Timeline of United States diplomatic history


Timeline of United States diplomatic history
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The diplomatic history of the United States oscillated among three positions: isolation from diplomatic entanglements of other (typically European) nations (but with economic connections to the world); alliances with European and other military partners; and unilateralism, or operating on its own sovereign policy decisions. This is in direct contrast to the European Union, whose member States have given up their national sovereignty in exchange for cooperative mediation and group policy-making, especially in the economic arena.

Contents

Timeline of United States diplomatic history

See Brune (2003) and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed. The Almanac of American History (1983) for specifics of each incident.

18th century

  • 1776 - Thirteen Colonies declared independence as the United States of America on July 2; Declaration of Independence adopted on July 4
  • 1776 - Three commissioners sent to Europe to negotiate treaties
  • 1777 - European officers recruited to Continental Army, including Marquis de La Fayette, Johann de Kalb, Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, and Tadeusz Kościuszko
  • 1777 - France decides to recognize America in December after victory at Saratoga, New York
  • 1778 - Treaty of Allies. America and France agreed to come to each others aid in event of a British attack from the present time and forever; abrogated in 1800.
  • 1778 - Carlisle Peace Commission sent by Great Britain; offers Americans all the terms they sought in 1775, but not independence; rejected
  • 1779 - Spain enters the war as an ally of France (but not of America); John Jay appointed minister to Spain; he obtains money but not recognition
  • 1779 - John Adams sent to Paris, France to negotiate peace terms with Great Britain
  • 1780- Russia proclaims "armed neutrality" which helps Allies
  • 1780-81 - Russia and Austria propose peace terms; rejected by Adams
  • 1781 - Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens and Thomas Jefferson named to assist Adams in peace negotiations; Congress insists on independence; all else is negotiable
  • 1782 - Holland recognizes American independence and signs treaty of commerce and friendship; Dutch bankers loan $2 million for war supplies
  • 1783 - Treaty of Paris ends Revolutionary War; U.S. boundaries confirmed as British North America on north, Mississippi River on west, Florida on south.
  • 1783 - A commercial treaty with Sweden[1]
  • 1784 - British allow trade with America but forbid some American food exports to West Indies; British exports to America reach £3.7 million, imports only £750,000; imbalance causes shortage of gold in U.S.
  • 1784 - New York–based merchants open the China trade, followed by Salem, Boston and Philadelphia merchants
  • 1785 - Adams appointed first minister to Court of Saint James's (Great Britain); Jefferson replaces Franklin as minister to France
  • 1789 - Jay-Gardoqui Treaty with Spain, gave Spain exclusive right to navigate Mississippi River for 30 years; not ratified because of western opposition.
  • 1793–1815 - Major worldwide war between Great Britain and France (and their allies); America neutral until 1812 and does business with both sides
  • 1795 - Jay Treaty with Britain. Averts war, opens 10 years of peaceful trade with Britain, fails to settle neutrality issues; British eventually evacuate western forts; boundary lines and debts (in both directions) to be settled by arbitration. Barely approved by Senate (1795) after revision; intensely opposed, became major issue in formation of First Party System
  • 1796 - Treaty of Madrid established boundaries with the Spanish colonies of Florida and Louisiana and guaranteed navigation rights on the Mississippi River. It becomes law
  • 1797 - Treaty of Tripoli; peace treaty with Barbary state of Tripoli signed into law by President John Adams on June 10; America says government is non-religious in origin and practice; violated in 1801 by the Basha of Tripoli which led to the Tripolitanian War.
  • 1797 - XYZ Affair; humiliation by French diplomats; threat of war with France.
  • 1798–1800 - Quasi-War; undeclared naval war with France.

19th century

  • 1800 - Treaty of Mortefontaine with France ends the Quasi-War and ends alliance of 1778
  • Early 19th century - Barbary Wars: Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis require America to pay protection money; U.S. Navy sent in and forces abandonment of tribute; other states demanded tribute until 1815 when Stephen Decatur again prevailed.
  • 1803 - Louisiana Purchase from France for $15,000,000.
  • 1806 - Essex Case; British reverse policy and seize American ships trading with French colonies; America responds with Non-Importation Act stopping imports of some items from Great Britain
  • 1806 - Napoleon issues Berlin Decree, a paper blockade of Great Britain
  • 1806 - Monroe-Pinkney Treaty with Great Britain; rejected by Jefferson
  • 1807-09 - Embargo Act, inclusive to all shipping exports.
  • 1807-12 - Impressment of 6,000 sailors from American ships with U.S. citizenship into the Royal Navy; Great Britain ignores vehement American protests
  • 1812 - America declares war on Great Britain, beginning the War of 1812.
  • 1814 - December 24: Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812, providing status quo ante bellum (no change in boundaries); Great Britain no longer needs impressment and stops
  • 1818 - London Convention of 1818, between the U.S. and Great Britain
  • 1819 - Adams-Onís Treaty: Spain cedes Florida to America for $5,000,000; America agrees to assume claims against Spain, America gives up claims to Texas.
  • 1823 - Monroe Doctrine. British propose America join in stating that European powers will not be permitted further American colonization. President James Monroe states it on December 2 as independent American policy.
  • 1833 - Argentina. U.S. Navy shells the Falkland Islands, at the time under Argentine control, in retaliation for the seizing of American ships fishing in Argentine waters.
  • 1837 - Caroline affair; Canadian military enters U.S. territory to burn a ship used by Canadian rebels.
  • 1838 - Aroostook War re: Maine-New Brunswick; no combat
  • 1842 - Webster-Ashburton Treaty-settles U.S.-Canadian border, settling Aroostook War and Caroline affair.
  • 1844 - Oregon Question; America and Great Britain at sword's point; "54-40 or fight" is American slogan
  • 1844 - Treaty of Wanghia.
  • 1845 - Annexation of Republic of Texas; Mexico breaks relations in retaliation
  • 1845 - Slidell Mission fails to avert war with Mexico
  • 1846 - Oregon crisis ended by compromise that splits the region, with British Columbia to Great Britain, and Washington, Idaho, and Oregon to America.
  • 1846 - Mexican–American War begins; Oregon settlement with Britain.
  • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- settled Mexican-American War, Rio Grande as U.S. border; territory of New Mexico rest of west ceded to America, especially California. U.S. pays Mexico $15,000,000 and assumes $3,250,000 liability against Mexico.
  • 1850 - Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. America and Great Britain agreed that both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American republic, neither nation would seek exclusive control of Isthmian canal, if canal built protected by both nations for neutrality and security. Any canal built open to all nations on equal terms.
  • 1853 - Gadsden Purchase: purchase of 30,000 square miles (78,700 km²) in southern Arizona for $10,000,000 for purpose of railroad connections
  • 1854 - Kanagawa Treaty; Matthew Perry to Tokyo in 1853; returning 1854 with seven warships; treaty opened two Japanese ports and guaranteeing safety of shipwrecked American seamen.
  • 1857 - Nicaragua; U.S. Navy forces the surrender of filibusterer William Walker, who had tried to seize control of the country.
  • 1861 - President Abraham Lincoln proclaims blockade of Confederate States of America, giving it some legitimacy
  • 1861-65 - Lincoln threatens war against any country that recognizes the Confederacy; no country does so
  • 1864-65 - Maximilian Affair: In defiance of the Monroe Doctrine, French Emperor Napoleon III placed Archduke Maximilian on Mexican throne, America warns France against intervention, with 50,000 combat troops being sent to the Mexican border by President Andrew Johnson; Maximilian overthrown
  • 1867 - Alaska purchase: America purchases Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000.
  • 1868 - Treaty on Naturalization with North German Confederation marked first recognition by a European power of the right of its subjects to become naturalized U.S. citizens.
  • 1868 - Burlingame Treaty established formal friendly relations with China and placed them on most favored nation status, Chinese immigration encouraged; reversed in 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
  • 1871 - Alabama Claims. During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raider CSS Alabama built in Great Britain, America claimed direct and collateral damage against Great Britain, awarded $15,500,000 by international tribunal.
  • 1891 - Baltimore Crisis, minor scuffle with Chile over treatment of soldiers.
  • 1893 - Hawaii; January 16 to April 1. Citizens outraged at Queen Liliuokalani attempt to set up absolute monarchy; overthrows her with no violence and proclaims provisional government; U.S. Marines landed to protect American lives; Hawaii and President Harrison agree to annexation but treaty withdrawn (1893) by President Grover Cleveland who rejects annexation
  • 1898 - De Lôme Letter: Spanish minister writes disparagingly of President William McKinley
  • 1898 - Spanish-American War; "splendid little war" with American quick victory
  • 1898 - Treaty of Paris; U.S. gains Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico; pays Spain for claims; Cuba under temporary U.S. control
  • 1898 - Hawaii seeks to join US; with votes lacking for 2/3 approval of a treaty on July 7. The Newlands Resolution in Congress annexes the Republic of Hawaii, with full U.S. citizenship for Hawaiian citizens regardless of race
  • 1899–1901 - Philippine-American War, commonly known as the "Philippine Insurrection".
  • 1899 - Open Door Policy for equal trading rights inside China; accepted by Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Russia and Japan

20th century

21st century

  • 2001 - September 11 terrorist attacks, orchestrated by Al-Qaeda terrorist network, occur on American soil.
  • 2001 - U.S. and NATO forces invade Afghanistan and overthrow the Taliban.
  • 2003 - U.S.-led coalition invades Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein; troops remain to fight insurgency against the U.N.-approved elected government.
  • 2006 - President George W. Bush signs the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act into law.
  • 2009 - President Barack Obama lifts all travel restrictions to see relatives in Cuba and send remittances. However later that year, Obama approved continuing the Trading with the Enemy Act, which regulates sanctions on Cuba.
  • 2011 - New START treaty with Russia goes into effect.
  • 2011 - Navy Seals under presidential order raid Al-Qaeda founder Osama Bin Laden's compound in Pakistan, killing Bin Laden ;seize computers, Pakistan was not informed

2011 - Have to redesign agreement with Libya after Mummar Gaddafi's death.

Footnotes

  1. ^ See text
  2. ^ Louis A. Perez, Jr. Cuba under the Platt Amendment, 1902–1934. Univ of Pittsburgh Pr. ISBN 0822935333
    Platt Amendment. Our Documents.com National Archives.
    An Amendment's End. Time Magazine.
  3. ^ a b CIA and Assassinations: The Guatemala 1954 Documents. U.S. National Archive.

References

  • Bailey, Thomas A. Diplomatic History of the American People (1940), standard older textbook
  • Beisner, Robert L. ed, American Foreign Relations since 1600: A Guide to the Literature (2003), 2 vol. 16,300 annotated entries evaluate every major book and scholarly article.
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. A Diplomatic History of the United States (1952) old standard textbook
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg and Grace Gardner Griffin. Guide to the Diplomatic History of the United States 1775–1921 (1935) bibliographies; out of date and replaced by Beisner (2003)
  • Brune, Lester H. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations (2003), 1400 pages
  • Burns, Richard Dean, ed. Guide to American Foreign Relations since 1700 (1983) highly detailed annotated bibliography
  • Deconde, Alexander, et al. eds. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy 3 vol (2001), 2200 pages; 120 long articles by specialists.
  • DeConde, Alexander; A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) online edition
  • Findling, John, ed. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History 2nd ed. 1989. 700pp; 1200 short articles.
  • Herring, George. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (Oxford History of the United States) (2008), 1056pp
  • Hogan, Michael J. ed. Paths to Power: The Historiography of American Foreign Relations to 1941 (2000) essays on main topics
  • Hogan, Michael J., and Thomas G. Paterson, eds. Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (1991) essays on historiography
  • Lafeber, Walter. The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad, 1750 to Present (2nd ed 1994) university textbook; 884pp online edition
  • Paterson, Thomas, et al. American Foreign Relations: A History (7th ed. 2 vol. 2009), university textbook

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