- Carmen Miranda
from the film The Gang's All Here (1943)
Born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha, GCIH
9 February 1909
Marco de Canaveses, Portugal
Died 5 August 1955(aged 46)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Years active 1928–1955 Spouse David Alfred Sebastian (m. 1947–1955) her death
Carmen Miranda, GCIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkaɾmẽȷ̃ miˈɾɐ̃dɐ] 9 February 1909 – 5 August 1955) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, Broadway actress and Hollywood film star popular in the 1940s and 1950s. She was, by some accounts, the highest-earning woman in the United States and noted for her signature fruit hat outfit she wore in the 1943 movie The Gang's All Here. Though hailed as a talented performer, her movie roles in the United States soon became cartoonish and she grew to resent them. She is considered the precursor of Brazil's Tropicalismo.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Death
- 4 Tributes
- 5 Carmen Miranda Square
- 6 Filmography
- 7 Singles
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Carmen Miranda was born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha in Várzea da Ovelha e Aliviada, a village in the northern Portuguese municipality of Marco de Canaveses. She was the second daughter of José Maria Pinto da Cunha (17 February 1887 – 21 June 1938) and Maria Emília Miranda (10 March 1886 – Rio de Janeiro, 9 November 1971). In 1909 when she was 10-months old, her father emigrated alone to Brazil and settled in Rio de Janeiro, where he opened a barber shop. Her mother followed in 1910 with their daughters Olinda and Maria. Maria never returned to Portugal, but retained her Portuguese nationality. In Brazil, her parents had four more children: Amaro (1911), Cecília (1913), Aurora (1915–2005) and Óscar (1916).
She was christened Carmen by her father because of his love for the opera comique, and also after Bizet's masterpiece Carmen. This passion for opera influenced his children, and Miranda's love for singing and dancing at an early age. She went to school at the Convent of Saint Therese of Lisieux. Her father did not approve of her plans to enter show business. However, her mother supported her and was beaten when her husband discovered Carmen had auditioned for a radio show. Carmen had previously sung at parties and festivals in Rio. Her older sister Olinda contracted tuberculosis and was sent to Portugal for treatment. Miranda went to work in a tie shop at age 14 to help pay her sister's medical bills. She next worked in a boutique, where she learned to make hats and opened her own hat business which became profitable.
Her extraordinary talent was discovered when Miranda was first introduced to composer Josué de Barros, who went on to promote and record her first album with a Brunswick, a German recording company in 1929. In 1930, she was known to be Brazil's gem singer, and in 1933 went on to sign a two-year contract with Rádio Mayrink Veiga, becoming the first contract singer in the radio industry history of Brazil. In 1934, she was invited as a guest performer in Radio Belgrano in Buenos Aires. Ultimately, Miranda wound up with a recording contract with RCA Records. She pursued a career as a samba singer for ten years before she was invited to New York City to perform in a show on Broadway. As with other popular singers of the era, Miranda made her screen debut in the Brazilian documentary A Voz Do Carnaval (1933). Two years later, Miranda appeared in her first feature film entitled Alô, Alô Brasil. But it was the 1935 film Estudantes that seemed to solidify her in the minds of the movie-going public. In the 1936 movie Alô Alô Carnaval, she performed the famous song Cantoras do Rádio with her sister Aurora, for the first time.
Miranda signed a movie contract with Hollywood and arrived in the United States in 4 May 1939 with her band, the Bando da Lua. Carmen grew to fame in the country quickly, having formally been presented to President Franklin D. Roosevelt at a White House banquet shortly after arrival. She was encouraged by the United States government as part of President Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor policy, designed to strengthen links with Latin America and Europe; it was believed that in delivering content like hers, the policy would be better received by the American public. By 1946 she was Hollywood's highest-paid entertainer and top female tax payer in the United States, earning more than $200,000 that year (=$2.2 million in 2010 adjusted for inflation), according to IRS records.
Against her family's wishes, she married on 17 March 1947 to failed American movie producer David Alfred Sebastian, born in Detroit on 23 November 1908. In 1948 she became pregnant, but suffered a miscarriage after a show. The marriage lasted only a few months, but Carmen, who was Catholic, would not accept getting a divorce. Her sister Aurora later would state in the documentary Bananas is My Business that "he was very rude, many times even hit her. The marriage was a burden in her life; he only married her for her money. He did not like our family".[cite this quote]
Miranda made a total of fourteen Hollywood films between 1940 and 1953 and was dubbed The Brazilian Bombshell. Her Hollywood image was one of a generic Latinness that blurred the distinctions between Brazil, Portugal, Argentina, and Mexico as well as between samba, tango and habanera. It was carefully stylized and outlandishly flamboyant. She was often shown wearing platform sandals and towering headdresses made of fruit, becoming famous as "the lady in the tutti-frutti hat." However there were times that Miranda performed barefoot on stage because she could move more easily in bare feet than in the towering platform sandals.
During a visit to Brazil in 1940, Miranda was heavily criticized for giving in to American commercialism and projecting a false image of Brazil. She responded with the Portuguese language song "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada", or "They Say I've Come Back Americanized." Another song, "Bananas Is My Business," was based on a line in one of her movies and directly addressed her image. She was greatly upset by the criticism and did not return to Brazil again for fourteen years.
In the later years of her life, in addition to her already heavy smoking and alcohol consumption, Miranda began taking amphetamines and barbiturates, all of which took a toll on her body.
On 4 August 1955, Miranda suffered a heart attack during a segment of the live NBC television series, The Jimmy Durante Show. After completing a dance number (which was later aired on A&E Network's Biography episode about Miranda), she fell to her knees, and Durante instinctively told the band to "stop da music!". He helped Miranda up to her feet as she laughed, "I'm all out of breath!". "Dat's OK, honey, I'll take yer lines", Durante replied. Miranda laughed again and quickly pulled herself together, finishing the show. At the end of the broadcast, she smiled and waved, then exited the stage. She died later that night after suffering a second heart attack at her home in Beverly Hills.
In accordance with her wishes, Miranda's body was flown back to Rio de Janeiro where the Brazilian government declared a period of national mourning. 60,000 people attended her mourning ceremony at the Rio town hall, and more than half a million Brazilians escorted the funeral cortège to her resting place. She is buried in the Cemitério São João Batista in Rio de Janeiro.
Helena Solberg made a documentary of her life, Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My Business in 1995.
Miranda's enormous, fruit-laden hats are iconic visuals recognized around the world. These costumes led to Saks Fifth Avenue developing a line of turbans and jewelry inspired by Carmen Miranda in 1939. Many costume jewelry designers made fruit jewelry also inspired by Carmen Miranda which is still highly valued and collectible by vintage and antique costume jewelry collectors (recently featured on America's Next Top Model Cycle 12 Ep. 10). Fruit jewelry is still popular in jewelry design today. Much of the fruit jewelry seen today is often still fondly called "Carmen Miranda jewelry" because of this. Her image was much satirized and taken up as camp, and today, the "Carmen Miranda" persona is popular among drag performers. The style was even emulated in animated cartoon shorts. The animation department at Warner Brothers seemed to be especially fond of the actress's image. Animator Virgil Ross used it in his short Slick Hare, featuring Bugs Bunny, who escapes from Elmer Fudd by hiding in the fruit hat. Bugsy himself mimics Miranda briefly in What's Cookin' Doc? Tex Avery also used it in his MGM short Magical Maestro when an opera singer is temporarily changed into the persona, fruit hat and all, via a magician's wand.
Brazilian singer Ney Matogrosso's album Batuque brings the period and several of Miranda's early hits back to life in faithful style. Caetano Veloso paid tribute to Miranda for her early samba recordings made in Rio when he recorded "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" on the live album Circuladô Vivo in 1992. He also examined her iconic legacy of both kitsch and sincere samba artistry in an essay in the New York Times. Additionally, on one of Veloso's most popular songs, "Tropicalia", Veloso sings "Viva a banda da da da....Carmen Miranda da da da" as the final lyrics of the song. Singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett included a tribute to Carmen Miranda on his 1973 album A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean, entitled "They Don't Dance Like Carmen No More." In the early 1970s a novelty act known as Daddy Dewdrop had a top 10 hit single in the US titled "Chick-A-Boom," one of Carmen's trademark song phrases, although the resemblance ended there. The band Pink Martini recorded "Tempo perdido" for their Hey Eugene! Album on 2007.
Brazilian author Ruy Castro wrote a biography of Carmen Miranda entitled Carmen, published in 2005 in Brazil. This book has yet to appear in English.
Visitors to Rio de Janeiro can find a museum dedicated to Carmen Miranda in the Flamengo neighborhood on Avenida Rui Barbosa. The museum includes several original costumes, and shows clips from her filmography. There is also a museum dedicated to her in Marco de Canaveses, Portugal called "Museu Municipal Carmen Miranda", with various photos and one of the famous hats. Outside the museum there is a statue of Carmen Miranda.
A hot air balloon in her likeness was conceived in 1982 at the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta by Jacques Soukup and Kirk Thomas. Named "Chic-I-Boom", the craft was built by Cameron England, and was the first special-shaped hot-air balloon ever to fly at the Albuquerque Balloon Fiesta. The original Chic-I-Boom was retired from flight in 1996, and a new Chic-I-Boom was built by Aerostar. Chic-I-Boom's bananas are each 50 feet long.
The singer Leslie Fish created a song called "Carmen Miranda's Ghost Is Haunting Space Station Three", in which a space station is inundated with fresh fruit. A science fiction anthology later had the same title.
John Cale, a member of the Velvet Underground, issued a song called "The Soul of Carmen Miranda" on his album Words for the Dying.
Jimmy Buffet wrote a song entitled "They Don't Dance Like Carmen No More" which is on his 1973 album "A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean."
A suburb in Sydney, Australia called "Miranda" has a night club called "Carmens" thus being Carmens (in) Miranda.
Carmen Miranda Square
On 25 September 1998, a city square in Hollywood was named Carmen Miranda Square in a ceremony headed by longtime honorary mayor of Hollywood, Johnny Grant, who was also one of the singer's personal friends dating back to World War II. Brazil's Consul General Jorió Gama was on hand for opening remarks, as were members of Bando da Lua, Carmen Miranda's original band.
Carmen Miranda Square is only one of about a dozen Los Angeles city intersections named for historic performers. The square is located at the intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Orange Drive across from Grauman's Chinese Theater. The location is especially noteworthy not only since Carmen Miranda's footprints are preserved in concrete at the Chinese Theater's famous collection, but in remembrance of an impromptu performance at a nearby Hollywood Boulevard intersection on V-J Day where she was joined by a throng of servicemen from the nearby USO.
Film Year Film Role Notes 1933 A Voz do Carnaval Herself at Rádio Mayrink Veiga 1935 Alô, Alô, Brasil 1935 Estudantes Mimi 1936 Alô Alô Carnaval 1939 Banana-da-Terra 1940 Laranja-da-China 1940 Down Argentine Way Herself 1941 That Night in Rio Carmen 1941 Week-End in Havana Rosita Rivas 1941 Meet the Stars #5: Hollywood Meets the Navy Herself Short subject 1942 Springtime in the Rockies Rosita Murphy 1943 The Gang's All Here Dorita Alternative title: The Girls He Left Behind 1944 Greenwich Village Princess Querida 1944 Something for the Boys Chiquita Hart 1944 Four Jills in a Jeep Herself 1945 The All-Star Bond Rally Herself (Pinup girl) 1946 Doll Face Chita Chula Alternative title: Come Back to Me 1946 If I'm Lucky Michelle O'Toole 1947 Copacabana Carmen Novarro/Mademoiselle Fifi 1948 A Date with Judy Rosita Cochellas 1950 Nancy Goes to Rio Marina Rodrigues 1953 Scared Stiff Carmelita Castinha Television Year Title Role Notes 1947 Looney Tunes Herself (Voice) 1 episode 1949 Texaco Star Theater Herself 1 episode 1949 The Ed Wynn Show Herself 1 episode 1951 What's My Line? Mystery Guest 1 episode 1951–1952 The Colgate Comedy Hour Herself 2 episodes 1953 Toast of the Town Herself 1 episode 1955 The Jimmy Durante Show Herself 2 episodes
- Taí (Pra Você Gostar de Mim) (Tahi, For You to Like Me)(written with Victor Orchestra on 27 January 1930)
- Goodbye, Boy (recorded with Orquestra Victor Brasileira on 29 November 1932)
- Moleque Indigesto (Kid Indigesto) (recorded with Lamartine Babo and Old Guard Group on 5 January 1933)
- Chegou a Hora da Fogueira (Bonfire Time) (recorded with Mario Reis and Hell Heaven on 5 June 1933)
- As Cinco Estações do Ano (The Five Seasons) (recorded with Lamartine Babo, Mario Reis, Admiral Group and Lefty on 6 July 1933)
- Alô… Alô? (Hello...Hello?)(recorded with Mario Reis Group and Lefty on 18 December 1933)
- Eu Também (Me Too)(recorded with Lamartine Babo and Hell Heaven on 5 January 1934)
- Na Batucada da Vida (Life in Batucada) (recorded with the Devils in Heaven 20 March 1934)
- edit] 1935
- ENTRE OUTRAS COISAS
- ESQUECI DE SORRIR
- FOI NUMA NOITE ASSIM
- FOGUEIRA DO MEU CORAÇÃO
- FRUTO PROIBIDO
- COR DE GUINÉ
- CASAQUINHO DE TRICOT
- DIA DE NATAL
- FALA, MEU PANDEIRO
- DEIXA ESSE POVO FALAR
- Sonho de Papel (Dream Role) (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 10 May 1935)
- E Bateu-Se a Chapa (And Hit The Plate) (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 26 June 1935)
- O Tique-Taque do Meu Coração (The ticking of My Heart) (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 7 August 1935)
- Adeus, Batucada (Goodbye Batucada) (recorded with Odeon Orchestra on 24 September 1935)
- Querido Adão (Dear Adam) (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 26 September 1935)
- ALÔ, ALÔ CARNAVAL
- CAPELINHA DO CORAÇÃO
- CUÍCA, PANDEIRO, TAMBORIM...
- BEIJO BAMBA
- ENTRA NO CORDÃO
- COMO EU CHOREI
- Cantores do Rádio (Singer's Radio) (recorded with Aurora Miranda and Orchestra Odeon on 18 March 1936)
- No Tabuleiro da Baiana (The Board of Bahia) (recorded with Louis Barbosa and Regional Luperce Miranda on 29 September 1936)
- Como "Vaes" Você? (Recorded with Ary Barroso and Regional Luperce Pixinguinha and Miranda on 2 October 1936)
- DANCE RUMBA
- EM TUDO, MENOS EM TI
- CANJIQUINHA QUENTE
- CABARET NO MORRO
- BAIANA DO TABOLEIRO
- DONA GEISHA
- Cachorro Vira-Lata (Underground Dog) (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 4 May 1937)
- Me Dá, Me Dá (Give Me, Give Me) (recorded with Regional de Benedito Lacerda on 4 May 1937)
- Camisa Amarela (recorded with the Odeon Group on 20 September 1937))
- Eu Dei (recorded with Regional Odeon on 21 September 1937)
- ENDEREÇO ERRADO
- ESCREVI UM BILHETINHO
- BATALHÃO DO AMOR
- E A FESTA MARIA?
- CUIDADO COM A GAITA DO ARY
- A PENSÃO DA DONA STELLA
- A VIZINHA DAS VANTAGENS
- Samba Rasgado (Torn Samba) (recorded with Odeon Group on 7 March 1938)
- E o Mundo Não Se Acabou (And the world would not end) (recorded with Regional Odeon on 9 March 1938)
- Boneca de Piche (Doll of Boneca) (recorded with Admiral and Odeon Orchestra on 31 August 1938)
- Na Baixa do Sapateiro (The lowly shoemaker of Bahia) (recorded with Orchestra Odeon on 17 October 1938)
- A PRETA DO ACARAJE
- DEIXA COMIGO
- AMOR IDEAL
- ESSA CABROCHA...
- A NOSSA VIDA HOJE É DIFERENTE
- COZINHEIRA GRANFINA
- O Que É Que a Bahiana Tem? (What is that Bahian?) (Recorded with Dorival Caymmi and Regional Assembly on 27 February 1939)
- Uva de Caminhão (Grape Truck) (recorded with Joint Odeon on 21 March 1939)
- Camisa Listada (Listed Shirt) ((recorded with Bando da Lua on 28 August 1939))
- Voltei pro Morro (I Returned to the Hill) (recorded with Joint Odeon on 2 September 1940)
- DIZ QUE TEM...
- DISSO É QUE EU GOSTO
- Disseram que Voltei Americanizada (They Say I've Come Back Americanized) (recorded with Odeon Set on 2 September 1940)
- BRUXINHA DE PANO
- O DENGO QUE A NÊGA TEM
- É UM QUÊ QUE A GENTE TEM
- Recenseamento (Census) (recorded with Joint Odeon on 27 September 1940)
- South American Way (recorded with Bando da Lua and boy on 26 December 1939)
- TOURADAS EM MADRID
- MARCHINHA DO GRANDE GALLO
- MAMÃE EU QUERO (I WANT MY MAMA)
- BAMBÚ - BAMBÚ
- I Like You Very Much (Ai, Ai, Ai) (recorded with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- ALÔ ALÔ
- Chica-Chica-Bum-Chic (recorded with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- Cai, Cai (Yes, Yes) (record with Bando da Lua on 5 January 1941)
- ARCA DE NOÉ
- A WEEK-END IN HAVANA
- DIZ QUE TEM...
- WHEN I LOVE I LOVE
- Rebola, Bola (Roll, Ball)(recorded with the Bando da Lua on 9 October 1941)
- THE MAN WITH THE LOLLYPOP SONG
- NÃO TE DOU A CHUPETA
- THANK YOU, NORTH AMERICA
- Chattanooga Choo Choo (recorded with Bando da Lua and boy on 25 July 1942)
- TIC-TAC DO MEU CORAÇÃO
- O PASSO DO KANGURÚ (BRAZILLY WILLY)
- BONECA DE PIXE
- UPA! UPA!
- Tico Tico
- THE MATADOR (TOURADAS EM MADRID)
- Cuanto Le Gusta (Andrews Sisters recorded with Vic Schoen Orchestra, and on 29 November 1947)
- ASI ASI (I SEE I SEE) (Andrews Sisters recorded with Vic Schoen Orchestra)
- The Wedding Samba (Andrews Sisters recorded with Vic Schoen Orchestra)
- BAIÃO "CA - ROOM' PA PA (Andrews Sisters recorded with Vic Schoen Orchestra)
- IPSE-AI-O (YIPSEE-I-O)
- ^ a b McGowan, Chris; Pessanha, Ricardo (1998). The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova, and the Popular Music of Brazil. Temple University Press. pp. 32. ISBN 1-566-39545-3.
- ^ a b Tompkins, Cynthia Margarita; Foster, David William (2001). Notable Twentieth-century Latin American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 192. ISBN 0-313-31112-9.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "The century of the Brazilian Bombshell". It's time for Brazil in Singapore (Singapore: Sun Media): 63.
- ^ Dennison, Stephanie; Shaw, Lisa (2004). Popular Cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001: 1930–2001. Manchester University Press. pp. 112. ISBN 0-719-06499-6.
- ^ Tompkins, Cynthia Margarita; Foster, David William (2001). Notable Twentieth-century Latin American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 191. ISBN 0-313-31112-9.
- ^ Hadley-Garcia, George (1990). Hispanic Hollywood: The Latins in Motion Pictures. Carol Pub. Group. pp. 123. ISBN 0-806-51185-0.
- ^ Brioux, Bill (2007). Truth and Rumors: The Reality Behind TV's Most Famous Myths. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 176. ISBN 0-275-99247-0.
- ^ Brioux, Bill (2007). Truth and Rumors: The Reality Behind TV's Most Famous Myths. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 177. ISBN 0-275-99247-0.
- ^ Ruíz, Vicki; Sánchez Korrol, Virginia (2005). Latina Legacies: Identity, Biography, and Community. Oxford University Press US. pp. 207. ISBN 0-195-15398-7.
- ^ Ruíz, Vicki; Sánchez Korrol, Virginia (2005). Latina Legacies: Identity, Biography, and Community. Oxford University Press US. pp. 193. ISBN 0-195-15398-7.
- ^ Lawrence, Sandra (12 August 2003). "Brazil: In search of the queen of samba". telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/southamerica/brazil/728105/Brazil-In-search-of-the-queen-of-samba.html. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- ^ McGowan & Pessanha, 1991
- ^ http://carmen.miranda.nom.br/cm_disco.htm
- Castro, Ruy. Carmen: uma biografia. Companhia das Letras. 2005. 8535907602. (Portuguese)
- Gil-Montero, Martha. Brazilian Bombshell. Dutton Adult. 1988. 978-1556111280. (English)
- Cardoso, Abel. Carmen Miranda, a Cantora d Brasil. Sorocaba. 1978. (Portuguese)
- International Jose Guillermo Carrillo Foundation
- Carmen Miranda at the Internet Movie Database
- Carmen Miranda at the Internet Broadway Database
- Carmen Miranda at the TCM Movie Database
- Carmen Miranda at Brightlightsfilm.com
- The Disney Version
- Miranda caricature starting about 3:50
- Miranda's last appearance, on the Durante show
- Carmen Miranda at Find a Grave
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Carmen Miranda — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Carmen Miranda Nombre real María do Carmo Miranda da Cunha Nacimiento 9 de febrero de 1909 … Wikipedia Español
Carmen Miranda — Carmen Miranda, 1930 Carmen Miranda (* 9. Februar 1909 in Marco de Canaveses; † 5. August 1955 in Beverly Hills), eigentlich Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha, war eine portugiesisch brasilianische Sängerin und Schauspielerin … Deutsch Wikipedia
Carmen Miranda — dans Banana Split Données clés … Wikipédia en Français
Carmen Miranda — Maria de Cormo Cunha … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games
Miranda (Name) — Miranda ist ein weiblicher Vorname und Familienname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Bekannte Namensträger 2.1 Vorname 2.2 Familienname … Deutsch Wikipedia
Carmen Sandiego — refers to a media franchise of educational computer video games, television programs, books and other media featuring Carmen Sandiego, a thieving villainess of the same name. The basic premise of the franchise has the user or protagonists being… … Wikipedia
Carmen (disambiguation) — Carmen can refer to: *Carmen (name), a unisex given name. * Carmen (novella), a story by Prosper Mérimée * Carmen , a French opera by Georges Bizet based on the above story * Carmen (1949 ballet) , a ballet by Roland Petit to the Bizet music *… … Wikipedia
Carmen — ist ein weiblicher Vorname und ein Familienname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Namensbedeutung 2 Namenstag 3 Varianten 4 Bekannte Namensträger … Deutsch Wikipedia
Miranda — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Toponymes 1.1 Australie 1.2 … Wikipédia en Français
Miranda (surname) — This article is about the surname Miranda. For the given name, see Miranda (given name). For other uses, see Miranda. Miranda is a Portuguese and Spanish languages surname It may refer to: Contents 1 Arts and entertainment … Wikipedia