Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun
name=Type 1 47 mm anti-tank gun
caption=Type 1 47 mm anti-tank gun at the U.S. Army Museum in Honolulu, HI.
origin=flag|Empire of Japan
service=1942 - 1945
Second World War
variants=main gun on the
Type 97 Chi-Ha"Shinhoto"
weight=800 kg (1,763 lbs) approx
part_length=2.53 m (8.3 ft) (L 53.7)
caliber=47 mm (1.85 in)
velocity=830 m/s (2,723 ft/s)
max_range=6,900 m (7,546 yds)
elevation=-11 to +18 degrees
yield=The nihongo|Type 1 47 mm anti-tank gun|一式機動四十七粍速射砲|Isshiki Kidō yonjyūnana-miri sokushahō was an
anti-tank gundeveloped by the Imperial Japanese Army, and used in combat during World War II. [Bishop. "The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II"]
History and development
Nomonhan Incident, the Imperial Japanese Armystarted the development of a new anti-tank gun, considering that the Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gunwould likely be ineffective against the new Soviet tanks. The design was the first completely indigenous anti-tank gun design completed in Japan, and production was assigned to the Army's Osaka Arsenal. In terms of performance, the design was still somewhat inferior to advanced contemporary designs in western nations, but was considered suitable by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staffdue to the anticipated lack of armor by the National Revolutionary Armyof the Republic of China, and by the belief that Japan would face only light tanks fielded by the Allied nations in case of a more general war. [Chant, Artillery of World War II. Pp. 61] The Type 1 47 mm AT Gun was introduced in 1942. Approximately 2300 were produced. [ [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/47.htm] Taki's Imperial Japanese Army]
The Type 1 47 mm AT Gun was a relative modern design compared to other Japanese Second World war designs, being relatively light and easy to handle. As with many Japanese designs, it had a very low profile and was intended to be operated from a squat or prone position. The gun had a
gun shieldto protect the gunner. The carriage appears to have adopted a number of design features from the Soviet ZIK 45 mm anti-tank gun, a number of examples of which were captured by the Japanese during the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars. It used a semi-automatic breech block with a horizontal sliding wedge. When the gun was fired the spent shell casing was automatically ejected, and upon loading a fresh shell, the breech block closed automatically. A hydrospringrecoil mechanism was housed under barrel. The weapon had a split trail which opened to an angle of 60 degrees for firing to improve stability. [Chant, Artillery of World War II. Pp. 61] Transport was by towing behind a truck or horse, via two steel disc wheels fitted with sponge rubber filled tires.
The Type 1 fired two types of shell: Type 1 APHE (Armour piercing high-explosive) and Type 1 HE (High explosive).
Type 1 APHE shell
The APHE shell weighed 3.37 pounds and used a Mark 2 base
fuse, the complete round weighing 6.1 pounds. It had a small explosive charge of 0.04 pounds consisting of RDX phlegmatizedwith 10% Paraffin. The round also had a tracer.
Type 1 HE shell
The HE shell weighed 3.08 pounds and used the Type 88 instantaneous or short delay fuse with a complete round weighing 5.4 pounds. It contained 0.2 pounds of explosive, consisting of a small block of picric acid and a larger block of TNT. "Japanese Explosive Ordnance", TM 9-1985-5]
The Type 1 47 mm AT Gun was introduced to combat service only in 1943, and up until that time Japanese
infantryhad considerable difficulty even against the Allied M3 Stuart light tankin the Pacific War. However, by the time the Type 1 was available in any quantities, the M3 had been superseded by the M4 Sherman, against which it was only marginally effective.
The Type 1 47 mm AT Gun was issued to armored units as well as independent anti-tank units and was fielded in a wide variety of areas, but most notably
Southeast Asia, and continued to be used with diminishing effectiveness until the end of World War II. [MacLean."Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics" ]
The Type 1 47 mm AT Gun was also used as the main armament of the
Type 97 Chi-Ha"Shinhoto". [Foss, Tanks:The 500 pp.218 ]
* Bishop, Chris (eds) "The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II". Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0760710228
* Chant, Chris. "Artillery of World War II", Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0760311722
*Foss, Christopher. "Great Book of Tanks: The World's Most Important Tanks from World War I to the Present Day". Zenith Press, (2003) ISBN 0760314756
*McLean, Donald B. "Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics". Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3.
* Nakanishi, Ritta "Japanese Infantry Arms in World War II", Dainipponkaiga Company 1991, ISBN 4-499-22690-2
* US Department of War, "TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces", Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0807120138
* [http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/47.htm Taki's Imperial Japanese Army]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJA/HB/HB-9.html#III US Technical Manual E 30-480]
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