An aldonic acid is any of a family of
sugar acids obtained by oxidation of the aldehyde functional groupof an aldoses to form a carboxylic acidfunctional group. Thus, their general chemical formula is HOOC-(CHOH)n-CH2OH. Oxidation of the terminal hydroxylgroup instead of the terminal aldehyde yields a uronic acid, while oxidation of both terminal ends yields an aldaric acid.
Aldonic acids are typically prepared by oxidation of the sugar with
bromine. They are generally found in their lactoneform, with the ring structure essentially the same as in the original sugar's cyclic hemiacetalform, which is the form the sugar is usually found in. However, unlike hemiacetals, lactones do not have a chiral anomeric carbon, and they cannot form glycosidiclinkages.
Aldonic acids are found in many biological systems, and are the products of the oxidation of
aldoses by Benedict's or Fehling's reagents. Their lactones are key intermediates in the Kiliani-Fischer synthesisof sugars.
Nomenclature of aldonic acids and their lactones is based on replacing the suffix "-ose" with "onic acid" or "onolactone" respectively; hence D-
glucoseis oxidized to D- gluconic acidand D- gluconolactone.
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aldonic acid — aldono rūgštis statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Aldozės oksidacijos produktas. formulė Formulę žr. priede. priedas( ai) Grafinis formatas atitikmenys: angl. aldonic acid; onic acid rus. альдоновая кислота; овая кислота … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
aldonic acid — noun Any of a class of polyhydroxy carboxylic acids derived from an aldose by oxidation of the aldehyde functional group. See Also: aldotrionic acid, aldotetronic acid, aldopentonic acid, aldohexonic acid … Wiktionary
aldonic acid — al·don·ic acid (.)al .dän ik n any of a class of acids (as gluconic acid) formed from aldoses (as glucose) by oxidizing the aldehyde group to a carboxyl group * * * al·don·ic ac·id (al donґik) a carboxylic acid resulting from oxidation of the… … Medical dictionary
aldonic acid — (ˈ)al|dänik noun Etymology: ald + onic : any of a class of acids (as gluconic acid) formed from aldoses (as glucose) by oxidizing the aldehyde group to a carboxyl group … Useful english dictionary
aldonic acids — Monosaccharide derivatives in which the aldehyde group has been oxidized to a carboxyl group. They may form lactones ( e.g., galactonic acid). SYN: glyconic acids … Medical dictionary
hexonic acid — The aldonic acid obtained on the oxidation of the aldehyde group of an aldohexose to a carboxylic acid ( e.g., gluconic acid from glucose). * * * hex·on·ic ac·id (hek sonґik) an aldonic acid formed specifically from an aldohexose, e.g., gluconic… … Medical dictionary
aldobionic acid — |al(ˌ)dōˌbī|änik noun Etymology: blend of aldonic and bi (two) : an aldonic acid (as lactobionic acid) formed by simple oxidation of a reducing disaccharide (as lactose) … Useful english dictionary
Aldaric acid — is a group of sugar acids characterised by the formula HOOC (CHOH)n COOH. Aldaric acids are usually synthesized by the oxidation of aldoses with nitric acid. In this reaction it is the open chain (polyhydroxyaldehyde) form of the sugar that… … Wikipedia
Uronic acid — A uronic acid is a sugar acid with both a carbonyl and a carboxylic acid function. It is best thought of as a sugar in which the terminal carbon s hydroxyl function has been oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (Oxidation of the terminal aldehyde… … Wikipedia
Sugar acid — Sugar acids are monosaccharides that have had an OH group oxidized to a carboxyl group.Main classes of sugar acids include: * Aldonic acids, in which the aldehyde functional group of an aldose is oxidized * Uronic acids, in which the terminal… … Wikipedia