- People mover
:"For the private automobile, see
People carrier"A people mover or automated people mover (APM) is a fully automated, grade-separated mass transit system. The term is generally used only to describe systems serving relatively small areas such as airports, downtown districts or theme parks, but is sometimes applied to considerably more complex automated systems.
The term was originally applied to two different systems, developed roughly at the same time. One was Skybus, an automated mass transit system prototyped by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation beginning in 1964. [cite web
title= Who killed Westinghouse?
url=http://www.post-gazette.com/westinghouse/burnham.asp] [cite web
title= Westinghouse Company Timeline (1940-1979)
publisher= Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC
url=http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/Our_Company/history/Timeline/1940_1979.shtm] The other, called
PeopleMoveror Goodyear PeopleMover, was an attraction sponsored by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Companywhich opened at Disneylandin 1967. [cite web
title= PeopleMover at Disneyland
url= http://www.yesterland.com/peoplemover.html] Now, however, the term "people mover" is generic, and may use technologies such as
monorail, duorail, automated guideway transitor maglev. Propulsion may involve conventional on-board electric motors, linear motors or cable traction.
Some complex APMs deploy fleets of small vehicles over a track network with off-line stations, and supply near non-stop service to passengers. These taxi-like systems are more usually referred to as
personal rapid transit(PRT). Other complex APMs have similar characteristics to mass transitsystems, and there is no clear cut distinction between a complex APM of this type and an automated mass transit system.
One of the first automated systems for human transportation was the
Never Stop Railway, constructed for the British Empire Exhibitionat Wembley, Londonin 1924. This railway consisted of 88 unmanned carriages circling the exhibition. The carriages ran on narrow gauge track, and were propelled by a gripping a revolving screw thread running between the tracks; by adjusting the pitch of this thread at different points in the track the carriages could be speeded up, or slowed down to a slow walking pace in stations to allow passengers to join and leave. The railway ran for the two years of the exhibition and was then dismantled. [cite web | url = http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20040905/spectrum/art.htm | title = Exhibiting the Empire | publisher = The Tribune, Chandigarh | accessmonthday = November 6 | accessyear = 2006 ]
Goodyear and Stephens-Adamson
Late 1949, Mike Kendall, Chief Engineer and Chairman of the Board of
Stephens-AdamsonMfg. Co asked Al Neilson an engineer in the Industrial Products Division of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., if Goodyear had ever considered working on People Movers. He felt that with Goodyear’s ability to move materials in large quantities on conveyor beltsthey should consider moving batches of people.
Four years of engineering design, development, and testing, led to a
joint patentbeing issued for three types of people movers which had been named Speedwalk, Speedramp, and Carveyor. Goodyear would sell the concept and Stephens-Adamson would manufacture and install the components.
A speedwalk consisted of a flat conveyor belt riding on a series of rollers, or a flat slippery surface, moving at convert|1.5|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on. (approximately half the speed of walking) the passengers would walk onto the belt and could stand or walk to the exit point. They were supported by a moving
Customers were expected to be
airport terminals, ballparks, train stations, etc. Today several manufacturers produce similar units called moving walkways.
A Speedramp was very similar to a Speedwalk but it was used to change elevations, up or down a floor level. This could have been accomplished by an escalator, but the Speedramp would allow
wheeled luggage, small handcarts etc. to ride the belt at an operating cost predicted to be much lower than escalators or elevators.
The first successful installation of a Speedramp, spring of 1954, was in the
Hudson and ManhattanRR Station in Jersey City to connect the Erie RRto the Hudson & Manhattan Tubes, This unit was convert|227|ft|m long, rose up convert|22|ft|m on a 15 degree gradeand only cost $75,000.
A Carveyor consisted of many small cubicles or cars carrying ten people riding on a flat conveyor belt from Point A to Point B. The belt would be riding on a series of Motorized Rollers. The purpose of the motorized rollers was to facilitate the gradual acceleration and deceleration speeds on the conveyor belt and over come the tendency of all belts to stretch at start up and during shutdown. At point “A” passengers would enter a Speedwalk running parallel to the belts and cars of the Carveyor. The cars would be moving at the same speed as the Speedwalk; the passengers would enter the cars and be seated, while the motorized rollers would increase the speed of the cars up to the traveling speed (which would be preset depending on the distance to be covered).
At point B Passengers could disembark and by means of a series of flat slower belts (Speedwalks) go to other Carveyors to other destinations or out to the street.The cars at point B would continue on rollers around a semicircle and then reverse the process carrying passengers back to point A. The target installation was to be the
42nd street shuttlein NYC between Times Squareand Grand Central Terminalstation.
Colonel Sydney H. Bingham, Chairman of the
New York City Board of Transportationhad several meetings with a group of architects who were trying to revamp the whole NYC subwaysystem in the heart of town to connect Penn. Station, Madison Square Garden, Times Square, Grand Central and several new office complexes together. Several of these architects were involved in other programs and in later years many variations of the Carveyor people movers developed.
In November 1954 the
New York City Transit Authorityissued an order to Goodyear and Stephens-Adamson to build a Complete Carveyor System between Times Square and Grand Central. A brief Summary and confirmation can be found in Time Magazine Monday November 15, 1954. under the heading “Subway of the Future”. The cost was to be under $4 million, but the order was never fulfilled due to political difficulties. Chocolate Worldin Hershey Pa., Disneylandin California, and Disney Worldin Florida are among many other locations that have used variations of the Carveyor concept. If You Had Wingsused the Omnimover
The term 'people mover' was used by
Walt Disney, when he and his Imagineers were working on the new 1967 Tomorrowlandat Disneyland. The name was used as a working title for a new attraction, the PeopleMover. According to Imagineer Bob Gurr, "the name got stuck," and it was no longer a working title.
The world's first airport people mover was installed in 1971 at
Tampa International Airportin the United States. APMs have now become common at large airports and progressive hospitals in the United States.
Driverless metros have become common in Europe and parts of Asia. The economics of automated trains tend to reduce the scale so tied to "mass" transit, so that small-scale installations are feasible. Thus cities normally thought of as too small to build a metro (e.g.
Rennes, Lausanne, Brescia, etc.) are now doing so.
September 30, 2006, the Peachlinerin Komaki, Aichi Prefecture, Japanbecame that nation's first people mover to cease operations.
Bombardier Advanced Rapid Transit
DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Crystal Mover
Parry People Movers(PPM)
* Véhicule Automatique Léger (VAL)
Toronto, Ontario: Scarborough RT(semi-automated)
Toronto, Ontario: LINK Train(Fully Automated)
Vancouver, British Columbia: SkyTrain
Docklands Light Railway
Poma 2000, Laon
Capelle aan den IJssel[http://www.2getthere.eu/Group_Transit/Projects/Business_park_Rivium/ParkShuttle Rivium]
*Kobe: Port Liner, Rokkō Liner
Peach Liner(already discontinued)
Linimo, Nagoya Guideway Bus
*Osaka: New Tram (Osaka Municipal Nankō Port Town Line)
*Saitama: New Shuttle
Yamaman Yūkarigaoka Line
Tama Toshi Monorail Line
Seibu RailwayYamaguchi Line (Leo Liner)
Tokyo: Yurikamome, Nippori-Toneri Liner
*Yokohama: Seaside Line
Kelana Jaya Line(formerly PUTRA)
Manila Light Rail Transit System
Manila Metro Rail Transit System
Oeiras: SATU - Sistema Automático de Transporte Urbano
Muzha Line (TRTS)
Las Vegas, Nevada: Mandalay Bay Tram
Detroit, Michigan: Detroit People Mover-- elevated loop system (Downtown People Mover)
Indianapolis, Indiana-- Hospital and Public use
Jacksonville, Florida-- in the form of a monorail(the JTA Skyway) (Downtown People Mover)
Miami, Florida: Metromover (Downtown People Mover)
Las Colinas, Dallas, Texas-- Las Colinas APT System
San Francisco, California-- San Francisco International Airport
AirTrain JFK, Queens, New York-- John F. Kennedy International Airport
Skylink, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
Many large international airports around the world feature people mover systems to transport passengers between terminals or within a terminal itself. Some people mover systems at airports connect with other
public transportation systems to allow passengers to travel into the airport's city.
* The former
PeopleMoverattraction at Disneyland, which ran from 1967 to 1995. (This is a source of the name "people mover." It was not meant to be used on a permanent basis, but WED Enterprisescould not come up with any other names for it.)
Tomorrowland Transit Authorityattraction, which was formerly called the WEDway PeopleMover, at Walt Disney World
West Virginia University( Morgantown, West Virginia) -- a Group Rapid Transit system, similar to Personal rapid transit
Huntsville, Alabamahas a tram system [http://www.hhsys.org/visitinginfo/tram/] that connects different buildings of the Huntsville Hospital System.
* Amsterdam Schiphol Airport's [http://www.2getthere.eu/Group_Transit/Projects/Amsterdam_Airport_Schiphol/ ParkShuttle] connected long-term Parking P3 and the airport terminal is an APM using electronic guidance, ensuring it does not require specific infrastructure (it runs on regular roads). Last in operation in 2004, its manufacturer is in bankruptcy.
Slope car, a small automated monorail found in various parts of Japan, can be considered as a simple form of people mover.
Tandy Center Subwaywas a people mover in Fort Worth, Texasthat linked a shopping centre to its parking lot, service was discontinued in 2002.
* In addition to the
Las Vegas Monorail, several people mover systems are in place in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, Nevada. Two connect the McCarran International Airportterminal 1 to its C- and D-gates. Another connects The Mirageto Treasure Island Hotel and Casino. The newest people mover connects Excalibur, Luxor, and Mandalay Bay.
Disneyland Resort Lineon the MTRof Hong Kong.
Automated guideway transit
Intermodal passenger transport
* Rapid transits using linear motor propulsion
* [http://www.thepeoplemover.com/ Detroit's people mover]
* [http://web.presby.edu/~jtbell/transit/ Jon Bell's (Mostly) Rail Transit Pages]
* [http://www.2getthere.eu/Vision/ Information on electronically guided people mover systems]
* [http://www.dcc.at DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car]
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Look at other dictionaries:
people mover — people movers also people mover 1) N COUNT A people mover is the same as a people carrier. 2) N COUNT A people mover is a transport system for moving large numbers of people over short distances, for example by means of a moving platform or along … English dictionary
people mover — n. a means of transporting many people over short distances, as a moving sidewalk or an automated monorail … English World dictionary
People-mover — Transport hectométrique Ligne du Bukit Panjang à Singapour Un Transport hectométrique ou people mover est un système de tram ou de transport léger par rail entièrement automatisé. Le terme est généralement utilisé uniquement pour des navettes… … Wikipédia en Français
People mover — Transport hectométrique Ligne du Bukit Panjang à Singapour Un Transport hectométrique ou people mover est un système de tram ou de transport léger par rail entièrement automatisé. Le terme est généralement utilisé uniquement pour des navettes… … Wikipédia en Français
people mover — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms people mover : singular people mover plural people movers a simple railway system, usually in a place such as an airport or a theme park … English dictionary
People Mover — Bukit Panjang LRT Line in Singapur Der aus dem Englischen übernommene Sammelbegriff Peoplemover (wörtlich: Personenbeförderer) bezeichnet meist schienengebundene und in der Regel automatisch verkehrende Verkehrsmittel für kurze Strecken, wie man… … Deutsch Wikipedia
people-mover — see people mover … English dictionary
people mover — 1. any of various forms of mass transit, as moving sidewalks or automated driverless vehicles, used for transporting people along limited, fixed routes, as around airports or congested urban areas. 2. any vehicle that transports people quickly… … Universalium
people mover — noun Date: 1968 any of various rapid transit systems (as of moving sidewalks or automated driverless cars) for shuttling people … New Collegiate Dictionary
people mover — /ˈpipəl muvə/ (say peepuhl moohvuh) noun 1. any of various methods of transporting large numbers of people within a confined area such as an exhibition, airport, etc., as a moving footpath, monorail, small bus, etc. 2. a small van with seating… … Australian English dictionary