Lord George Gordon
Lord George Gordon (
26 December, 1751– 12 November, 1793) was a politicianin the United Kingdombest known for lending his name to the so-called " Gordon Riots" of 1780. A colourful personality, he was born into the Scottish nobility and became a member of parliament for Ludgershall. His life ended after a number of controversies, notably one surrounding his conversion to Judaismfor which he was ostracised. He died in prison.
George Gordon was born in
London, England, third and youngest son of Cosmo George Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon, and the brother of Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon. After completing his education at Eton, he entered the Royal Navy, where he rose to the rank of lieutenantin 1772. Lord Sandwich, then at the head of the Admiralty, would not promise him the command of a ship however, and he resigned his commission shortly before the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. In 1774 the pocket boroughof Ludgershall was bought for him by General Fraser, whom he was opposing in Inverness-shire, in order to bribe him not to contest the county. He was considered flighty, and was not looked upon as being of any importance.
The "Gordon Riots"
In 1779 he organised, and made himself head of, the
Protestantassociations, formed to secure the repeal of the Catholic Relief Act of 1778. On June 2, 1780he headed a mob that marched in procession from St George's Fieldsto the Houses of Parliamentin order to present a huge petitionagainst (partial Catholic) Emancipation. After the mob reached Westminster the " Gordon Riots" began. Initially, the mob dispersed after threatening to force their way into the House of Commons, but reassembled soon afterwards and, over several days, destroyed several Roman Catholicchapels, pillaged the private dwellings of Catholics, set fire to Newgate Prison, broke open all the other prisons, and attacked the Bank of Englandand several other public buildings. The army was finally brought in to quell the unrest and killed or wounded around 450 people before they finally restored order. For his role in instigating the riots, Lord Gordon was charged with high treason.
Thanks to a strong defence by his cousin, [Yirmeyanu Bindman "Lord George Gordon", 1991, Cis Communications, pp.96-97 ISBN 1-56062-056-0, LOC 90-86061: "chose... his own cousin Thomas Erskine, another Scottish nobleman, close to him in age and in many other respects, whose charm of manner and firm religious beliefs had already made a strong impression in the legal world and in society generally."] Baron Thomas Erskine, he was acquitted on the grounds that he had no treasonable intent.
In 1786 he was
excommunicatedby the archbishop of Canterburyfor refusing to bear witness in an ecclesiastical suit; and in 1787 he was convicted of defaming Marie Antoinette, the French ambassador and the administration of justice in England. He was, however, permitted to withdraw from the court without bail, and made his escape to the Netherlands. On account of representations from the court of Versailleshe was commanded to leave that country, and, returning to England, was apprehended, and in January 1788 was sentenced to five years imprisonment in Newgate and some harsh additional conditions [p.179, Lord George Gordon, by Y.Bindman, 1992, ISBN 1-56062-056-0, LOC 90-86061: "The judge had been well briefed on the circumstances of the case, and he was in no mood to be lenient. He ordered a total of five years in prison, with a fine of five hundred pounds and a pledge of ten thousand pounds as security for his good behavior for fourteen years, plus two more separate sureties of two thousand five hundred pounds each."
(It was these additionals sums of money -- 15,000 pounds -- that would prove to be the basis of a life sentence: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_George_Gordon#Death|death] )] .
Conversion to Judaism
In 1787, at the age of 36, Lord George Gordon converted to
Judaismin Birmingham, something unheard of in the England of his day. He took the name of "Yisrael bar Avraham Gordon" ("Israel son [of] Abraham" Gordon -- since Judaism regards a convert as the spiritual "son" of the Biblical Abraham) and underwent brit milah("circumcision"). Gordon thus became what Judaism regards as, and Jews call, a "Ger Tsedek"—a righteous convert.
Not much is known about his life as a Jew in Birmingham, but the "Bristol Journal" of Dec. 15, 1787 reported that Gordon had been living in Birmingham since August, 1786 (its incorrect perceptions and interpretations of Judaism notwithstanding):...
While in jail, Gordon lived the life of an Orthodox Jew, and he adjusted his prison life to his circumstances. He put on his "
tzitzit" and " tefillin" daily. He fasted when the " halakha" (Jewish law) prescribed it, and likewise celebrated the Jewish holidays. He had kosher meat and wine, and " Shabbatchallos". The prison authorities permitted him to have a minyanon Shabbat and to affix a mezuzato his room. The Ten Commandmentswere also hung on his wall for Shabbat to transform the room into a synagogue.
Lord George Gordon associated only with pious Jews; in his passionate enthusiasm for his new faith, he refused to deal with any Jew who compromised the
Torah's commandments. Although any non-Jew who desired to visit Gordon in prison (and there were many) was welcome, he requested that the prison guards admit Jews only if they had beards and wore head coverings.
He would often, in keeping with Jewish chesed (Mercy and Charity) Law, go into other parts of the prison to comfort prisoners by speaking with them and playing the violin. In keeping with "
tzedaka" (Charity) laws, he gave what little money he could to those in need. Charles Dickens, in his novel " Barnaby Rudge", which centres around the "Gordon" riots of 1780, describes Gordon as a true " Tzadik" (Pious Man) among the prisoners as follows:
On the 28th of January, 1793, Lord George Gordon's sentence expired and he had to appear to give claim to his future good behaviour. When appearing in court he was ordered to remove his hat, which he refused to do. The hat was then taken from him by force, but he covered his head with a night cap and bound it with a handkerchief. He defended his behaviour concerning his "
kippah" by quoting the Hebrew Bible"in support of the propriety of the creature having his head covered in reverence to the Creator." Before the court, he read a written statement in which he claimed that "he had been imprisoned for five years among murderers, thieves, etc., and that all the consolation he had arose from his trust in God."
Since he had brought as guarantors two Jews, whom the court would not accept as witnesses, Gordon was again remanded to his prison cell. Although his brothers, the 4th Duke of Gordon and Lord William (the future Vice-Admiral), and his sister, Lady Susan, offered to cover his bail, Gordon refused their help, saying that to "sue for pardon was a confession of guilt."
In October of the same year, Gordon caught the
typhoid feverthat had been raging in Newgate throughout 1793. Christopher Hibbert, another biographer, writes that scores of prisoners waited outside his door for news about his health; friends, regardless of the risk of infection, stood whispering in the room and praying for his recovery - but George "Yisrael bar Avraham" Gordon died on November 1, 1793, 26 Mar-Cheshvan 5554, at the age of 42.
Gordon's life story can be found in "Lord George Gordon", by Yirmeyanu Bindman, 1992, ISBN 1-56062-056-0, LOC 90-86061, which has a 15 item
Bibliographyand a brief Glossaryof Jewish religious terms used in the 203+ page book.
A serious defence is undertaken in "The Life of Lord George Gordon, with a Philosophical Review of his Political Conduct", by
Robert Watson, M.D. (London, 1795). The best accounts of Lord George Gordon are to be found in the Annual Registers from 1780 to the year of his death.
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