Guido von List
Guido Karl Anton List, better known as Guido von List (
October 5, 1848, in Vienna, – May 17, 1919, in Berlin), was a highly respected Austrian/German (Viennese) poet, journalist, writer, businessman and dealer of leather goods, mountaineer, hiker, dramatist, playwright, and rower, but was most notable as an occultist and "völkisch" author who is seen as one of the most important figures in Germanic revivalism, Germanic mysticism, Runic Revivalism and Runosophyin the late 19th century and early 20th century, and continues to be so today.
He is the author of "
Das Geheimnis der Runen" ("The Secret of the Runes"), which is a detailed study of the Armanen Futharkh, his intellectual world-view (as realised in the years between 1902 and 1908), an introduction to the rest of his work and is widely regarded as the pioneering work of Runologyin modern occultism of which Dr. Stephen E. FlowersPh.D. has stated in his introduction to the English translation that "The runes became the cornerstone of List's ideology, and no other work so clearly and simply outlines his ideas on them."
Guido von List was born in
Viennain the Austrian Empireto Karl Anton List, a prosperous middle class leather goods dealer, and Maria List ( néeKillian). He grew up in the Leopoldstadtdistrict of Vienna. Like the majority of his fellow Austrians at that time, his family was Roman Catholic, and he was christened "Guido Anton List" as an infant in St Peter's Church in Vienna on October 81848.
In 1862 a visit to the catacombs beneath the
Stephansdom(St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna) made a deep impression, and List regarded the catacombs as a pagan shrine. As an adult he claimed he had then sworn to build a temple to Wotan when he grew up. This he recounted in volume 2 (page 592-593) of his book " Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder":
Despite these artistic and mystical leanings, Guido was expected, as the eldest child, to follow in his father's footsteps as a businessman. He appears to have fulfilled his responsibilities in a dutiful manner, but he took any and all opportunities to develop his more intense mystical and naturesque interests. The trips that List had to make for business purposes gave him the opportunity to indulge his passion for hiking and mountaineering. This activity seems to have provided a matrix for his early mysticism.
His father died in 1877 when List was 29 years old. It appears that neither he nor his mother had his father's keen sense of business, and as economic times became difficult List quit the family business to devote himself full time to his writing, at this time still of a journalistic kind.
During this time List wrote articles for newspapers, such as the
Neue Welt(New World), Neue deutsche Alpenzeitung(New German Alpine Newspaper), Heimat(Homeland), and the Deutsche Zeitung (German Newspaper), which dealt with his earlier travels and mystical reflections on the Loci (land spirits). Many of these written newspaper articles were anthologised in 1891 in his famous " Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder". He also had articles appear in the " Leipziger Illustrierte Zeitung"and on a regular basis in the newspaper " Ostdeutsche Rundschau" (East German Review), owned by the powerful publicist and parliamentary deputy Karl Heinrich Wolf. At this time he also came to know well Georg von Schonerer, a leading political figure and Pan-German member of the Imperial Parliament.
He also had many articles appear in periodicals such as "
Laufers Allgemeine Kunst-Chronik", " Der Sammler", " Das Zwanzigste Jahrhundert", " Die Gnosis", " Der Deutsche", " Neue Metaphysische Rundschau", " Die Nornen", " Österreichische Illustrierte Rundschau" and Johannes Balzli's occult magazine " Prana".
In 1878 List married his first wife,
Helene Föster-Peters. However, the marriage was not to last through this difficult period.
Through the years 1877–1887 List was also working on his first book-length (two-volume) effort, "Carnuntum", an historical novel based on his vision of the
Kulturkampfbetween the Germanic and Roman worlds centred at Carnuntumaround the year 375 CE that was published in 1888 by the Wannieck family's organisation and publishing house Verein "Deutsche Haus"("German House" Association) [ [http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=%22Deutsche+Haus%22+%22Friedrich+Wannieck%22&meta= "Deutsche Haus" "Friedrich Wannieck" - Google Search ] at www.google.co.uk] [ [http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=%22Deutsche+Haus%22+Verein+wannieck&meta= "Deutsche Haus" Verein wannieck - Google Search ] at www.google.co.uk] in Brno, where List made the acquaintance of the industrialist Friedrich Wannieck. This association was to prove essential to List's future development.
Throughout this period in List's life he devoted himself to writing more neo-romantic prose, such as "
Jung Diethers Heimkehr" ("Young Diether's Homecoming") in 1894 and " Pipara"in 1895. An anthology of his earlier journalism " Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder" was published in 1891, and List developed his writing skills in poetic and dramatic genres as well.
In 1892 he delivered a lecture on the ancient Germanic cult of
Wuotanto the Verein Deutsche Geschichte(German History Association), and it is said that numerous other associations allied with this one proliferated in Austria at this time. Another group, the Bund der Germanen(Germanic League), sponsored a performance of List's mythological dramatic poem, " Der Wala Erweckung" ("The Wala's Awakening") in 1894. In another performance of this drama in 1895, which was attended by over three thousand people, the part of Wala was read by Anna Wittekvon Stecky, a young actress who in August of 1899 became List's second wife.
During the years 1888–1899 List was involved with two important literary associations. In May 1891 Iduna, which had the descriptive subtitle of "Free German Society for Literature", was founded by a circle of writers around
Fritz Lemmermayer. Lemmermayer acted as a sort of "middle man" between an older generation of authors (which included Fercher von Steinwand, Joseph Tandler, Auguste Hyrtl, Ludwig von Mertens, and Josephone von Knorr) and a group of younger writers and thinkers (which included Rudolf Steiner, Marie Eugenie delle Grazie, and Karl Maria Heidt). The name Iduna was provided by List himself and is that of a North Germanic goddess of eternal youth and renewal. Richard von Kralikand Joseph Kalasanz Poestion, authors with specifically neo-Germanic leanings, were also involved in the circle. The other organisation List was involved with was the Literarische Donaugesellschaft(Danubian Literary Society), which was founded by List and Fanny Wschianskythe year the Iduna was dissolved in 1893. At this time List met Rudolf Steinerand Lanz von Liebenfelsbut his association with Liebenfels did not develop until Lanz had left the Heiligenkreuz monastery in 1899.
In August 1899, List married
Anna Wittek von Stecky.
In 1871, List's writing talents were given full rein as he became a correspondent of the "
Neue deutsche Alpenzeitung" ("New German Alpine Newspaper"), later called the " Salonblatt". He also began to edit the yearbook of the Österreichischer Alpenverein(Austrian Alpine Association), of which he became secretary in that year.
List was an ardent, enthusiastic mountaineer and hiker. On one of these adventures List came very close to losing his life. While climbing a mountain on
May 8 1871in the Großes Höllental(Larger Valley of Hell) leading up to the Raxmountain in Lower Austria, a mass of ice gave way under his feet and he fell some distance. He was apparently saved only by the fact that he had landed on a soft surface covered by a recent snowfall. In memory of his good luck and to help others, at his own expense List had the track equipped with a chain put up and officially opened by him on June 21 1871. It was also named (now called "Gaislochsteig") after him the " Guido-List-Steig" [Page 19 of Johannes Balzli"Guido v. List: Der Wiederentdecker Uralter Arischer Weisheit- Sein Leben und sein Schaffen"; the second volume of List's " Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder", page 469 and image page 523 and the introduction to the English translation of " Das Geheimnis der Runen".]
June 24, 1875, List was camping with four friends near the ruins of Carnuntum. As the 1500th anniversary of the Germanic tribes' defeat of this Roman garrison in 375, the evening carried a lot of weight for List. "Carnuntum" became the title of List's first full-length novel, published in two volumes in 1888. After its success, it was followed by two more books set in tribal Germany; "Jung Diethers Heimkehr" ("Young Diether's Homecoming", 1894) and "Pipara" (1895). These books led to List being celebrated by the pan-German movement. Around the turn of the century, he continued with several plays.
Nobility and title
Between 1903 and 1907, he began using the noble title "
von" on occasion, before finally settling on it permanently in 1907. As this was only permitted for members of the aristocracy, he faced an official enquiry. Here he produced evidence supporting his claim, which was accepted by the officials heading the inquiry. [ [http://geocities.com/fjornpim/List/controversyofVon.htm ‘Der Meister' Guido von List and the Controversy of ‘von'] by Victor Ordell L. Kasen; Balzli, pages 11-12 of "Guido v. List: Der Wiederentdecker Uralter Arischer Weisheit- Sein Leben und sein Schaffen" and Balzli, op. cit, p. 11f. The old Germanic chronicle was Gabriel Bucelinuss, "Germania Topo-Chrono-Stemmato-Graphica" (Nuremberg, 1655-78); " The Occult Roots of Nazism"by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, pages 41-42 and notes on page 232; and the English translation of " Das Geheimnis der Runen", Flowers, page 10.]
In late 1918, the 70 year old List was in poor health during the final stages of
World War Iin which the naval blockade of the Central Powerscreated food shortages in Vienna.
In the spring of 1919, at the age of 71, List and his wife set off to recuperate and meet followers at the manor house of
Eberhard von Brockhusen, a List society patron who lived at Langenin Brandenburg, Germany.
On arrival at the
Anhalter Stationat Berlin, List was too exhausted to continue the journey. After a doctor had diagnosed a lung inflammation, his health deteriorated quickly, and he died in a Berlin guesthouse on the morning of May 17 1919. He was cremated in Leipzigand his ashes laid in an urnand then buried in Vienna Central Cemetery, Zentralfriedhof, in the gravesite KNLH 413 - Vienna's largest and most famous cemetery (including the graves of Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert and Strauss.) in Vienna's 11th district of Simmering. Philipp Stauff, a Berlin journalist, good friend of List and Armanist, wrote an obituary which appeared in the " Münchener Beobachter" called "Guido von List gestorben" on May 24 1919, p. 4.
Guido von List was strongly influenced by the Theosophical thought of
Madame Blavatsky, which he blended with his own racial religious beliefs, founded upon Germanic paganism.
List called his doctrine “
Armanism” (after the " Armanen", supposedly the heirs of the sun-king, a body of priest-kings in the ancient Ario-Germanic nation). Armanism was concerned with the esoteric doctrines of the gnosis(distinct from the exoteric doctrine intended for the lower social classes, Wotanism).
List claimed that the tribal name "
Herminones" mentioned in Tacituswas a Latinized version of the German "Armanen", and named his religion the " Armanenschaft", which he claimed to be the original religion of the Germanic tribes. His conception of that religion was a form of sun worship, with its priest-kings (similar to the Icelandic " goði") as legendary rulers of ancient Germany.
List claimed that the dominance of the
Roman Catholic Churchin Austria-Hungaryconstituted a continuing occupation of the Germanic tribes by the Roman empire, albeit now in a religious form, and a continuing persecution of the ancient religion of the Germanic peoples and Celts.
This conception bears strong resemblance to many other 19th century romanticised ideas of ancient
polytheisticreligions in Europe; a comparatively similar text in the thematic elements and overall textual bias is the famous Oera Lindaforgery from the Lowlands region of western Europe.
He also believed in magical powers of the old
runes. In 1891 he claimed that heraldrywas based on the magic of the runes. In April 1903, he had sent an article concerning the alleged Aryan proto-languageto the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna. Its highlight was a mystical and occult interpretation of the runic alphabet. Although the article was rejected by the academy, it would later be expanded by List and become the basis for his entire ideology.
Among his ideological followers was
Lanz von Liebenfels. More controversially, some allege that, in his pagan-Theosophical synthesis, List developed the direct precursor of occult Nazism. His defenders counter that any influence was indirect and inconsequential; in Nazi Germany the strongest occult influence upon Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, was Brigadeführer Karl Maria Wiligutwho believed List's Armanism to be a heresy from his own ancestral religion of Irminismand had various of List's followers interned in concentration camps.
List's concept of renouncing
Christianity, a Semiticreligion intertwined with Judaism, and returning to the pagan religions of the ancient Europeans did nevertheless find some supporters within the Nazi partyand is favoured by some advocates of Neo-Nazismand White Nationalismin their turn. Germanic paganism has, as a result, been linked to Nazism since the early twentieth century — unfairly, in the eyes of many pagan revivalists.
The row of 18 so-called "
Armanen Runes", also known as the "Armanen Futharkh" came to List while in an 11 month state of temporary blindness after a cataractoperation on both eyes in 1902. This vision in 1902 allegedly opened what List referred to as his "inner eye", via which he claimed the "Secret of the Runes" was revealed to him. List stated that his Armanen Futharkh were encrypted in the Hávamál( Poetic Edda), specifically in stanzas 138 to 165, with stanzas 146 through 164 reported as being the 'song' of the 18 runes. It has been said this claim has no historical basis.
The Armanen runes are still used today by some
Ásatrúadherents who consider the Armanen runes to have some religious and/or divinatoryvalue.
List noted in his book, "The Secret of the Runes", that the "runic futharkh (= runic ABC) consisted of sixteen symbols in ancient times.".
As a side note to this, in the English translation of the work,
Stephen Flowersnotes that "(the designation futharkh is based on the first seven runes it is for this reason that the proper name is not futhark -- as it is generally and incorrectly written -- but futharkh, with the h at the end; for more about the basis of this, see the Guido von List Library number 6, The primal language of the Aryan Germanic people and their mystery language)".
Hexagonal Crystal and the Armanen Runes
List's system was allegedly based around the structure of a Hexagonal Crystal. You can shine light through a crystal at different angles and project all 18 of the Armanen runes.
List's rune row was rather rigid; while the runes of the past had had sharp angles for easy carving, his were to be carefully and perfectly made so that their shape would be a reflection of the '
frozen light', a pattern that he had found in his runes. All of his runes could be projected by shining the light through a hexagonal crystal under certain angles. Rune Hagalis so-called 'mother-rune' because its shape represents that hexagonal crystal. Karl Hans Welzstates that the "crystalline structure of quartzis the "hexagonal system" which is also one of the bases of the Runic symbolism (the hexagon with the three inscribed diameters)." and that "The hexagonal cross section of quartz and the fact that all of the 18 Sacred Futhork Runes are derived from the geometry of the hexagon is the basis of an enormous increase in crystal power when it is associated with Rune images."
Guido von List Society
A look at the signatories [A list of the signatories is printed in GLB (
Guido-List-Bücherei) 3 (1908), [p.197f] . GLB is a series (eight in total beginning in 1908) of " Ario-Germanic research reports" which were based upon his occult interpretations of ancient national Germanic culture. Six of these volumes were published by the Guido von List Society itself. The two exceptions were first published by Adolf Burdekein Switzerlandand Leipzig.] of the first announcement concerning support for a "Guido-von-List-Gesellschaft" (Guido von List Society), circa 1905, reveals that List had a following of some very prestigious people and shows that List, his ideology and his influence had widespread and significant support, including that amongst public figures in Austriaand Germany. Among some 50 signatories which endorsed the foundation of the List Society (which had an official founding ceremony on March 2 1908) were the industrialist Friedrich Wannieckand his son Friedrich Oskar Wannieck, Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels, and Karl Lueger(the mayor of Vienna). These supporters also included occultists such as Hugo Göring(editor of theosophical literature at Weimar), Harald Arjuna Grävell van Jostenoode(theosophical author at Heidelberg), Max Seiling(an esoteric pamphleteer and popular philosopher in Munich), and Paul Zillmann(editor of the Metaphysische Rundschau and master of an occult lodge in Berlin)
List's influence continued to grow and attract distinctive members after the official founding of the society in 1908. From 1908 through to 1912, new members included the deputy
Beranek(co-founder of the "Bund der Germanen" in 1894), Philipp Stauff(a Berlin journalist and later a founding member of the Germanenorden), Franz Hartmann(a leading German theosophist), Karl Heise(a leading figure in the vegetarianand mystical Mazdaznancult at Zürich), and the collective membership of the Vienna Theosophical Society.
As the list demonstrates, the growth of nationalism within Germany during the late 19th to early 20th century, culminating in the Third Reich of Nazi Germany, provided an ideal audience of people who were already predisposed to accept List's ideas and unidentifiable personal gnosis of the Armanen way. The register shows that List's ideas were acceptable to many intelligent persons drawn from the upper and middle classes of Austria and Germany. So impressed were they that these men were prepared to contribute ten crowns as an annual society subscription. The main part of the Society's assets derived from the
Wannieckfamily, which put up more than three thousand crowns at the Society's inauguration. [Membership lists are printed in GLB 2 (1908), pp. 71-4 and GLB 5 (1910), pp. 384-9. The articles of the List Society are printed in GLB 1, second edition (1923), pp. 68-78. Karl Herzog joined the society circa 1912. Karl Herzog to Philipp Stauff, letter dated February 3 1912, Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, NS26/512a.]
The Society's inner circle was called the
High Armanen Orderor "Hoher Armanen Orden".
Quotes by List
*"One must flee those places where life throbs and seek out lonely spots untouched by human hand in order to lift the magic veil of nature" ("
Deutsch-Mythologische Landschaftsbilder", 1st volume, p. 125.)
*"Now, because men of our contemporary age are caught up in the ascetic view of a life-denying religious system, but in spite of this cannot deny the primal laws of nature, a distorted morality had to be developed, which spreads hypocritical appearances over hidden actions. This has brought to a head all those outward forms of modern life, whose vacuousness and corruption are now beginning to disgust us." ("
Das Geheimnis der Runen")
*"A star is extinguished, another will begin to shine - thus it is written in the Book of Nature" ("
*List is referred to throughout "The Magic Circle", (NY: Random House; 1998) by Katherine Neville and is mentioned on page 154 of "
The Black Order", ( [n.pl.] : Orion; 2006) by James Rollins.
*List occurs as a character in "Vienna Blood" (London: Century; 2006), the second novel in the Max Liebermann series, by British author Frank Tallis.
Influential List Society signatories, circa 1905
Friedrich Wannieck, president of the publishing house Verein "Deutsche Haus"("German House" Association) [ [http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=%22Deutsche+Haus%22+%22Friedrich+Wannieck%22&meta= "Deutsche Haus" "Friedrich Wannieck" - Google Search ] at www.google.co.uk] [ [http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=%22Deutsche+Haus%22+Verein+wannieck&meta= "Deutsche Haus" Verein wannieck - Google Search ] at www.google.co.uk] in Brünn, and chairman of the Prague Iron Company and the First Brno Engineering Company (major producers of capital goods in the Habsburg empire)
Ludwig von Bernuth, health organisation chairman
Ferdinand Khull, committee member of the German Language Club
Adolf Harpf, editor of " Marburger Zeitung"
Hermann Pfister-Schwaighusen, lecturer in linguistics at Darmstadt University
Wilhelm von Pickl-Scharfenstein( Baron von Witkenberg)
Amand Freiherr von Schweiger-Lerchenfeld, editor of the popular magazine " Stein der Weisen" and a distinguished army officer
Aurelius Polzer, newspaper editor at Horn and Graz
Ernst Wachler, author and founder of an open-air Germanic theatre in the Harz Mountains
Wilhelm Rohmeder, educator at Munich
Arthur Schulz, editor of a Berlin periodical for educational reform
Friedrich Wiegerhaus, chairman of the Elberfeld branch of the powerful German Nationalist Commercial Employees' Association ( Deutschnationaler Handlungsgehilfen-Verband, or DHV)
Franz Winterstein, committee member of the German Social Party(DSP) at Kassel
Influential List Society members from 1908
Rudolf Berger, a committee member of the German Nationalist Workers' League in Vienna
Hermann Brass, chairman of the defensive League of Germans in North Moravia (est. 1886)
Dankwart Gerlach, an ardent supporter of the romantic Youth Movement
Carl Friedrich Glasenapp, biographer of Richard Wagner
Karl August Hellwig, an organiser in Kassel
Bernhard Koerner, an heraldic expert and populariser of middle-class genealogy
Josef Ludwig Reimer, Viennese author
Karl Herzog, branch chairman of the DHV in Mannheim
Arthur Weber, a theosophical editor
Karl Hilm, occult novelist
Blasius von Schemua
Notes and references
"For more information on the works of Guido von List see the section entitled "The Works of Guido von List" at the [http://geocities.com/fnrswulf/welcomeguido.htm Guido von Lost website] "
*"Das Geheimnis der Runen "("
The Secret of the Runes (book), 1908)
*"Von der Wuotanspriesterschaft "(1893)
*"Die deutsche Mythologie im Rahmen eines Kalenderjahres "(1894)
*"Der deutsche Zauberglaube im Bauwesen "(1895)
*"Jung Diethers Heimkehr "(1894)
*"Der Wala Erweckung "(1894)
*"Pipara: Die Germanin im Cäsarenpurpur "("Pipara: the Germanic Woman in the purple of the Caesars", 1895)
*"König Vannius "(1899)
*"Das Goldstück "(1903)
*"Kunstmärchen anthology: Alraunenmaren: Kultur-historische Novellen und Dichtungen aus germanischer Vorzeit "("Mandrake-Tales: Cultural-historical Novellas and Poetry from Germanic Prehistory", 1903)
Guido-List-Bücherei" (a series of works)
*"Die Armanenschaft der Ario-Germanen "("The Armanism of the Aryo-Germanic People", 1908 and 1911, 2 volumes)
*"Die Rita der Ario-Germanen "("The Rita of the Aryo-Germanic People", 1908)
*"Die Namen der Völkerstämme Germaniens und deren Deutung "("The Names of the Tribes of the People of Germania and their Interpretation; GvLB no. 4, 1909)
*"Die Religion der Ario-Germanen in ihrer Esoterik und Exoterik "("The Religion of the Aryo-Germanic People in its Esoteric and Exoteric Aspects", 1909 or 1910)
*"Die Bilderschrift der Ario-Germanen: Ario-Germanische Hierogyphik "("The Pictographic Script of the Aryo-Germanic People: Aryo-Germanic Hieroglyphics; GvLB no. 5, 1910)
*"Der Übergang vom Wuotanismus zum Christentum "("The Transition from Wuotanism to Christianity", 1911)
*"Die Ursprache der Ario-Germanen und ihre Mysteriensprache "("The Primal Language of the Aryo-Germanic People and their Mystery Language; GvLB no. 6, 1914)
*"Armanismus und Kabbala"
*cite book|author=Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas.|title=Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity|publisher=New York University Press|year=2003|id=ISBN 0-8147-3155-4
*von List, Guido (translated by
Stephen E. Flowers). " The Religion of the Aryo-Germanic Folk".
*Szanya, Anton. "Armanen, Templer, Theosophen. Die religiöse Subkultur Österreichs zwischen 1870 und 1938". ISBN 3-7065-1662-4.
The following books have detailed accounts of List's life:
*Balzli, Johannes. (1917). "Guido v. List:
Der Wiederentdecker Uralter Arischer Weisheit- Sein Leben und sein Schaffen". (Leipzig and Vienna: Guido-von-List-Gesellschaft).
*cite book|author=Flowers Ph.D., Stephen (aka Edred Thorsson).|title=The Secret of the Runes|publisher=Destiny Books|year=1988|id=ISBN 0-89281-207-9
*cite book|author=Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas.|title=
The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology|publisher=Gardners Books|year=2003|id=ISBN 1-86064-973-4 Originally published as: cite book|author=Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas.|title=The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology; The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890-1935|publisher=New York University Press|year=1992  |id=ISBN 0-8147-3060-4
The life of von List has featured in many TV documentaries on his life, occultic Germanic revivalism and the occult roots of Nazism. Some of these are as follows:
*"" (1998, directed by
Tracy Atkinsonand Joan Baran, narrated by Malcolm McDowell)
The Occult History of the Third Reich, Starring: Patrick Allen, Director: Dave Flitton
**"Adolf Hitler - Occult History Of The Third Reich"
**"The SS: Blood And Soil - Occult History Of The Third Reich"
**"Himmler The Mystic - Occult History Of The Third Reich"
**"The Enigma Of The Swastika - Occult History Of The Third Reich"
Decoding the Past", episode " The Nazi Prophecies" by the History Channel[http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/tv_guide/full_details/Conflict/programme_3089.php] [http://store.aetv.com/html/product/index.jhtml?id=74536&browseCategoryId=&location=&parentcatid=&subcatid=]
Hitler and the Occult" by the History Channel[http://store.aetv.com/html/product/index.jhtml?id=72289]
Channel 4ran a Michael Wood documentary entitled " Hitler's Search for the Holy Grail", as part of its " Secret History" series. [http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/n-s/nazimyths.html]
Rudolf John Gorsleben
Siegfried Adolf Kummer
List of Occultists
* [http://geocities.com/fnrswulf/welcomeguido.htm The Guido von List website]
* [http://geocities.com/fjornpim/List/controversyofVon.htm ‘Der Meister' Guido von List and the Controversy of ‘von']
* [http://geocities.com/fjornpim/ControversialRuneRow.htm The Armanen Futharkh: A Controversial Rune Row?]
* [http://dispatch.opac.ddb.de/DB=4.1/SET=11/TTL=1/CMD?ACT=SRCHA&IKT=8500&SRT=YOP&TRM=Guido+von+List Works by and about Guido von List] in the
German National Librarycatalogue
* [http://geocities.com/fjornpim/Glossary.htm Armanenschaft glossary]
* [http://nsl-archiv.com/Buecher/suche.php?text=guido+list&submit=+Suche+ PDF-books from Guido von List. Mainly German]
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Guido von List — 1913; Aufnahme: Conrad H. Schiffer Guido (von) List [eigentlich: Guido Karl Anton List] (* 5. Oktober 1848 in Wien; † 17. Mai 1919 in Berlin) war ein österreichischer Schriftsteller und … Deutsch Wikipedia
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