Excise tax in the United States
Excise tax, sometimes called an excise duty, is a type of
tax. In the United States, the term "excise" means: (A) any tax other than a property tax or capitation (i.e., an indirect tax, or excise, in the "constitutional law" sense), or (B) a tax that is simply "called an excise" in the language of the statute imposing that tax (an excise in the "statutory law" sense, sometimes called a "miscellaneous excise"). An excise under definition (A) is not necessarily the same as an excise under definition (B).
In the U.S. constitutional law sense, an excise is essentially an "event" tax (as opposed to a "state of being" tax).
An example of a "state of being" tax is an
ad valoremproperty tax (which is not an excise). A property tax may be imposed on the property or the person who owns that property at a certain moment on (for example) January 1 of each year "based on the state of title at that given moment". The "state of title" (state of ownership) -- of property "by reason of its ownership" -- is being taxed. The next year, on January 1st, another such tax is imposed again in the same way on the same property and person, even though there has been no change in the ownership (no intervening event). The amount of the tax may change from year to year, based on the change in the value of the property or a change in the tax rate, or both, but those are separate issues governing how the tax is computed. What is being taxed, fundamentally, is the state of title -- and the state of title is a state of being, not an event.
By contrast, excises are generally taxes on events. A realization of income (such as a receipt of wages) is an event. A sale is an event. A transfer of title by gift is an event. A transfer of title because of death is an event. Income taxes, sales taxes, and transfer taxes are all examples of event taxes. When a person receives money as income, it is not the ownership or state of title of the money itself that is taxed, but rather the fact that an income event has occurred. If the recipient takes the money and puts it under his or her bed for ten years, the "income tax" is not re-imposed on that money every year the money is under the bed. Only one thing is taxed by the income tax: the income event.
For purposes of the U.S. Constitution, an excise is essentially any indirect tax, or event tax. An excise means any tax "other than" (1) a tax on property by reason of its ownership; or (2) a capitation, or head tax. [By contrast, taxes on property by reason of ownership, as well as capitations (head taxes), would be considered direct taxes in the U.S. constitutional law sense.]
For U.S. constitutional law purposes, a duty is nominally in a separate category from an excise. However, a duty is similar to an excise in that a duty is generally imposed on an event (such as an importation) and not on a state of being.
The term "excise" also has a statutory law meaning. Generally, in the United States any statute that imposes a tax specifically denominated as an "excise" is an excise tax law. U.S. Federal statutory excises are (or have been) imposed under Subtitle D ("miscellaneous excise taxes") of the
Internal Revenue Code, usc|26|4001 through usc|26|5000, relating to such things as luxury passenger automobiles, heavy trucks and trailers, gas guzzler vehicles, tires, petroleum products, coal, vaccines, recreational equipment, firearms (see National Firearms Act), communications services (see Telephone federal excise tax), air transportation, policies issued by foreign insurance companies, wagering, water transportation, removal of hard mineral resources from deep seabeds, chemicals, certain imported substances, non-deductible contributions to certain employer plans, and many other subjects. The state of Massachusettscharges what it calls an "excise tax" on all vehicles, even though this is, in fact, an ad valorem tax.
Another example of an excise is a
taxor dutylevied on the sale or importation of specific goods or a fixed rate tax on the sale or importation of specific goods; in this manner it differs from a general sales taxor value added tax.
Excise duties usually have one of two purposes: to raise revenue or to discourage particular behavior. Taxes such as those on sales of
fuel, alcoholand tobaccoare often justified on both grounds. Some economists suggest that the optimal revenue raising taxes should be levied on sales of items having an inelastic demand, while behavior altering taxes should be levied where demand is elastic.
A common example of an excise tax is the tax on sales of
cigarettes: a fixed fee on each pack of cigarettes sold. The cigarette excise tax varies by state and ranges from 7 cents per pack in South Carolinato $2.46 per pack in Rhode Island. The excise tax doubles or even triples the retail cost of cigarettes in some states, but can be still avoided in many states by buying tobaccoand cigarette paper separately.
A reason why the governments state that excise taxes should exist is to internalize
external costs. For example, the alcohol excise tax could be used to pay for the treatment of alcohol-caused diseases.
Excise taxes can be imposed at the point of production or
importation, or at the point of sale. They are usually waived or refunded on goods being exported, so as to encourage exports, though they are often re-imposed by the importing country. Smugglers will seek to obtain items at a point at which they are not taxed and then sell them at price between the pre-tax and post-tax price. They also look to find loopholes, which may exist through importing to different countries, before then exporting to the destination country.
For similar items, excise duties are the same for imported and domestically produced goods; if the tax is different, then there is an explicit or implicit
customsduty or tariff.
An unusual example of an excise tax is found in the State of Hawaii. In lieu of a sales tax, the State of Hawaii imposes a General Excise Tax, or GET, on all business activity in the State. The GET is charged at a rate of 4% for most businesses and 0.5% for wholesalers. The tax is imposed on all business entities, so in essence, the tax is collected at every level of production (material supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer.) The GET is also charged on all business service activity such as real estate agent commissions, lawyer fees and the like. [cite web |author=State of Hawaii Department of Taxation |title=An Introduction to the General Excise Tax |date=December 2006 |url=http://hawaii.gov/tax/brochures/ge_bro.pdf |format=PDF |pages=1-2 |accessdate=September 5, 2008] With Hawaii's industry heavily dependent on tourism and tourist spending, the State regularly raises nearly half its government revenues through the imposition of the GET. [cite web | author =State of Hawaii Department of Taxation | title = Annual Report: 2006-2007 | date =December 4, 2007 | url =http://hawaii.gov/tax/pubs/07annrpt.pdf | format =PDF | pages=41 | accessdate =September 5, 2008 ] Hawaii's GET has been criticized for having a disproportionate impact on low-income families, owing to the fact it is charged on intermediary transactions (such as those between wholesaler and retailer) as well as services, resulting in a pyramiding effect as costs rise in relation to final retail prices. [cite web |last=Kalapa |first=Lowell |date=August 18, 2008 |publisher=Hawaii Reporter |title=Hawaii Families Need Tax Relief |url=http://www.hawaiireporter.com/story.aspx?d988a624-faa3-4473-ab77-2f9637e12772 |accessdate=September 5, 2008]
Comparison of differing definitions of "excise" under U.S. law
In the U.S. "constitutional" law sense, an excise includes gift taxes, estate taxes, payroll taxes, sales taxes, miscellaneous excise taxes, and income taxes on any income other than income from property, etc. -- in short, any tax that is not a
direct tax. [In effect all federal income taxes were considered excises -- in the constitutional sense -- until the 1895 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.. After "Pollock", and until 1913, taxes on income from property were "treated" as direct taxes, while taxes on income from labor (and all other sources) continued to be considered excises. Since the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913, all taxes on incomes, regardless of the sources of the incomes, are again treated as excises (not direct taxes) in the constitutional sense.] In the U.S. "statutory" sense, however, only the "miscellaneous excise taxes" are denoted as "excises."
Commentary on excises
Samuel Johnson's " A Dictionary of the English Language" defined "excise" in 1755as "A hateful tax levied upon commodities, and adjudged not by the common judges of property, but wretches hired by those to whom excise is paid."
Her Majesty's Customs and Excise
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