Aldonic acid

An aldonic acid is any of a family of sugar acids obtained by oxidation of the aldehyde functional group of an aldoses to form a carboxylic acid functional group. Thus, their general chemical formula is HOOC-(CHOH)n-CH2OH. Oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl group instead of the terminal aldehyde yields a uronic acid, while oxidation of both terminal ends yields an aldaric acid.

Aldonic acids are typically prepared by oxidation of the sugar with bromine. They are generally found in their lactone form, with the ring structure essentially the same as in the original sugar's cyclic hemiacetal form, which is the form the sugar is usually found in. However, unlike hemiacetals, lactones do not have a chiral anomeric carbon, and they cannot form glycosidic linkages.

Aldonic acids are found in many biological systems, and are the products of the oxidation of aldoses by Benedict's or Fehling's reagents. Their lactones are key intermediates in the Kiliani-Fischer synthesis of sugars.

Nomenclature of aldonic acids and their lactones is based on replacing the suffix "-ose" with "onic acid" or "onolactone" respectively; hence D-glucose is oxidized to D-gluconic acid and D-gluconolactone.


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  • aldonic acid — aldono rūgštis statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Aldozės oksidacijos produktas. formulė Formulę žr. priede. priedas( ai) Grafinis formatas atitikmenys: angl. aldonic acid; onic acid rus. альдоновая кислота; овая кислота …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • aldonic acid — noun Any of a class of polyhydroxy carboxylic acids derived from an aldose by oxidation of the aldehyde functional group. See Also: aldotrionic acid, aldotetronic acid, aldopentonic acid, aldohexonic acid …   Wiktionary

  • aldonic acid — al·don·ic acid (.)al .dän ik n any of a class of acids (as gluconic acid) formed from aldoses (as glucose) by oxidizing the aldehyde group to a carboxyl group * * * al·don·ic ac·id (al donґik) a carboxylic acid resulting from oxidation of the… …   Medical dictionary

  • aldonic acid — (ˈ)al|dänik noun Etymology: ald + onic : any of a class of acids (as gluconic acid) formed from aldoses (as glucose) by oxidizing the aldehyde group to a carboxyl group …   Useful english dictionary

  • aldonic acids — Monosaccharide derivatives in which the aldehyde group has been oxidized to a carboxyl group. They may form lactones ( e.g., galactonic acid). SYN: glyconic acids …   Medical dictionary

  • hexonic acid — The aldonic acid obtained on the oxidation of the aldehyde group of an aldohexose to a carboxylic acid ( e.g., gluconic acid from glucose). * * * hex·on·ic ac·id (hek sonґik) an aldonic acid formed specifically from an aldohexose, e.g., gluconic… …   Medical dictionary

  • aldobionic acid — |al(ˌ)dōˌbī|änik noun Etymology: blend of aldonic and bi (two) : an aldonic acid (as lactobionic acid) formed by simple oxidation of a reducing disaccharide (as lactose) …   Useful english dictionary

  • Aldaric acid — is a group of sugar acids characterised by the formula HOOC (CHOH)n COOH. Aldaric acids are usually synthesized by the oxidation of aldoses with nitric acid. In this reaction it is the open chain (polyhydroxyaldehyde) form of the sugar that… …   Wikipedia

  • Uronic acid — A uronic acid is a sugar acid with both a carbonyl and a carboxylic acid function. It is best thought of as a sugar in which the terminal carbon s hydroxyl function has been oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (Oxidation of the terminal aldehyde… …   Wikipedia

  • Sugar acid — Sugar acids are monosaccharides that have had an OH group oxidized to a carboxyl group.Main classes of sugar acids include: * Aldonic acids, in which the aldehyde functional group of an aldose is oxidized * Uronic acids, in which the terminal… …   Wikipedia

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