996-07-01| url = http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117905388.html?categoryid=31&cs=1 | accessdate = 2008-07-08] It was then screened privately at the White House for President Bill Clintonand his familycite news | author = Richard Corliss| title = THE INVASION HAS BEGUN! | publisher = TIME | date = 1996-07-08| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,984815,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-08] before receiving a nationwide release in the United States on July 2, 1996, a day earlier than its previously scheduled opening.cite news | author = Mick LaSalle| title = Declaration of "Independence" | publisher = San Francisco Chronicle| date = 1996-07-02| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/1996/07/02/DD57773.DTL | accessdate = 2008-03-04]
Author Stephen Molstad wrote a
tie-innovel to help promote the film shortly before its release. The novel goes into further detail on the characters, situations, and overall concept not explored in the film. The novel presents the finale of the film as originally scripted, with the character played by Randy Quaidstealing a missile and roping it to his crop duster biplane. Following the success of the film, a prequelnovel entitled "Independence Day: Silent Zone" was written by Molstad in February 1998. [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0061058270 "Independence Day: Silent Zone Product Details."] "Amazon.com". Retrieved on October 8, 2007.] The novel is set in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and details the early career of Dr. Brackish Okun. [ [http://www.biblio.com/isbn/0061058270.html "Independence Day: Silent Zone by Stephen Molstad Publisher's Notes."] "Biblio.com". Retrieved on October 8, 2007.] Molstad wrote a third novel, "Independence Day: War in the Desert" in July 1999. The novel is both a midqueland sequelto the film. Set in Saudi Arabiaon July 3, it centers around Captain Cummins and Colonel Thompson, the two Royal Air Forceofficers seen receiving the Morse codemessage in the film.
On August 4, 1996,
BBC Radio 1broadcast the one-hour play " Independence Day UK", written, produced, and directed by Dirk Maggs, a spin-offdepicting the alien invasion from a British perspective. [http://www.dswilliams.co.uk/dirk%20maggs/Independence%20Day%20Dirk%20Maggs.htm "Independence Day UK."] "dswilliams.co.uk". Retrieved on September 25, 2007.] None of the original cast were present. Dean Devlin gave Maggs permission to produce an original version, on condition that he did not reveal certain details of the movie's plot and that the British were not depicted as saving the day. "Independence Day UK" was set up to be similar to the 1938 radio broadcast of "The War Of The Worlds"; the first 20 minutes were set as being live.
An "Independence Day" video game was released in February 1997 for the
PlayStation, Sega Saturn, and PC, each version receiving mostly timid reviews. [ [http://www.gamespot.com/search.html?type=11&stype=all&tag=search%3Bbutton&om_act=convert&om_clk=gssearch&qs=independence+day "Search results for 'independence day'."] " GameSpot". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] [ [http://search.ign.com/products?query=independence+day Independence Day] " IGN". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] The multi-view shooter game contains various missions to perform, with the ultimate goal of destroying the aliens' primary weapon. A wireless mobile version was released in 2005. A computer game entitled " ID4 Online" was released in 2000.
After a six-week, $30 million marketing campaign, "Independence Day" was released on
VHSon November 22, 1996. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4360/is_199609/ai_n15228087 Independence Day blitz.] "HighBeam Research". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] It became available on DVDon June 27, 2000, and has been re-released on DVD under several different versions with varying supplemental material ever since, including a release as part of 20th Century Fox's "Five Star Collection", a Limited Edition, Collector's Edition, a 10th Anniversary Edition, and one instance where it was packaged with a lenticular cover. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/dvd#B000O76T86 "DVD details for Independence Day."] "IMDb". Retrieved on March 4, 2008.] Often accessible on these versions is a special edition of the film, which features nine minutes of additional footage not seen in the original theatrical release. It has been packaged alongside " The Day After Tomorrow", [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/day_after_tomorrow_independence_day_dvd_2_pack/ Day After Tomorrow/ Independence Day - DVD 2 Pack (2004)] "rottentomatoes.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] " The Abyss", [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/independence_daythe_abyss_2pack/ Independence Day/The Abyss 2-Pack (1989–1996)] "rottentomatoes.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] and "I, Robot". [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/i_robotindependence_day/ I, Robot/Independence Day (2004/1996)] "rottentomatoes.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] It has also been packaged with "Chain Reaction" and "The X-Files" as part of a "Sci-Fi 3-Pack", [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/sci_fi_3_pack/ Sci-Fi 3-Pack (2005)] "rottentomatoes.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] and with "Chain Reaction", "Volcano", and "The Day After Tomorrow" as part of a "World Destruction - Box Set". [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/world_destruction_box_set/ World Destruction - Box Set] "rottentomatoes.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] "Independence Day" became available on Blu-raydiscs in the United Kingdom on December 24, 2007, [ [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B000WBZZB6 "Independence Day Blu-ray"] Amazon UK Retrieved on July 6, 2008.] and in North America on March 11, 2008. [ [http://www.blu-ray.com/movies/movies.php?id=199 "Independence Day (Blu-ray)."] "Blu-ray". Retrieved on July 5, 2008.]
"Independence Day" was the highest-grossing film of 1996. In the United States, "Independence Day" earned $104.3 million in its first full week,cite news | author = A.J. Jacobs | title = The Day After | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date =
1996-07-19| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293427,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-08] including $96.1 million during its five-day holiday opening, and $50.2 million during its opening weekend. [http://www.the-numbers.com/movies/1996/0ID4.php "Independence Day Box Office Data."] "the-numbers.com". Retrieved on March 4, 2008.] All three figures broke records set by "Jurassic Park" three years earlier. That film's sequel, "", claimed all three records when it was released the following year. "Independence Day" stayed in the number one spot for three weeks, and would gross $306,169,268 in the domestic market and $510,800,000 in foreign markets. The movie's total worldwide gross was $816,969,268, which at one point was the second-highest worldwide gross of all-time. [ [http://www.10000bcmovie.com/ "William Fay Bio."] "www.10000bcmovie.com". Retrieved on March 4, 2008.] It currently holds the 19th highest worldwide gross for a movie all-time, and was at the forefront of the large-scale disaster filmand science fiction resurgences of the mid-to-late-1990s.
A month after the film's release, jewelry designers and marketing consultants reported an increased interest in
dolphin-themed jewelry, due to the fact that the character of Jasmine in the film wears dolphin earrings and is presented with a wedding ring that features a gold dolphin.cite news | author = Degen Pener | title = Day of the Dolphin | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = 1996-08-09| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293634,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-08]
"Independence Day" is ranked as "fresh" on
Rotten Tomatoeswith a 62% positive rating, with 20 out of 32 critics giving it positive reviews. [ [http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1071806-independence_day/ "Independence Day (1996) Also known as: "ID4"."] "Rotten Tomatoes". Retrieved on October 16, 2007.] It has a metascore of 59 (based on 18 reviews) on Metacritic. [http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/independenceday?q=Independence%20Day "Independence Day."] "Metacritic". Retrieved on October 16, 2007.] Critics acknowledged that the film had "cardboard" and "stereotypical" characters,cite news | author = Kevin McManus | title = A Sci-Fi Flash in the Pan | publisher = Washington Post| date = 1996-07-05| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/review96/independencedaymcman.htm | accessdate = 2008-07-08] cite news | author = Schwarzbaum | title = Independence Day (1996) | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = 1996-07-12| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293279,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-08] cite news | author = David Ansen| title = Independence Day | publisher = Newsweek| date = 1996-07-08| url = http://www.msnbc.com/m/nw/a/m/mv_i.asp#Independence%20Day | accessdate = 2008-07-08] and weak dialogue.cite news | author = Gary Susman | title = Apocalypse Wow | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = 2004-05-25| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,641738_7,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-08] cite news | author = Barbara Shulgasser | title = THESE SCENES ARE SELF-EVIDENT | publisher = San Francisco Examiner| date = 1996-07-02| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/e/a/1996/07/02/STYLE6573.dtl | accessdate = 2008-07-08] cite news | author = Marc Savlov | title = Independence Day | publisher = Austin Chronicle| date = 1996-07-08| url = http://www.austinchronicle.com/gyrobase/Calendar/Film?Film=oid%3a138121 | accessdate = 2008-07-08] The shot of the White House's destruction has been declared a milestone in visual effects and one of the more memorable scenes of the 1990s. [ [http://www.filmsite.org/visualeffects16.html Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones.] "filmsite.org". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] [http://www.filmsite.org/90sintro3.html Film History of the 1990s] "filmsite.org". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] Mick LaSalleof the " San Francisco Chronicle" gave the film his highest rating, declaring it the "apotheosis" of "Star Wars". Lisa Schwarzbaum of " Entertainment Weekly" gave it a B+ for living up to its massive hype, adding that "charm is the foremost of this epic's contemporary characteristics. The script is witty, knowing, cool." Eight years later, "Entertainment Weekly" would rate the movie as one of the best disaster movies of all-time. Kenneth Turanof the " Los Angeles Times" felt that the movie did an "excellent job conveying the boggling immensity of [the] extraterrestrial vehicles [...] and panic in the streets" and the scenes of the alien attack were "disturbing, unsettling and completely convincing".
The nationalistic overtones of the film were widely criticized by foreign reviewers. "Movie Review UK" described the film as "A mish-mash of elements from a wide variety of alien invasion movies and gung-ho American
jingoism." [cite web|accessdate=2008-09-04|url=http://www.film.u-net.com/Movies/Reviews/Independence_Day.html|title=Independence Day (1996) |publisher=Movie Reviews UK ] The speech in which Whitmore states that victory in the coming war would see the entire world henceforth describe July 4 as its independence day, was described as "the most jaw-droppingly pompous soliloquy ever delivered in a mainstream Hollywoodmovie" in a BBCireview. [cite web|accessdate=2008-09-06|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2000/12/18/independence_day_1996_review.shtml|title=Independence Day (1996) |publisher=BBC|date=2000-12-18|author=Smith, Neil ] In 2003, readers of the United Kingdom's most popular movie magazine "Empire" voted the scene that contained the speech as the "Cheesiest Movie Moment of All-Time". [http://www.filmsite.org/worstquotes.html Top 10 Worst Quotes or Lines From the Movies] "filmsite.org". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] Conversely, "Empire" critic Kim Newman gave the film a five-star rating in the magazine's original review of the film.
Several prominent critics expressed disappointment with the quality of "Independence Day's" much-hyped special effects. "Newsweek's"
David Ansen, claimed the "special effects [were] no improvement on anything George Lucasdid (with "Star Wars")". Todd McCarthy of "Variety" felt the production's budget-conscious approach resulted in "cheesy" shots that were no comparison to "the cutting-edge perfection of effects in Cameron and Spielberg films". Roger Ebertcited a lack of imagination in the spaceship and creature designs as one of the reasons for his marginally negative review,cite news | author = Roger Ebert| title = Independence Day | publisher = Chicago Sun-Times| date = 1996-07-02| url = http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19960702/REVIEWS/607020301/1023 | accessdate = 2008-07-08] and Gene Siskelexpressed the same sentiments in their on-air review of the movie.
Despite this, the movie won the
Academy Award for Visual Effects, [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/awards "Awards for Independence Day."] "IMDb". Retrieved on September 29, 2007.] beating "Twister" and " Dragonheart". It was also nominated for an Academy Award for Best Sound but lost to "The English Patient". [ [http://awardsdatabase.oscars.org/ampas_awards/SessionTimeout.jsp;jsessionid=8673D2F21BBA78D6B5F285F9A1A10839.squash "Academy Awards Database."] "awardsdatabase.oscars.org". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] Composer David Arnold won a Grammy Awardfor his work on the film. [cite web|accessdate=2008-09-05|url=http://www.bmi.com/musicworld/entry/200085|title=David Arnold’s Scores Boost Bond Films |publisher=BMI|date=2002-12-16|author=Burlingame, Jon ] The movie also won an Amanda Award for Best Foreign Feature Film. Viewers voted for "Independence Day" to receive an MTV Movie Awardfor Best Kiss, [ [http://www.mtv.com/ontv/movieawards/1997/ "1997 MTV Movie Awards."] "mtv.com". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] and a People's Choice Awardfor Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture. [ [http://www.pcavote.com/pca/history.jsp?year=1997 "People's Choice Awards Past Winners".] People's Choice. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] It received Saturn Awards for Best Director, Best Science Fiction Film, and Best Special Effects [ [http://www.saturnawards.org/past.html "Past Saturn Awards".] "saturnawards.org". Retrieved on July 8, 2008.] The film was awarded Best Film Editing and Best Visual Effects at the first annual Golden Satellite Awardceremony.
The possibility of a sequel had long been discussed, [http://www.scifi.com/scifiwire/art-main.html?2002-05/06/13.00.film "ID4 II" Is In The Works."] "Sci Fi.com". Retrieved on November 5, 2007.] and Devlin once stated that the world's reaction to the
September 11th attacksinfluenced him to strongly consider making a sequel to the film. [http://www.mania.com/saturn-exclusive-dean-devlin-independence-day-2_article_34986.html "Saturn Exclusive: Dean Devlin on Independence Day 2."] "Mania Movies". Retrieved on November 5, 2007.] [http://movies.ign.com/articles/365/365034p1.html "An Interview with Dean Devlin."] "ign.com". Retrieved on November 18, 2007] Devlin began writing an outline for a script with Emmerich, [http://www.scifi.com/scifiwire/art-main.html?2003-05/01/12.15.film ID4 II Script In Works] "Sci Fi.com". Retrieved on November 11, 2007.] but in May 2004, Emmerich said that he and Devlin had attempted to "figure out a way how to continue the story", but that this ultimately did not work. No serious discussions in planning a sequel have been in the works since. [ [http://www.scifi.com/scifiwire/art-main.html?2004-05/06/10.00.film "Emmerich Nixes ID4 Sequel."] "Sci-Fi Wire", May 6, 2004. Retrieved on January 28, 2008.]
* Aberly, Rachel and Volker Engel. "The Making of Independence Day". New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1996. ISBN 0-06-105359-7.
* [http://www.sciflicks.com/independence_day/ Independence Day on sciflicks.com]
* [http://www.americanrhetoric.com/MovieSpeeches/moviespeechindependenceday.html Link to Bill Pullman's Speech in Text and Audio (americanrhetoric.com)]
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